A. E. van Vogt
|A. E. van Vogt|
Van Vogt about 1963
|Born||Alfred Elton van Vogt
April 26, 1912
Edenburg, near Gretna, Manitoba, Canada
|Died||January 26, 2000
Los Angeles, California, US
|Period||1939–1986 (science fiction)|
|Literary movement||Golden Age of Science Fiction|
Alfred Elton van Vogt (/
Early life and writings
Van Vogt was born on a farm in Edenburg (a Russian Mennonite community east of Gretna, Manitoba, Canada). Until age four, van Vogt and his family spoke only a dialect of Low German at home. Van Vogt's father, a lawyer, moved his family several times within Manitoba, alighting in Morden and finally Winnipeg. His son found these moves difficult, remarking in later life:
Childhood was a terrible period for me. I was like a ship without anchor being swept along through darkness in a storm. Again and again I sought shelter, only to be forced out of it by something new.
By the age of 19, van Vogt was working in Ottawa for the Canadian census bureau. He began his writing career with stories in the true confession style of pulp magazines such as True Story. After a year in Ottawa, he moved back to Winnipeg. While continuing to write melodramatic "true confessions" stories through 1937, he also began writing radio dramas for local radio station CKY.
By 1938, van Vogt decided to switch to writing science fiction, which he enjoyed. He was inspired by the August 1938 issue of Astounding Science Fiction, which he picked up at a newsstand. John W. Campbell's novelette "Who Goes There?" (later adapted into The Thing from Another World and The Thing) inspired van Vogt to write "Vault of the Beast", which he submitted to that same magazine. Campbell, who edited Astounding (and had written the story under a pseudonym), sent van Vogt a rejection letter, but one which encouraged van Vogt to try again. Van Vogt sent another story, entitled "Black Destroyer," which was accepted. A revised version of "Vault of the Beast" would be published in 1940.
Van Vogt's first SF publication was inspired by The Voyage of the Beagle by Charles Darwin. "The Black Destroyer" was published in July 1939 by John W. Campbell in Astounding Science Fiction, the centennial year of Darwin's journal. It featured a fierce, carnivorous alien, the coeurl, stalking the crew of an exploration spaceship.
Also in 1939, still living in Winnipeg, van Vogt married E. Mayne Hull, a fellow Manitoban. Hull would be credited with writing several SF stories of her own throughout the early 1940s.
The outbreak of World War II in September 1939 caused a change in van Vogt's circumstances. Ineligible for military service due to his poor eyesight, van Vogt accepted a clerking job with the Canadian Department of National Defence. This necessitated a move back to Ottawa, where he and his wife would stay for the next year-and-a-half.
Meanwhile, his writing career continued. "Discord in Scarlet" was van Vogt's second story to be published, also appearing as the cover story. It was accompanied by interior illustrations created by Frank Kramer[a] and Paul Orban. (Van Vogt and Kramer[a] thus debuted in the issue of Astounding that is sometimes identified as the start of the Golden Age of Science Fiction.) The former story served as the inspiration for multiple science fiction movies.[b] In 1950, the two were combined with two other stories as a fix-up novel, The Voyage of the Space Beagle (Simon & Schuster), which was published in at least five European languages by 1955. Positing the need for exobiologists who will appreciate the differences between the inhabitants of other planets and ourselves, it stresses the importance of the civilian rather than military in exploration of other cultures.
Van Vogt's first completed novel, and one of his most famous, is Slan (Arkham House, 1946), which Campbell serialized in Astounding September to December 1940. Using what became one of van Vogt's recurring themes, it told the story of a 9-year-old superman living in a world in which his kind are slain by Homo sapiens.
Others saw van Vogt's talent and stardom from his first story, and in 1941, van Vogt decided to become a full-time writer, quitting his job at the Canadian Department of National Defence. Freed from the necessity of living in Ottawa, he and his wife lived for a time in the Gatineau region of Quebec before moving to Toronto in 1943.
Prolific throughout this period, van Vogt wrote many of his more famous short stories and novels in the years from 1941 through 1944. The novels The Book of Ptath and The Weapon Makers both appeared in magazines in serial form during this era; they were later published in book form after World War II. As well, several (though not all) of the stories that were compiled to make up the novels The Weapon Shops of Isher, The Mixed Men and The War Against the Rull were also published during this time.
Post-war life and work
In 1944, van Vogt and Hull moved to Hollywood, where van Vogt's writing took on new dimensions after World War II. He was always interested in the idea of all-encompassing systems of knowledge (akin to modern meta-systems)—the characters in his very first story used a system called "Nexialism" to analyze the alien's behavior, and he became interested in the general semantics of Alfred Korzybski.
He subsequently wrote three novels merging these overarching themes, The World of Null-A and The Pawns of Null-A in the late 1940s, and Null-A Three in the early 1980s. Null-A, or non-Aristotelian logic, refers to the capacity for, and practice of, using intuitive, inductive reasoning (compare fuzzy logic), rather than reflexive, or conditioned, deductive reasoning.
Van Vogt was profoundly affected by revelations of totalitarian police states that emerged after World War II. He wrote a mainstream novel that he set in Communist China, The Violent Man (1962); he said that to research this book he had read 100 books about China. Into this book he incorporated his view of "the violent male type", which he described as a "man who had to be right", a man who "instantly attracts women" and who he said were the men who "run the world".
At the same time, in his fiction, van Vogt was consistently sympathetic to absolute monarchy as a form of government. This was the case, for instance, in the Weapon Shop series, the Mixed Men series, and in single stories such as "Heir Apparent" (1945), whose protagonist was described as a "benevolent dictator".
Van Vogt systematized his writing method, using scenes of 800 words or so where a new complication was added or something resolved. Several of his stories hinge on temporal conundra, a favorite theme. He stated that he acquired many of his writing techniques from three books: Narrative Technique by Thomas Uzzell, The Only Two Ways to Write a Story by John Gallishaw, and Twenty Problems of the Fiction Writer by Gallishaw.
He also claimed many of his ideas came from dreams; throughout his writing life he arranged to be awakened every 90 minutes during his sleep period so he could write down his dreams.
Van Vogt published perhaps his most famous story, "Enchanted Village", in the July 1950 issue of Other Worlds Science Stories. It was reprinted in over 20 collections or anthologies, and appeared many times in translation.
In 1950, van Vogt was briefly appointed as head of L. Ron Hubbard's Dianetics operation in California. Dianetics was the secular precursor to Hubbard's Church of Scientology. The operation went broke nine months later, but never went bankrupt, due to van Vogt's arrangements with creditors. Van Vogt and his wife opened their own Dianetics centre, partly financed by his writings, until he "signed off" around 1961. At the time of his interview with Charles Platt, van Vogt was still president of the Californian Association of Dianetic Auditors.
During the 1950s, van Vogt retrospectively patched together many of his previously published stories into novels, sometimes creating new interstitial material to help bridge gaps between stories. Van Vogt referred to the resulting books as "fix-ups", a term that entered the vocabulary of science-fiction criticism. When the original stories were related (e.g., The War Against the Rull) this was often successful. When not (e.g., Quest for the Future) the disparate stories thrown together generally made for a less coherent plot.
In 1951, he published the fix-up The Weapon Shops of Isher. In the same decade, van Vogt also produced collections and fixups such as The Mixed Men (1952), The War Against the Rull (1959), and the two "Clane" novels, Empire of the Atom (1957) and The Wizard of Linn (1962), which were inspired (like Asimov's Foundation series) by Roman imperial history, specifically the reign of Claudius. His later novels included fixups such as The Beast (also known as Moonbeast) (1963), Rogue Ship (1965), Quest for the Future (1970) and Supermind (1977); expanded short stories such as The Darkness on Diamondia (1972) and Future Glitter (also known as Tyranopolis; 1973); original novels such as Children of Tomorrow (1970), The Battle of Forever (1971) and The Anarchistic Colossus (1977); plus sequels to his classic works, many of which were promised, but only one of which appeared, Null-A Three (1984; originally published in French). Several later books were original in Europe, and at least one novel only ever appeared in Italian.
On January 26, 2000, van Vogt died in Los Angeles, United States from Alzheimer's disease, survived by his second wife, the former Lydia Bereginsky.
Critical opinion about the quality of van Vogt's work is sharply divided. An early and articulate critic was Damon Knight. In a 1945 chapter-long essay reprinted in In Search of Wonder, entitled "Cosmic Jerrybuilder: A. E. van Vogt", Knight described van Vogt as "no giant; he is a pygmy who has learned to operate an overgrown typewriter". Knight described The World of Null-A as "one of the worst allegedly adult science fiction stories ever published". Concerning van Vogt's writing, Knight said:
In general van Vogt seems to me to fail consistently as a writer in these elementary ways: 1. His plots do not bear examination. 2. His choice of words and his sentence-structure are fumbling and insensitive. 3. He is unable either to visualize a scene or to make a character seem real.
About Empire of the Atom Knight wrote:
If you can only throw your reasoning powers out of gear — something many van Vogt fans find easy to do — you'll enjoy this one.
Knight also expressed misgivings about van Vogt's politics. He noted that van Vogt's stories almost invariably present absolute monarchy in a favorable light. In 1974, Knight retraced some of his criticism after finding out about Vogt's working methods about writing down his dreams:
This explains a good deal about the stories, and suggests that it is really useless to attack them by conventional standards. If the stories have a dream consistency which affects readers powerfully, it is probably irrelevant that they lack ordinary consistency.
Knight's criticism greatly damaged van Vogt's reputation. On the other hand, when science fiction author Philip K. Dick was asked  which science fiction writers had influenced his work the most, he replied:
I started reading sf when I was about twelve and I read all I could, so any author who was writing about that time, I read. But there's no doubt who got me off originally and that was A.E. van Vogt. There was in van Vogt's writing a mysterious quality, and this was especially true in The World of Null A [sic]. All the parts of that book did not add up; all the ingredients did not make a coherency. Now some people are put off by that. They think that's sloppy and wrong, but the thing that fascinated me so much was that this resembled reality more than anybody else's writing inside or outside science fiction.
Dick also defended van Vogt against Damon Knight’s criticisms:
Damon feels that it's bad artistry when you build those funky universes where people fall through the floor. It's like he's viewing a story the way a building inspector would when he's building your house. But reality really is a mess, and yet it's exciting. The basic thing is, how frightened are you of chaos? And how happy are you with order? Van Vogt influenced me so much because he made me appreciate a mysterious chaotic quality in the universe which is not to be feared.
In a review of Transfinite: The Essential A.E. van Vogt, science fiction writer Paul Di Filippo said:
Van Vogt knew precisely what he was doing in all areas of his fiction writing. There's hardly a wasted word in his stories. [...] His plots are marvels of interlocking pieces, often ending in real surprises and shocks, genuine paradigm shifts, which are among the hardest conceptions to depict. And the intellectual material of his fictions, the conceits and tossed-off observations on culture and human and alien behavior, reflect a probing mind. [...] Each tale contains a new angle, a unique slant, that makes it stand out.
In The John W. Campbell Letters, Campbell says, "The son-of-a-gun gets hold of you in the first paragraph, ties a knot around you, and keeps it tied in every paragraph thereafter—including the ultimate last one".
Harlan Ellison (who had begun reading van Vogt as a teenager) wrote, "Van was the first writer to shine light on the restricted ways in which I had been taught to view the universe and the human condition".
No one has taken van Vogt seriously as a writer for a long time. Yet he has been read and still is. What no one seems to have noticed is that van Vogt, more than any other single SF writer, is the conduit through which the energy of Gernsbackian, primitive wonder stories have been transmitted through the Campbellian age, when earlier styles of SF were otherwise rejected, and on into SF of the present.
Van Vogt is a test case [...] since an apology for or analysis of science fiction which fails to come to terms with his appeal and major importance, defends or defines the genre by falsifying it.
American literary critic Fredric Jameson says of van Vogt:
that van Vogt's work clearly prepares the way for that of the greatest of all Science Fiction writers, Philip K. Dick, whose extraordinary novels and stories are inconceivable without the opening onto that play of unconscious materials and fantasy dynamics released by van Vogt, and very different from the more hard-science aesthetic ideologies of his contemporaries (from Campbell to Heinlein).:315
Van Vogt still has his critics. For example, Darrell Schweitzer writing to The New York Review of Science Fiction in 1999 quoted a passage from the original van Vogt novelette "The Mixed Men", which he was then reading, and remarked:
This is the realism, and logic, of a small boy playing with toy soldiers in a sandbox. I'm tougher than you. I’ve got a billion spaceships! They’re brand-new. They only took 800 years to develop.
And this is a story in which most of the cast either have two brains or are really robots [...] and even the emotions of the human characters are programmed or deprogrammed as part of plots within counter plots. Next to this, Doc Smith was an icy realist. There is no intersection with adult reality at any point, for all van Vogt was able to write was that small boy's sandbox game with an adult level of intensity. This is, I think, the secret of van Vogt's bizarre fascination, as awful as his actual writing might be, and why he appealed so strongly to Philip K. Dick, who managed to put more adult characters and emotions into equally crazy situations. It's ultimately very strange to find this sort of writing so prominently sponsored by supposedly rational and scientifically minded John W. Campbell, when it seems to contravene everything the Golden Age stood for.
The Science Fiction Writers of America named him its 14th Grand Master in 1995 (presented 1996). Great controversy within SFWA accompanied its long wait in bestowing its highest honor (limited to living writers, no more than one annually). Writing an obituary of van Vogt, Robert J. Sawyer, a fellow Canadian writer of science fiction remarked:
There was no doubt that van Vogt should have received this honor much earlier — the injustice of him being overlooked, at least in part because of damnable SFWA politics, had so incensed Harlan Ellison, a man with an impeccable moral compass, that he'd lobbied hard on the Sci-Fi Channel and elsewhere on van Vogt's behalf.
It is generally held that the "damnable SFWA politics" concerns Damon Knight, the founder of the SFWA, who abhorred van Vogt's style and politics and thoroughly demolished his literary reputation in the 1950s.
Harlan Ellison was more explicit in 1999 introduction to Futures Past: The Best Short Fiction of A. E. van Vogt:
[A]t least I was able to make enough noise to get Van the Science Fiction Writers of America Grand Master Award, which was presented to him in full ceremony during one of the last moments when he was cogent and clearheaded enough to understand that finally, at last, dragged kicking and screaming to honor him, the generation that learned from what he did and what he had created had, at last, 'fessed up to his importance. ...] were the same ones who assured me that Van would never get the Grand Master until Damon Knight had gotten it first, because Damon had loathed Van's work and had, in fact written the essay that ridiculed Van and held him up to opprobrium for decades thereafter, and Damon having founded SFWA it would be an affront to him if Van got it first. Well, I don't know if that's true or not, though it was common coin in the field for years; but Damon got the Grand Master award in 1994. And Van got it in 1995.[c] As they say during sweeps week on television: coincidence or conspiracy?
In 1996, van Vogt received a Special Award from the World Science Fiction Convention "for six decades of golden age science fiction". That same year, the Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame inducted him in its inaugural class of two deceased and two living persons, along with writer Jack Williamson (also living) and editors Hugo Gernsback and John W. Campbell.
The works of van Vogt were translated into French by the surrealist Boris Vian (The World of Null-A as Le Monde des Å in 1958), and van Vogt's works were "viewed as great literature of the surrealist school". In addition, Slan was published in French, translated by Jean Rosenthal, under the title À la poursuite des Slans, as part of the paperback series 'Editions J'ai Lu: Romans-Texte Integral' in 1973, this edition also listing the following works by van Vogt as having been published in French as part of this series: Le Monde des Å, La faune de l'espace, Les joueurs du Å, L'empire de l'atome, Le sorcier de Linn, Les armureries d'Isher, Les fabricants d'armes, and Le livre de Ptath.
- Primary dates list first publication in book form.
- Slan (1946) (originally serialized)
- The Weapon Makers (1947) (serialized 1943, revised 1952) (also published as One Against Eternity (1964))
- The Book of Ptath (1947) (in Unknown Worlds, 1947) (also published asTwo Hundred Million A.D.  and Ptath )
- The World of Null-A (1948) (revised from 1945 serial, revised again 1970)
- The House That Stood Still (1950), also published as The Mating Cry and The Undercover Aliens. The sexual interludes added by Van Vogt to The Mating Cry for its Galaxy Beacon edition have been retained in many later editions.)
- The Voyage of the Space Beagle (1950) ("fix-up" from short fiction)
- The Weapon Shops of Isher (1951) ("fix-up" from short story)
- The Mixed Men (1952), also published as Mission to the Stars [fix up]
- The Universe Maker (1953) (expanded 1950 story, 'The Shadow Men')
- Planets for Sale (1954), with Edna Mayne Hull [from short fiction]
- The Pawns of Null-A (1956), also published as The Players of Null-A
- The Mind Cage (1957) [expanded from short work "The Great Judge", 1948]
- Empire of the Atom (1957) [fix-up]
- Siege of the Unseen (1959) [as 'The Chronicler' (1946)] [also published as The Three Eyes of Evil]
- The War Against the Rull (1959) [fix-up]
- Earth's Last Fortress (1960), first stand-alone publication, previously entitled Recruiting Station and Masters of Time
- The Wizard of Linn (1962) (serializ, 1950)
- The Violent Man (1962, political thriller rather than science fiction)
- The Beast (1963, fix-up, also published as Moonbeast')
- Rogue Ship (1965) [fix-up]
- The Winged Man (1966), with Edna Mayne Hull
- The Changeling (1967) stand-alone publication of stories first published in 1942 and 1944 in Astounding Stories
- The Silkie (1969, from short stories]
- Children of Tomorrow (1970)
- Quest for the Future (1970, fix-up)
- The Battle of Forever (1971)
- The Darkness on Diamondia (1972) (expanded from a short story)
- Future Glitter (1973, also published as Tyranopolis)
- The Man with a Thousand Names (1974)
- The Secret Galactics (1974, also published as Earth Factor X)
- Supermind (1977, from short stories; including a collaboration with James H. Schmitz and Edna Mayne Hull]
- The Anarchistic Colossus (1977)
- The Enchanted Village (1979, chapbook)
- Renaissance (1979)
- Cosmic Encounter (1979)
- Computerworld (1983, also published as Computer Eye)
- Null-A Three (1984)
- To Conquer Kiber (1985, unpublished in English; published in French as A la conquête de Kiber and in Romanian as Cucerirea Kiberului
- Slan Hunter by Kevin W. Anderson (2007, utilizing an unfinished draft by van Vogt)
- Out of the Unknown (1948), with Edna Mayne Hull
- Masters of Time (1950) (a.k.a. Recruiting Station) [also includes The Changeling, both works were later published separately]
- Triad (1951) omnibus of The World of Null A, The Voyage of the Space Beagle, Slan.
- Away and Beyond (1952) (abridged in paperback in 1959; abridged (differently) in paperback in 1963)
- Destination: Universe! (1952)
- The Twisted Men (1964)
- Monsters (1965) (later as SF Monsters (1967)) abridged as The Blal (1976)
- A Van Vogt Omnibus (1967), omnibus of Planets for Sale (with Edna Mayne Hull), The Beast, The Book of Ptath
- The Far Out Worlds of Van Vogt (1968)
- The Sea Thing and Other Stories (1970) (expanded from Out of the Unknown by adding an original story by Hull; later abridged in paperback as Out of the Unknown by removing 2 of the stories)
- M33 in Andromeda (1971)
- More Than Superhuman (1971)
- The Proxy Intelligence and Other Mind Benders, ), with Edna Mayne Hull (1971), revised as The Gryb (1976)
- Van Vogt Omnibus 2 (1971), omnibus of The Mind Cage, The Winged Man (with Edna Mayne Hull), Slan.
- The Book of Van Vogt (1972), also published as Lost: Fifty Suns (1979)
- The Three Eyes of Evil Including Earth's Last Fortress (1973)
- The Best of A. E. van Vogt (1974) later split into 2 volumes
- The Worlds of A. E. van Vogt (1974) (expanded from The Far Out Worlds of Van Vogt by adding 3 stories)
- The Best of A. E. van Vogt (1976) [differs to 1974 edition]
- Away and Beyond (1977)
- Pendulum (1978) (almost all original stories and articles)
- Futures Past: The Best Short Fiction of A.E. Van Vogt (1999)
- Transfinite: The Essential A.E. van Vogt (2002)
- Transgalactic (2006)
- The Hypnotism Handbook (1956, Griffin Publishing Company, with Charles Edward Cooke)
- The Money Personality (1972, Parker Publishing Company Inc., West Nyack, NY, ISBN 978-0-13-600676-3)
- Reflections of A. E. Van Vogt: The Autobiography of a Science Fiction Giant (1979, Fictioneer Books Ltd., Lakemont, GA)
- A Report on the Violent Male (1992, Paupers' Press, UK, ISBN 978-0-946650-40-8)
- According to ISFDB, writer van Vogt and illustrator Kramer both made their debuts, at least in speculative fiction, with "The Black Destroyer".
"Frank Kramer – Summary Bibliography". ISFDB. Retrieved 2013-04-04.
This [The voyage of the Space Beagle] is the classic 'bug-eyed monster' novel, the unacknowledged inspiration for the film Alien and scores of similar— David Pringle, (1990) "The Ultimate Guide to Science Fiction", Grafton Books, page 346.
The stories collected in The Voyage of the Space Beagle were perhaps the first to chronicle the adventures of the crew of a large, military-style starship exploring the universe, and doubtless influenced Gene Roddenberry strongly when he created Star Trek. [...]One of the Space Beagle stories purportedly inspired the movie Alien - the resemblance was great enough that van Vogt brought a lawsuit against the filmmakers, which reportedly settled for a $50,000 payment.— Aaron Hughes, "Neglected Masters Book Review" retrieved 2010-09-09
... The Voyage Of The Space Beagle (1950), later inspired the original Star Trek series and the movie Alien.— Trent Walters, "Oh, the Humanity of A.E. van Vogt's Monsters: Reorienting Critics and Readers to the van Vogt Method" retrieved 2010-09-09
'Black Destroyer' has been cited as the inspiration for the movie Alien and its many sequels and imitations— Gerald Jonas, (2000) "A. E. van Vogt, 87, Forceful Science-Fiction Voice", New York Times obituary, 2000-02-04
Alien is thus virtually a film version or translation of "Black Destroyer". (Van Vogt is not credited, and as it turns out he sued the film-makers for plagiarism; the latter settling out of court.— Fredric Jameson, Archaeologies of the Future. The Desire Called Utopia and Other Science Fictions (New York: Verso, 2005, pp. 325)
- The award was presented to Knight and van Vogt in 1995 and 1996 respectively, the years following selection. It is restricted to living authors, no more than one annually. It was renamed the Damon Knight Memorial Grand Master (Award) after Knight's death in 2002.
- "Although [van Vogt] catered for the pulps, he intensified the emotional impact and complexity of the stories they would bear[.]" Clute, John; Nicholls, Peter, eds. (1995). The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. New York: St. Martin's Press. p. 1268. ISBN 978-0-312-13486-0.
- Panshin, Alexei "Man Beyond Man. The Early Stories of A. E. van Vogt" (page 1). Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- Elliot, Jeffery: "An Interview with A. E. Van Vogt", Science Fiction Review #23, 1977. Available online http://www.angelfire.com/art/megathink/vanvogt/vanvogt_interview.html Retrieved on August 29, 2010
- Drake, H. L., A. E. van Vogt: Science Fantasy's Icon, Booklocker.com Inc., 2001, page 36.
- "The Voyage of the Space Beagle" (cover images for numerous editions and adaptations of "The Black Destroyer" and its series). The Weird Worlds of A. E. van Vogt. Magnus Axelsson (pre-2000 to 2009). Now hosted by icshi.net. Retrieved April 4, 2013.
- A. E. van Vogt at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database (ISFDB). Retrieved April 4, 2013. Select a title to see its linked publication history and general information. Select a particular edition (title) for more data at that level, such as a front cover image or linked contents.
- Panshin, Alexei (1994). "Introduction to Slan". Connecticut: The Easton Press.
Quote: "His first published SF story was "Black Destroyer" in the July 1939 Astounding. Not only was "Black Destroyer" pictured on the cover of the magazine, but it would be recognized as one of the most significant stories published in Astounding that year".
- Asimov, Isaac (1972). The early Asimov; or, Eleven years of trying. Garden City NY: Doubleday. pp. 79–82.
- For example, Peter Nicholls (Clute, John; Nicholls, Peter, eds. (1993). The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. New York: St. Martin's Press, Inc. p. 199. ISBN 978-0-312-09618-2.) says "The beginning of Campbell's particular Golden Age of SF can be pinpointed as the summer of 1939" and goes on to begin the discussion with the July 1939 issue. Lester del Rey (del Rey, Lester (1979). The World of Science Fiction and Fantasy: The History of a Subculture. New York: Ballantine Books. p. 94. ISBN 978-0-345-25452-8.) comments that "July was the turning point".
- Drake, Harold L. (1989). The Null-A Worlds of A.E. van Vogt. C. Drumm Books. ISBN 093605543X.
- Knight, Damon (1967). In Search of Wonder. Chicago: Advent.
- Platt, Charles, "A. E. van Vogt – A Profile". From Who Writes Science Fiction? (London: Savoy Books, 1980); Dream Makers: The Uncommon People Who Write Science Fiction (Berkeley Books, 1980).
- http://www.isfdb.org/cgi-bin/title.cgi?56655 Retrieved 10 March 2017
- Van Vogt, A E (1970). Introduction to The World Of Null-A (London: Sphere Science Fiction, 1976), p. viii
- "Notes, Reports, and Correspondence: Spring 1974". Retrieved March 15, 2016.
- Latham, Rob (2009). "Fiction, 1950-1963". In Bould, Mark; Butler, Andrew M.; Roberts, Adam; Vint, Sherryl. The Routledge Companion to Science Fiction. Routledge. pp. 80–89. ISBN 9781135228361.
- "Vertex Interviews Philip K. Dick" Archived October 12, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.. Vertex, Vol. 1, no. 6, February 1974.
- DiFilippo, Paul: "Off The Shelf". Retrieved January 19, 2003. Archived April 3, 2005, at the Wayback Machine.
- Campbell, John W. (1991). The John W. Campbell Letters With Isaac Asimov and A.E. van Vogt. 2. A.C.Projects. ISBN 978-0-931150-19-7.
- Ellison, Harlan (June 1999), "Van is Here, But Van is Gone". Introduction to Futures Past: The Best Short Fiction of A.E. van Vogt (Kilimanjaro Corp., 1999). Reprinted in "A. E. van Vogt, 1912-2000" (SFRevu 2001-01-28). Retrieved 2001-08-31.
Quote: "Van is still with us, as I write this, in June of 1999, slightly less than fifty years since I first encountered van Vogt prose in a January 1950 issue of Startling Stories ..."
- Hartwell, David G. (1 June 1984). Age of Wonders: Exploring the World of Science. Washington Ave Books Incorporated. pp. 131–32. ISBN 978-0-89366-163-2.
- Fiedler, Leslie A. (1 August 1983). Slusser, George Edgar; Rabkin, Eric S.; Scholes, Robert E., eds. Coordinates: placing science fiction and fantasy. Southern Illinois University Press. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-0-8093-1105-7.
- Jameson, Fredric. "The Space of Science Fiction: Narrative in Van Vogt", Archaeologies of the Future. The Desire Called Utopia and Other Science Fictions (New York: Verso, 2005).
- Schweitzer, Darrell (1999), "Letters of Comment", The New York Review of Science Fiction, May 1999, Number 129, Vol. 11, No. 9.
- Beetz, Kirk H. (1996). Encyclopedia of popular fiction. Beacham Pub. ISBN 978-0-933833-38-8.
- Mullin, Dennis (October 27, 2007). "Prix AURORA Awards". Canadian Science Fiction and Fantasy Association. Archived from the original on May 9, 2008. Retrieved May 2, 2008.
- "van Vogt, A. E." Archived October 16, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.. The Locus Index to SF Awards: Index to Literary Nominees. Locus Publications. Retrieved March 25, 2013.
- "Damon Knight Memorial Grand Master" Archived July 1, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.. Science Fiction and Fantasy Writers of America (SFWA). Retrieved March 25, 2013.
- Sawyer, Robert J. "Remembering A. E. van Vogt". Retrieved August 31, 2010.
- Hartwell, David: "The Way We Were: A. E. van Vogt, 1912-2000", The New York Review of Science Fiction, March 2000, Number 139, Vol. 12, No. 7, page 24.
- "Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame" Archived May 21, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.. Mid American Science Fiction and Fantasy Conventions, Inc. Retrieved March 25, 2013. This was the official website of the hall of fame to 2004.
- Watson, Ian (1999), "Science Fiction, Surrealism, and Shamanism", The New York Review of Science Fiction, June 1999, Number 130, Vol. 11, No. 10, page 9.
- À la poursuite des Slans, A. E. Van Vogt, Editions J'ai Lu, 31, rue de Tournon, Paris-VIe, 1973
- Dubé, Denis. "Plot Summary: To Conquer Kiber by A.E. van Vogt". Sevagram. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: A. E. van Vogt|
- "A. E. van Vogt biography". Science Fiction and Fantasy Hall of Fame.
- Sevagram, the A.E. van Vogt information site
- Obituary at LocusOnline (Locus Publications)
- "Writers: A. E. van Vogt (1912–2000, Canada)" – bibliography at SciFan
- A. E. van Vogt Papers (MS 322) at the Kenneth Spencer Research Library, University of Kansas
- A. E. van Vogt at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database
- A. E. van Vogt at Goodreads
- A. E. van Vogt at the Internet Book List
- A. E. van Vogt's fiction at Free Speculative Fiction Online
- Works by A. E. van Vogt at Open Library