Almolonga

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This article is about a volcano. For the eponymous city, see Almolonga, Quetzaltenango.
Almolonga volcano
(Cerro Quemado)
Almolonga.jpg
The rounded hills in the middle, are part of a chain of lava domes of the Almolonga volcanic field
Elevation 3,197 m (10,489 ft)
Location
Almolonga volcano is located in Guatemala
Almolonga volcano
Almolonga volcano
Guatemala
Location Quetzaltenango, Guatemala
Range Sierra Madre
Coordinates 14°48′0″N 91°31′12″W / 14.80000°N 91.52000°W / 14.80000; -91.52000Coordinates: 14°48′0″N 91°31′12″W / 14.80000°N 91.52000°W / 14.80000; -91.52000
Geology
Type Stratovolcano
Last eruption January to June 1818
Major Volcanoes of Guatemala

The Almolonga volcano, sometimes also called "Cerro Quemado" (Burned Mountain) or "La Muela" (The Molar) for it distinct shape, is an andesitic stratovolcano in the south-western department of Quetzaltenango in Guatemala. The volcano is located near the town of Almolonga, just south of Quetzaltenango, Guatemala's second largest city.

The volcano is set along the Zunil fault zone and has a central caldera surrounded by several dacitic and rhyolitic lava domes and formed in a back-arc volcanic setting, with activity commencing 84,000BP. Almolonga stratovolcano is the oldest edifice and underwent collapse prior to the caldera forming eruption of Lake Atitlan, the major chronological marker of volcanism in the region. The collapse of the stratovolcano left a caldera with a diameter of 3,3km and a depth of 350m that was subsequently occupied by lava domes on its northern edge and covered by tephra layers from numerous volcanoes, both in the Almolonga field and others. Cerro Quemado is the largest (about 2km3) and youngest lava dome complex formed by eight vents with viscous lava flows and plugs during four distinct volcanic phases - the first two involving effusion of lava and formation of new domes. Cerro Quemado underwent a flank collapse 1,150BP, generating a landslide that went 6km SSW in the Llano de Pilar valley and occupied an area of 13km2, generating a lateral blast that affected the neighbouring Volcán Siete Orejas volcano as well. A lava dome emerged inside the collapse scar subsequently. 1818 an eruption formed a block lava flow over half a year that travelled 2.5km eastward. Lahars and further explosive activity are potential hazards from this volcano.

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