Alfred Eckhard Zimmern
|Alfred Eckhard Zimmern|
26 January 1879|
Surbiton, Surrey, U.K.
24 November 1957|
Avon, Connecticut, U.S.
|Alma mater||New College, Oxford|
|Occupation||Classical scholar, historian|
Sir Alfred Eckhard Zimmern (1879–1957) was a British classical scholar and historian, and political scientist writing on international relations. His book The Third British Empire was among the first to apply the expression "British Commonwealth" to the British Empire. He is also credited with the phrase "welfare state", which was made popular a few years later by William Temple.
Early life and background
Zimmern was born on 26 January 1879 in Surbiton, Surrey, UK. His father was a naturalised British citizen, born in Germany. The writers, translators and suffragettes Helen Zimmern and Alice Zimmern were his cousins.
Alfred was brought up a Christian and later an active participant in the World Council of Churches. However, later in life he also became a supporter of Zionism. He was educated at Winchester College, and read classics at New College, Oxford, where he won the Stanhope essay prize in 1902. At Berlin University, he came under the influence of Wilamowitz and Meyer.
He was Lecturer in Ancient History, New College, Oxford (1903), and Fellow and tutor, New College (1904–09). Subsequently, he was staff inspector, Board of Education (1912–15) and a member, Political Intelligence Department, Foreign Office (1918–19).
He was then Wilson Professor of International Politics, the first Professor of International Politics (also known as International Relations) in the whole world, University College of Wales (1919–21); having left Aberystwyth, he taught at Cornell University in 1922 and 1923.
He was the inaugural Montague Burton Professor of International Relations, Oxford University (1930–44); co-founder, Royal Institute of International Affairs (1919); London Round Table Group (1913-1920s).
He has been classified as a utopian and idealist thinker on international relations. He is cited often, in this perspective, in E. H. Carr's The Twenty Years' Crisis (1939); Carr and Zimmern are characterised as at opposite ends of the theoretical and political spectrum.
He contributed to the founding of both the League of Nations Society, and UNESCO. He was Deputy Director of the Institute for Intellectual Co-operation, in Paris, in the mid-1920s; after tension with the Director, the French historian Julien Luchaire, both left. He was nominated in 1947 for the Nobel Peace Prize, in connection with his UNESCO work.
Within UK politics, Zimmern joined the Labour Party in 1924, and was Labour candidate for Carnarvon Boroughs against David Lloyd George in the 1924 general election. A close friend of Ramsay MacDonald, Zimmern followed him in 1931 when MacDonald moved to head a National Government; he became an active member of the National Labour Organisation and frequently wrote articles for its journal, the News-Letter. Zimmern was one of five writers who contributed to a book "Towards a National Policy: being a National Labour Contribution" in April 1935. He died at Avon, Connecticut on 24 November 1957.
- Henry Grattan, (1902)
- Nationality and Government with other war-time essays (1919)
- "Greek Political Thought", an essay in The Legacy of Greece (1921)
- Europe in Convalescence (1922)
- America and Europe
- Prospects of Democracy & Other Essays
- The Greek Commonwealth: Politics and Economics in Fifth Century Athens, 1911; 5th edition 1931, Oxford, reprint 1977
- The Economic Weapon Against Germany, London: Allen & Unwin, 1918
- The Third British Empire (1926; 3rd edition 1934), London: Oxford University Press
- The League of Nations and the Rule of Law 1918–1935 (1936)
- "The Ethical Presuppositions of a World Order", an essay in The Universal Church and the World of Nations (1938).
- Jeanne Morefield (2004), Covenants Without Swords: Idealist Liberalism and the Spirit of Empire, on Zimmern and Gilbert Murray
- Donald Markwell (1986), 'Sir Alfred Zimmern Revisited: Fifty Years On', Review of International Studies. Donald Markwell, 'Sir Alfred Eckhard Zimmern', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 2004. 
- Discussed in J. D. B. Miller, The Commonwealth and World Order: The Zimmern Vision and After (1979),. Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, 8: p. 162.
- welfare state[permanent dead link]
- Book extract
- Kathleen Woodroofe, The Making of the Welfare State in England: A Summary of Its Origin and Development, Journal of Social History, Vol. 1, No. 4 (Summer, 1968), pp. 303–324.
- Oxford English Dictionary, from 1941.
- Noam Pianko, "The True Liberalism of Zionism”: Horace Kallen, Jewish Nationalism, and the Limits of American Pluralism, American Jewish History, 94(4), December 2008.
- "University intelligence". The Times (36770). London. 17 May 1902. p. 11.
- Cornell University Information Database Archived 7 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
- Time magazine comments.
- In addition to Dickinson, the list of contributors to this utopian literature included Nicholas Murray Butler, James T. Shotwell, Alfred Zimmern, Norman Angell, and Gilbert Murray. Archived 13 September 2006 at the Wayback Machine.
- Idealism (or 'utopianism') and power (or 'realism') are often portrayed as mutually exclusive and contradictory philosophies or attitudes to global affairs. [...] When the intellectual roots of the leaders of Chatham House (Lionel Curtis, Philip Kerr, Arnold Toynbee, Alfred Zimmern) and the Council on Foreign Relations (Hamilton Fish Armstrong, Whitney Hart Shepardson, Russell Cornell Leffingwell) are examined, it is clear that each category of their thought may be interpreted as a combination of idealism and power.[permanent dead link]
- 2001 edition of the Crisis, introduction by Michael Cox, note p. xciii.
- Richard Toye – | UNESCO.ORG
- PDF, p. 22.
- Duncan Wilson, Gilbert Murray, p. 357.
- Nomination database