ANGPTL3

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ANGPTL3
Identifiers
Aliases ANGPTL3, ANG-5, ANGPT5, ANL3, FHBL2, angiopoietin like 3
External IDs MGI: 1353627 HomoloGene: 8499 GeneCards: ANGPTL3
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE ANGPTL3 219803 at fs.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_014495

NM_013913

RefSeq (protein)

NP_055310

NP_038941.1
NP_038941

Location (UCSC) Chr 1: 62.6 – 62.61 Mb Chr 4: 99.03 – 99.05 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Angiopoietin-like 3, also known as ANGPTL3, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ANGPTL3 gene.[3][4]

Function[edit]

The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the angiopoietin-like family of secreted factors. It is expressed predominantly in the liver, and has the characteristic structure of angiopoietins, consisting of a signal peptide, N-terminal coiled-coil domain, and the C-terminal fibrinogen (FBN)-like domain. The FBN-like domain in angiopoietin-like 3 protein was shown to bind alpha-5/beta-3 integrins, and this binding induced endothelial cell adhesion and migration. This protein may also play a role in the regulation of angiogenesis.[3]

Angptl3 also acts as dual inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and endothelial lipase (EL), and increases plasma triglyceride and HDL cholesterol in rodents. ANGPTL3 inhibits endothelial lipase to catalyze HDL-phospholipid and increase HDL-PL levels. Circulating PL-rich HDL particles have high cholesterol efflux abilities.

Angptl3 plays a major role in promoting uptake of circulating triglycerides into white adipose tissue in the fed state,[5] likely through activation by Angptl8, a feeding-induced hepatokine,[6][7] to inhibit postprandial LPL activity in cardiac and skeletal muscles,[8] as suggested by the ANGPTL3-4-8 model.[9]

Clinical significance[edit]

In human, ANGPTL3 is a determinant factor of HDL level and positively correlates with plasma HDL cholesterol.

In humans with genetic loss-of-function variants in one copy of ANGPTL3, the serum LDL-C levels are reduced. In those with loss-of-function variants in both copies of ANGPTL3, low LDL-C, low HDL-C, and low triglycerides are seen ("familial combined hypolipidemia").[10]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: ANGPTL3 angiopoietin-like 3". 
  4. ^ Conklin D, Gilbertson D, Taft DW, Maurer MF, Whitmore TE, Smith DL, Walker KM, Chen LH, Wattler S, Nehls M, Lewis KB (December 1999). "Identification of a mammalian angiopoietin-related protein expressed specifically in liver". Genomics. 62 (3): 477–82. doi:10.1006/geno.1999.6041. PMID 10644446. 
  5. ^ Wang Y, McNutt MC, Banfi S, Levin MG, Holland WL, Gusarova V, Gromada J, Cohen JC, Hobbs HH (Sep 2015). "Hepatic ANGPTL3 regulates adipose tissue energy homeostasis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 112 (37): 11630–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.1515374112. PMC 4577179Freely accessible. PMID 26305978. 
  6. ^ Zhang R (Aug 2012). "Lipasin, a novel nutritionally-regulated liver-enriched factor that regulates serum triglyceride levels". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 424 (4): 786–92. doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2012.07.038. PMID 22809513. 
  7. ^ Ren G, Kim JY, Smas CM (Aug 2012). "Identification of RIFL, a novel adipocyte-enriched insulin target gene with a role in lipid metabolism". American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. 303 (3): E334–51. doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00084.2012. PMID 22569073. 
  8. ^ Fu Z, Abou-Samra AB, Zhang R (December 2015). "A lipasin/Angptl8 monoclonal antibody lowers mouse serum triglycerides involving increased postprandial activity of the cardiac lipoprotein lipase". Scientific Reports. 5: 18502. doi:10.1038/srep18502. PMC 4685196Freely accessible. PMID 26687026. 
  9. ^ Zhang R (April 2016). "The ANGPTL3-4-8 model, a molecular mechanism for triglyceride trafficking.". Open Biology. 6: 150272. doi:10.1098/rsob.150272. PMC 4852456Freely accessible. PMID 27053679. 
  10. ^ Musunuru K, Pirruccello JP, Do R, Peloso GM, Guiducci C, Sougnez C, Garimella KV, Fisher S, Abreu J, et al. (2010). "Exome Sequencing,ANGPTL3Mutations, and Familial Combined Hypolipidemia". New England Journal of Medicine. 363 (23): 2220–2227. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1002926. PMC 3008575Freely accessible. PMID 20942659. 

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]