Izz al-Din Aybak[dn 1] (Arabic: عز الدين أيبك) (epithet: al-Malik al-Mu'izz Izz al-Din Aybak al-Jawshangir al-Turkmani al-Salihi, Arabic: الملك المعز عز الدين أيبك التركماني الجاشنكير الصالحى) was the first of the Mamluk sultans of Egypt in the Turkic Bahri line.[dn 2][dn 3][dn 4] He ruled from 1250 until his death in 1257.
Origin and early career
Aibak was an Emir/commander of Turkic origin who served with other Turkmens in the court of the Ayyubid sultan as-Salih Ayyub and therefore was known among the Bahri Mamluks as Aybak al-Turkmani. He raised to the position of Emir (commander) and worked as a Jashnkir (taster of the sultan's food and drink, or cupbearer) and used the rank of a Khawanja (Sultan's accountant).[dn 5]
After the death of as-Salih Ayyub during the Frankish invasion of Damietta in 1249 and the murder of his heir and son Turanshah in 1250, Shajar al-Durr, the widow of as-Salih Ayyub, with the help and support of the Mamluks of her late husband, seized the throne and became the Sultana of Egypt. The Ayyubids lost control over Egypt.
Both the Ayyubids in Syria and the Abbasid Caliph al-Musta'sim in Baghdad defied the Mamluk move in Egypt and refused to recognize Shajar al-Durr as a Sultana[dn 6] but the Mamluks in Egypt renewed their oath to the new Sultana, and she appointed Aybak to the important position of Atabeg (commander in chief).
Rise to power (1250)
Feeling uneasy when the Syrian Emirs refused to pay homage to Shajar al-Durr and granted Damascus to an-Nasir Yusuf the Ayyubbid emir of Aleppo, Shajar al-Durr married Aybak then abdicated and passed the throne to Aybak after she ruled Egypt for 80 days, starting on May 2, 1250.
Aybak, from the end of July 1250 the new sultan of Egypt, was given the royal name al-Malik al-Muizz. Until then, Aybak relied foremost on four Mamluks: Faris ad-Din Aktai, Baibars al-Bunduqdari, Qutuz and Bilban al-Rashidi.
Aybak's formal rule ended after just five days. To consolidate his position of Aybak, and attempting to satisfy their opponents in Syria and Baghdad, the Bahri Mamluks installed the 6-year-old al-Malik Sharaf Muzafer al-Din Musa,[dn 7][dn 8] who was one of the Syrian branch of the Ayyubid family[dn 9] as a Sultan and announced that Aybak is merely a representative of the Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad. In addition, and to display his loyalty to his deceased Ayyubid master as-Salih Ayyub, Aybak organised a funeral ceremony for as-Salih and buried him in the tomb which as-Salih had built for himself before his death near his madrasah in the district of Bain al-Qasrain in Cairo.[dn 10] Nevertheless, the actual power in Egypt was still exercised by Aybak, who had returned to his position of atabak (atabeg).
An-Nasir Yusuf sent his forces to Gaza to conquer Egypt and overthrow Aybak but his forces were defeated by Emir Faris ad-Din Aktai in October 1250. Then[when?] he led a huge army and clashed with Aybak's army near Al-Salihiyya, not far from Cairo, but at the end of the battle he was forced to flee to Damascus while his son Turanshah,[dn 11] his brother Nosrat ad-Din and al-Malik al-Ashraf the Emir of Aleppo were among the prisoners caught by Aybak's army. Aybak's triumphs over the Ayyobids of Syria consolidated his position as a ruler of Egypt. Through negotiation and mediation of the Abbasid Caliph, Aybak freed the Ayyubid prisoners and gained control over southern Palestine including Gaza and Jerusalem and the Syrian coast. Feeling secure by his victories and his agreement with the Ayyubids, Aybak imprisoned the young Ayyubid co-sultan Musa and appointed Qutuz as vice-sultan in 1252.
In 1253 a serious rebellion led by Hisn al-Din Thalab in Upper and Middle Egypt was crushed by Aktai, the leader of the Bahri Mamluks. By defeating the Ayyubid forces of an-Nasir Yusuf and the crushing of the rebellion of Thalab the power of Emir Aktai and his Mamluks increased and they began to form a new threat to the authority of Aybak. When Aktai asked Aybak to allow him to live inside the citadel[dn 12] with his future wife who was the sister of al-Malik al-Mansour, the Emir of Hama, Aybak became convinced that Aktai and his Mamluks had the intention to overthrow him and, thus, he decided to get rid of them.
Crackdown on Mamluks (1254-55)
In 1254, in a conspiracy with Qutuz and a few Mamluks, Aybak invited Aktai to the citadel and had him murdered. Watching the head of Aktai thrown out from the citadel, the Bahriyya Mamluks, among them Baibars al-Bunduqdari and Qalawun al-Alfi, fled during the night to Damascus, Al-Karak and the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm . Aybak plundered the properties of the Bahriyya Mamluks and retracted Alexandria which Aktai controlled as own domain since 1252. Those who could not flee were either imprisoned or executed. As soon as he finished with Aktai and his Bahriyya Mamluks, Aybak dethroned the child co-sultan al-Ashraf Musa and sent him back to his aunts' house, which was his home before they had made him a co-sultan. Now Aybak was the absolute and sole ruler of Egypt and parts of Syria, but shortly afterwards he settled a new agreement with an-Nasir Yusuf, which limited his power to Egypt only.
In 1255 a new rebellion led by his namesake Izz al-Din Aybak al-Afram arose in upper Egypt and forces of an-Nasir Yusuf arrived to the Egyptian border, this time accompanied by the Bahriyya Mamluks who had fled to Syria, including Baibars al-Bunduqdari and Qalawun al-Alfi.
Being in need to form an alliance with an important Emir who could help him against the threat of the Mamluks who had fled to Syria, Aybak decided in 1257 to marry the daughter of Badr ad-Din Lu'lu', the Emir of Mousul. Shajar al-Durr, who already had disputes with Aybak,[dn 13] felt betrayed by the man who she made an aultan and had him murdered after he had ruled Egypt seven years. On the day of his death he was about 60 years old and had a few sons, among them Nasir ad-Din Khan and al-Mansur Ali.
Aybak's 11-year-old son Ali was installed by his loyal Mamluks (Mu'iziyya Mamluks), who were led by Qutuz. The new sultan took the royal name al-Malik al-Mansur Nour ad-Din Ali with Qutuz as a vice-sultan.
Aybak ruled in a turbulent time. In addition to his conflicts with an-Nasir Yusuf in Syria and Emir Aktai and his Mamluks in Egypt, there were threats from external forces, namely the Crusaders and Louis IX of France who were in Acre waiting for a chance to score a success against the Muslims after their humiliating defeat in Egypt in 1250,[dn 15] and the Mongols led by Hulagu who were starting to raid the eastern borders of the Islamic world.[dn 16]
Before their deaths, Aybak and Shajar al-Durr firmly established the Mamluk dynasty that would ultimately repulse the Mongols, expel the European Crusaders from the Holy Land, and would remain the most powerful political force in the Middle East until the coming of the Ottomans.
|Sultan of Egypt
with Al-Ashraf Musa (1250–1252)
- The name Aybeg or Aibak or Aybak is a combination of two Turkic words, "Ay" = Moon and "Beg" or variant "Bak" = Emir in Arabic. -(Al-Maqrizi, Note p.463/vol.1 )
- Though Aybak is regarded by historian as a Mamluk, he actually served in the court of as-Salih Ayyub as an Emir/military commander and not as a Mamluk.- Shayal, p. 153/ vol.2- Al-Maqrizi, p. 463/vol.1 - According to Ibn Taghri as-Salih Ayyub bought him before he became a Sultan and he promoted him to the position an Emir. The rank which Aybak used was of a Khawanja (خوانجا Sultan's accountant ). Ibn Taghri, PP.103-273/ The Sultanate of al-Muizz Aybak al-Turkumani.
- Some historians, however, consider Shajar Adurr as the first of the Mamluk Sultans. Shayal, p.115/vol.2.
- Al-Maqrizi, also, described Shajar Adurr as the first of the Mamluk sultans of Turkic origin. al-Maqrizi, p.459/ vol.1
- See note 1.
- The Abbasid Caliph al-Musta'sim sent a message from Baghdad to the Mamluks in Egypt that said :"If you do not have men there tell us so we can send you men."- Al-Maqrizi, p.464/vol1
- Also known as Al-Nasir Salah ad-Din Yusuf. - Al-Maqrizi, p.464/vol.1- Ibn Taghri, pp.103-273/ The Sultanate of al-Muizz Aybak al-Turkumani.
- Coins of Musa show he was a Sultan and not a co-sultan.
- al-Malik Sharaf Muzafer al-Din Musa was a grandson of al-Malik al-Kamil. Al-Maqrizi, p.464/vol.1 - Shayal, p.115/ vol.2 - Ibn Taghri, pp.103-273/ The Sultanate of al-Muizz Aybak al-Turkumani,
- The death of as-Salih Ayyub was concealed by his wife Shajar ad-Durr as Egypt was under the attack of the Seventh Crusade and his coffined body was transported by a boat in secret to the castle of al-Rudah island in the Nile where it stayed till was buried by Aybak in the Sultan's tomb near as-Salih's Madrasah. ( Al-Maqrizi, pp. 441-443/vol.1 ) See also Shajar al-Durr.
- Not to be confused with his namesake Sultan Turanshah the son of as-Salih Ayyub.
- Citadel of the Mountain was the abode and court of the sultan in Cairo
- Aybak's conflict with the Mamluks and his attempt to increase his supremacy over political matters had its effect on his relation with Shajar Al-Durr. According to Al-Maqrizi, Aybak decided to liquidate Shajar Al-Durr after he was warned that she contacted An-Nasir Yusuf and promised him to make him the Sultan of Egypt. Al-Maqrizi, pp.493-494/vol.1
- In Sirat al-Zahir Baibars, which is a fiction mixed with reality and a product of folklore, Aybak appears as a wicked and a feeble man. See Sirat al-Zahir Baibars.
- See Battle of Al Mansurah and Battle of Fariskur
- In 1252 during Aybak reign Mongols raided towns and territories on the eastern border of the Islamic world. - Al-Maqrizi, p.477/vol.1
- Encyclopaedia Britannica Online - Aybak article. web page
- Al-Maqrizi, p.463/ vol.1
- Al-Maqrizi, pp.462-463/vol.1
- Al-Maqrizi, p.472/vol.1
- Ibn Taghri, pp.103-273/ The Sultanate of al-Muizz Aybak al-Turkumani.
- P. M. Holt (1986). The Age of the Crusades: The Near East from the Eleventh Century to 1517. A History of the Near East. London: Routledge. p. 84. ISBN 9780582493025. Retrieved 12 September 2015.
- Al-Maqrizi, p. 464/vol.1
- Shayal, p.116/vol.2
- Ibn Taghri, PP.103-273/ The Sultanate of al-Muizz Aybak al-Turkumani.
- Shayal,p.116/ vol.2
- Shayal, p.119/ vol.2
- Abu al-Fida, The Concise History of Humanity
- Al-Maqrizi, Al Selouk Leme'refatt Dewall al-Melouk, Dar al-kotob, 1997.
- Idem in English: Bohn, Henry G., The Road to Knowledge of the Return of Kings, Chronicles of the Crusades, AMS Press, 1969.
- Al-Maqrizi, al-Mawaiz wa al-'i'tibar bi dhikr al-khitat wa al-'athar,Matabat aladab, Cairo 1996, ISBN 977-241-175-X.
- Idem in French: Bouriant, Urbain, Description topographique et historique de l'Egypte,Paris 1895
- Ibn Taghri, al-Nujum al-Zahirah Fi Milook Misr wa al-Qahirah, al-Hay'ah al-Misreyah 1968
- History of Egypt, 1382-1469 A.D. by Yusef. William Popper, translator Abu L-Mahasin ibn Taghri Birdi, University of California Press 1954
- Mahdi, Dr. Shafik, Mamalik Misr wa Alsham ( Mamluks of Egypt and the Levant), Aldar Alarabiya, Beirut 2008
- Qasim, Abdu Qasim Dr., Asr Salatin AlMamlik ( era of the Mamluk Sultans ), Eye for human and social studies, Cairo 2007
- Sadawi,H., Al-Mamalik, Maroof Ikhwan, Alexandria.
- Shayal, Jamal, Prof. of Islamic history, Tarikh Misr al-Islamiyah (History of Islamic Egypt), dar al-Maref, Cairo 1266, ISBN 977-02-5975-6
- The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Macropædia, H.H. Berton Publisher, 1973–1974