Al-Hasakah Governorate

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Al-Hasakah Governorate

محافظة الحسكة
Map of Syria with Al Hasakah highlighted
Map of Syria with Al Hasakah highlighted
Country Syria
CapitalAl-Hasakah
Manatiq (Districts)4
Area
 • Total23,334 km2 (9,009 sq mi)
Population
 (31/12/2011)
 • Total1,512,000[1]
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
ISO 3166 codeSY-HA
Main language(s)Arabic, Kurdish, Syriac, Armenian
EthnicitiesArabs, Kurds, Assyrians, Armenians

Al-Hasakah Governorate (Arabic: محافظة الحسكة‎ / ALA-LC: Muḥāfaẓat al-Ḥasakah, Kurdish: پارێزگای حەسیچە/Parêzgeha Hesîçe‎, Classical Syriac: ܓܙܪܬܐGozarto) is a governorate in the far north-east corner of Syria. It is distinguished by its fertile lands, plentiful water, picturesque nature, and more than one hundred archaeological sites. It was formerly known as Al-Jazira province. Prior to the Syrian Civil War nearly half of Syria's oil was extracted from the region.[2]

History

Three soldiers were killed by armed militants in Al-Hasakah in an ambush during the Syrian Civil War on 24 March 2012.[3]

About a year later, Kurdish forces launched the 2013 Al-Hasakah offensive.

Demographics and population

The inhabitants of al-Hasakah governorate are composed of different ethnic and cultural groups, the larger groups being Arabs and Kurds in addition to a significant large number of Syriacs/Assyrians/Chaldeans and a smaller number of Armenians.[4] The population of the governorate, according to the country's official census, was 1,275,118, and was estimated to be 1,377,000 in 2007, and 1,512,000 in 2011.

Historical population
YearPop.±%
193144,153—    
193364,886+47.0%
193594,596+45.8%
193798,144+3.8%
1938103,514+5.5%
1939106,052+2.5%
1940126,508+19.3%
1942136,107+7.6%
1943146,001+7.3%
1946151,137+3.5%
1950159,300+5.4%
1953232,104+45.7%
1960351,661+51.5%
1970468,506+33.2%
1981669,756+43.0%
20041,275,118+90.4%
20111,512,000+18.6%

According to the National Association of Arab Youth, there are 1717 villages in Al-Hasakah province: 1161 Arab villages, 453 Kurdish villages, and 50 Assyrian villages.[5]

Arab villages 1161
Kurdish villages 453
Assyrian villages 98
Mixed Arab-Kurdish villages 48
Mixed Arab-Assyrian villages 3
Mixed Assyrian-Kurdish villages 2
Total 1717

Censuses of 1943 and 1953

Syrian censuses of 1943[6] and 1953[7] in Al-Jazira province
Religious group Population
(1943)
Percentage
(1943)
Population
(1953)
Percentage
(1953)
Muslims Sunni Muslims 99,665 68.26% 171,058 73.70%
Other Muslims 437 0.30% 503 0.22%
Christians Assyrians 31,764 21.76% 42,626 18.37%
Armenians 9,788 6.70% 12,535 5.40%
Other churches 944 0.65% 1,283 0.55%
Total Christians 42,496 29.11% 56,444 24.32%
Jews 1,938 1.33% 2,350 1.01%
Yazidis 1,475 1.01% 1,749 0.75%
TOTAL Al-Jazira province 146,001 100.0% 232,104 100.0%

Among the Sunni Muslims, mostly Kurds and Arabs, there were about 1,500 Circassians in 1938.[8]

In 1949, there were officially 155,643 inhabitants. The French geographers Fevret and Gibert estimated that there were about 50,000 Arabs, 60,000 Kurds, a few thousands Jews and Yezidis, the rest being Christians of various denominations.[9]

Cities, towns and villages

This list includes all cities, towns and villages with more than 5,000 inhabitants. The population figures are given according to the 2004 official census:[10]

English Name Arabic Name Population District
Al-Hasakah الحسكة 188,160 Al-Hasakah District
Al-Qamishli القامشلي 184,231 Al-Qamishli District
Ras al-Ayn رأس العين 29,347 Ras al-Ayn District
Amuda عامودا 26,821 Al-Qamishli District
Al-Malikiyah المالكية 26,311 Al-Malikiyah District
Al-Qahtaniyah القحطانية 16,946 Al-Qamishli District
Al-Shaddadi الشدادي 15,806 Al-Hasakah District
Al-Muabbada المعبدة 15,759 Al-Malikiyah District
Al-Sabaa wa Arbain السبعة وأربعين 14,177 Al-Hasakah District
Al-Manajir المناجير 12,156 Ras al-Ayn District
Al-Darbasiyah الدرباسية 8,551 Ras al-Ayn District
Tell Tamer تل تمر 7,285 Al-Hasakah District
Al-Jawadiyah الجوادية 6,630 Al-Malikiyah District
Mabrouka مبروكة 6,325 Ras al-Ayn District
Al-Yaarubiyah اليعربية 6,066 Al-Malikiyah District
Tell Safouk تل صفوك 5,781 Al-Hasakah District
Tell Hamis تل حميس 5,161 Al-Qamishli District
Al-Tweinah التوينة 5,062 Al-Hasakah District
Al-Fadghami الفدغمي 5,062 Al-Hasakah District

Districts and sub-districts

The governorate has 4 districts (Mintaqa's). These are further divided into 16 sub-districts (nawahi):

Archaeology

The Khabur River, which flows through al-Hasakah for 440 kilometres (270 mi), witnessed the birth of the some of the earliest civilizations in the world. The most prominent archaeological sites are:

  • Hamoukar:considered by some archaeologists to be the oldest city in the world
  • Tell Halaf: Excavations have revealed successive civilization levels, Neolithic glazed pottery and beautiful basalt sculptures.
  • Tell Brak: Situated halfway between al-Hasakah city and the frontier town of al-Qamishli. Excavations in the tell have revealed the Uyun Temple and King Naram-Sin palace-stronghold.
  • Tell el Fakhariya
  • Tell Hittin: 15 layers of occupation have been identified.
  • Tell Leilan: Excavations began in 1975 and have revealed many artefacts and buildings dating back to the 6th millennium BC such as a bazaar, temple, palace, etc.

References

  1. ^ http://cbssyr.org/yearbook/2011/Data-Chapter2/TAB-3-2-2011.htm
  2. ^ Al Monitor, Syria's Oil Crisis, 2013, http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/ru/originals/2013/02/syria-oil-crisis.html#
  3. ^ Fresh clashes break out in Damascus
  4. ^ Syria - Sunnis
  5. ^ National Association of Arab Youth, 2012. Arab East Centre, London, 2012. Study of the demographic composition of al-Hasakah Governorate (in Arabic). Accessed on 26 December 2014.
  6. ^ Hourani, Albert Habib (1947). Minorities in the Arab World. London: Oxford University Press. p. 76.
  7. ^ Etienne, de Vaumas (1956). "La Djézireh". Annales de Géographie (in French). 65 (347): 64–80. Retrieved 2012-03-29.
  8. ^ M. Proux, "Les Tcherkesses", La France méditerranéenne et africaine, IV, 1938
  9. ^ Fevret, Maurice; Gibert, André (1953). "La Djezireh syrienne et son réveil économique". Revue de géographie de Lyon (in French) (28): 1–15. Retrieved 2012-03-29.
  10. ^ http://www.cbssyr.org/General%20census/census%202004/pop-man.pdf

External links

  • ehasakeh The First Complete website for Al-Hasakah news and services