ALX4

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ALX4
Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
AliasesALX4, CRS5, FND2, ALX homeobox 4
External IDsMGI: 108359 HomoloGene: 7229 GeneCards: ALX4
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 11 (human)
Chr.Chromosome 11 (human)[1]
Chromosome 11 (human)
Genomic location for ALX4
Genomic location for ALX4
Band11p11.2Start44,260,440 bp[1]
End44,310,166 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE ALX4 208330 at fs.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_021926

NM_007442

RefSeq (protein)

NP_068745

NP_031468

Location (UCSC)Chr 11: 44.26 – 44.31 MbChr 2: 93.64 – 93.68 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
Wikidata
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Homeobox protein aristaless-like 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ALX4 gene.[5][6][7] Alx4 belongs to the group-1 aristaless-related genes, a majority of which are linked to the development of the craniofacial and/or appendicular skeleton, along with PRRX1, SHOX, ALX3, and CART1.[8] The Alx4 protein acts as a transcriptional activator and is predominantly expressed in the mesenchyme of the developing embryonic limb buds.[9][8][10] Transcripts of this gene are detectable in the lateral plate mesoderm just prior to limb induction. Alx4 expression plays a major role in the determination of spatial orientation of the growing limb bud by aiding in the establishment of anteroposterior polarity of the limb.[9][10][11] It does this by working in conjunction with Gli3 and dHand to restrict the expression of Sonic Hedgehog (SHh) to the posterior mesenchyme, which will eventually give rise to the Zone of Polarizing Activity (ZPA).[12] This gene has been proven to be allelic with mutations and deletions giving rise to a host of craniofacial dismorphologies and several forms of polydactyly in mammalian development.[8][13] A mouse-model knockout of this gene, dubbed Strong’s luxoid, was originally created by Forstheofel in the 1960s and has been extensively studied to understand the partial and complete loss-of-function properties of this gene.[8][9][11][12][13][14]

Interactions[edit]

ALX4 has been shown to interact with Lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1.[15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000052850 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000040310 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:".
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:".
  5. ^ Wu YQ, Badano JL, McCaskill C, Vogel H, Potocki L, Shaffer LG (November 2000). "Haploinsufficiency of ALX4 as a potential cause of parietal foramina in the 11p11.2 contiguous gene-deletion syndrome". American Journal of Human Genetics. 67 (5): 1327–32. doi:10.1016/S0002-9297(07)62963-2. PMC 1288575. PMID 11017806.
  6. ^ Bartsch O, Wuyts W, Van Hul W, Hecht JT, Meinecke P, Hogue D, Werner W, Zabel B, Hinkel GK, Powell CM, Shaffer LG, Willems PJ (April 1996). "Delineation of a contiguous gene syndrome with multiple exostoses, enlarged parietal foramina, craniofacial dysostosis, and mental retardation, caused by deletions in the short arm of chromosome 11". American Journal of Human Genetics. 58 (4): 734–42. PMC 1914683. PMID 8644736.
  7. ^ "Entrez Gene: ALX4 aristaless-like homeobox 4".
  8. ^ a b c Takahashi M, Tamura K, Büscher D, Masuya H, Yonei-Tamura S, Matsumoto K, Naitoh-Matsuo M, Takeuchi J, Ogura K, Shiroishi T, Ogura T, Izpisúa Belmonte JC (November 1998). "The role of Alx-4 in the establishment of anteroposterior polarity during vertebrate limb development". Development. 125 (22): 4417–25. PMID 9778501.
  9. ^ a b Panman L, Drenth T, Tewelscher P, Zuniga A, Zeller R (2004-07-01). "Genetic interaction of Gli3 and Alx4 during limb development". The International Journal of Developmental Biology. 49 (4): 443–8. doi:10.1387/ijdb.051984lp. PMID 15968591.
  10. ^ a b Kuijper S, Feitsma H, Sheth R, Korving J, Reijnen M, Meijlink F (September 2005). "Function and regulation of Alx4 in limb development: complex genetic interactions with Gli3 and Shh". Developmental Biology. 285 (2): 533–44. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2005.06.017. PMID 16039644.
  11. ^ a b Niswander L (2002). "Interplay between the molecular signals that control vertebrate limb development". The International Journal of Developmental Biology. 46 (7): 877–81. PMID 12455624.
  12. ^ a b Kayserili H, Uz E, Niessen C, Vargel I, Alanay Y, Tuncbilek G, Yigit G, Uyguner O, Candan S, Okur H, Kaygin S, Balci S, Mavili E, Alikasifoglu M, Haase I, Wollnik B, Akarsu NA (November 2009). "ALX4 dysfunction disrupts craniofacial and epidermal development". Human Molecular Genetics. 18 (22): 4357–66. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddp391. PMID 19692347.
  13. ^ Forsthoefel PF (November 1963). "The embryological development of the effects of Strong's luxoid gene in the mouse". Journal of Morphology. 113 (3): 427–51. doi:10.1002/jmor.1051130307. PMID 14079603.
  14. ^ Boras K, Hamel PA (January 2002). "Alx4 binding to LEF-1 regulates N-CAM promoter activity". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (2): 1120–7. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109912200. PMID 11696550.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]