Alteromonas

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Alteromonas
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gammaproteobacteria
Order: Alteromonadales
Family: Alteromonadaceae
Genus: Alteromonas
Baumann et al. 1972
Type species
Alteromonas macleodii
Species

A. addita
A. genovensis
A. hispanica
A. litorea
A. macleodii
A. marina
A. simiduii
A. stellipolaris
A. tagae

Alteromonas is a genus of Proteobacteria[1] found in sea water, either in the open ocean or in the coast. It is Gram-negative. Its cells are curved rods with a single polar flagellum.

Etymology[edit]

The etymology of the genus is Latin alter -tera -terum, another, different; monas (μονάς / μονάδα), a noun with a special meaning in microbiology used to mean unicellular organism; to give Alteromonas, another monad[2]

Members of the genus Alteromonas can be referred to as alteromonads (viz. Trivialisation of names).

Authority[edit]

The genus was described by Baumann et al. in 1972,[3] but was emended by Novick and Tyler 1985 to accommodate Alteromonas luteoviolacea (now Pseudoalteromonas luteoviolacea),[4] Gauthier et al. 1995, who split the genus in two (Pseudoalteromonas)[5] and Van Trappen et al. in 2004 to accommodate Alteromonas stellipolaris.[6]

Species[edit]

The genus contains eight species (but 21 basonyms), namely[2]

  • A. addita (Ivanova et al. 2005, added, joined to the genus)
  • A. genovensis ( Vandecandelaere et al. 2008, genovensis, pertaining to Genova (Genoa), Italy, where the seawater electroactive biofilms originated)[7]
  • A. hispanica ( Martínez-Checa et 'al. 2005, hispanica, Spanish)
  • A. litorea' ( Yoon et al.. 2004, litorea, of the shore)
  • A. macleodii ( Baumann et al. 1972 (type species of the genus, named after R.A. MacLeod, a Canadian microbiologist who pioneered studies on the biochemical bases of the Na+ requirement of marine bacteria)[7]
  • A. marina ( Yoon et al.. 2003, marina, of the sea, marine)
  • A. simiduii ( Chiu et al.. 2007, named after Usio Simidu, a Japanese microbiologist, for his work on marine microbiology)[8]
  • A. stellipolaris ( Van Trappen et al.. 2004, stella, star; polaris, polar, referring to the Polarstern (AWI, Bremerhaven), the name of the vessel that was used to collect the sample from which the organisms were isolated)[9]
  • A. tagae ( Chiu et al.. 2007, named after Nobuo Taga, a pioneering Japanese marine microbiologist)[8]

Former alteromonads[edit]

Many alteromonads were reclassified as members of Pseudoalteromonas in 1995[5]

  • P. atlantica (Akagawa-Matsushita et al.. 1992, atlantica, pertaining to the Atlantic Ocean)[10]
  • P. aurantia (Gauthier and Breittmayer 1979, aurantia, orange-colored)[11]
  • P. carrageenovora (Akagawa-Matsushita et al.. 1992, carrageenum, named for carrageenan; vorare, to devour - carrageenan decomposing)[10]
  • P. citrea (Gauthier 1977, citrea, of or pertaining to the citrus-tree, intended to mean lemon-yellow)[11]
  • P. denitrificans (Enger et al.. 1987, denitrificans, denitrifying)[12]
  • P. distincta (Romanenko et al. 1995, distincta, separate, distinct)[13]
  • P. elyakovii (Ivanova et al.. 1997, named after G.B. Elyakov for his work in microbial biotechnology)[14]
  • P. espejiana (Chan et al.. 1978, named after Espejo, a Chilean microbiologist who isolated one of the first lipid-containing bacteriophages)[11]
  • P. fuliginea (Romanenko et al.. 1995, fuliginea, like soot, sooty)[13]
  • P. haloplanktis ((ZoBell and Upham 1944) Reichelt and Baumann 1973, hals halos, sea; planktos -ê -on, wandering, roaming, sea-wandering)[11]
  • P. luteoviolacea ((ex Gauthier 1976) Gauthier 1982, luteus, yellow; violaceus - violet-colored; luteoviolacea, yellow-violet)[15]
  • P. nigrifaciens ((ex White 1940) Baumann et al. 1984, Niger, black; facio, to make to give nigrifaciens, making black)[16]
  • P. rubra (Gauthier 1976, rubra, red)[11]
  • P. tetraodonis (Simidu et al.. 1990, tetraodonis, of Tetraodon, a genus of plectognathic fishes [Tetraodontidae])[17]
  • P. undina (Chan et al.. 1978, undina, undine, water nymph)[11]

Other former alteromonads:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Classification of Genera AC entry in LPSN [Euzéby, J.P. (1997). "List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature: a folder available on the Internet". Int J Syst Bacteriol. 47 (2): 590–2. doi:10.1099/00207713-47-2-590. ISSN 0020-7713. PMID 9103655. ]
  2. ^ a b Alteromonas entry in LPSN [Euzéby, J.P. (1997). "List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature: a folder available on the Internet". Int J Syst Bacteriol. 47 (2): 590–2. doi:10.1099/00207713-47-2-590. ISSN 0020-7713. PMID 9103655. ]
  3. ^ Baumann, Linda; Baumann, Paul; Mandel, M.; Allen, Richard D (April 1972). "Taxonomy of Aerobic Marine Eubacteria" (PDF). Journal of Bacteriology. Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology. 110 (1): 402–429. ISSN 1098-5530. OCLC 38751488. Retrieved 19 April 2012. 
  4. ^ Novick, N.J.; Tyler, M.E. (1985). "Isolation and characterization of Alteromonas luteoviolacea strains with sheathed flagella". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 35: 111–113. doi:10.1099/00207713-35-1-111. 
  5. ^ a b Gauthier, G.; Gauthier, M.; Christen, R. (1995). "Phylogenetic analysis of the genera Alteromonas, Shewanella and Moritella using genes coding for small-subunit rRNA sequences and division of the genus Alteromonas into two genera, Alteromonas (emended) and Pseudoalteromonas gen. nov., and proposal of twelve new species combinations". Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 45: 755–761. doi:10.1099/00207713-45-4-755. 
  6. ^ Van Trappen, S.; Tan, T.L.; Yang, J.; Mergaert, J.; Swings, J. (2004). "Alteromonas stellipolaris sp. nov., a novel, budding, prosthecate bacterium from Antarctic seas, and emended description of the genus Alteromonas". Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54: 1157–1163. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.02862-0. PMID 15280285. 
  7. ^ a b Vandecandelaere, I.; Nercessian, O.; Segaert, E.; Achouak, W.; Mollica, A.; Faimali, M.; De Vos, P.; Vandamme, P. (2008). "Alteromonas genovensis sp. Nov., isolated from a marine electroactive biofilm and emended description of Alteromonas macleodii Baumann et al. 1972 (Approved Lists 1980)". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 58 (11): 2589–2596. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.65691-0. PMID 18984698. 
  8. ^ a b Chiu, H. -H.; Shieh, W. Y.; Lin, S. Y.; Tseng, C. -M.; Chiang, P. -W.; Wagner-Dobler, I. (2007). "Alteromonas tagae sp. Nov. And Alteromonas simiduii sp. Nov., mercury-resistant bacteria isolated from a Taiwanese estuary". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 57 (6): 1209–1216. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.64762-0. PMID 17551031. 
  9. ^ Van Trappen, S.; Tan, T. -L.; Yang, J.; Mergaert, J.; Swings, J. (2004). "Alteromonas stellipolaris sp. nov., a novel, budding, prosthecate bacterium from Antarctic seas, and emended description of the genus Alteromonas". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 54 (4): 1157–1163. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.02862-0. PMID 15280285. 
  10. ^ a b Akagawa-Matsushita, M.; Matsuo, M.; Koga, Y.; Yamasato, K. (1992). "Alteromonas atlantica sp. nov. And Alteromonas carrageenovora sp. nov., Bacteria That Decompose Algal Polysaccharides". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 42 (4): 621–627. doi:10.1099/00207713-42-4-621. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h Skerman, V. B. D.; McGowan, V.; Sneath, P. H. A. (1980). "Approved Lists of Bacterial Names". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 30: 225–420. doi:10.1099/00207713-30-1-225. 
  12. ^ Enger, O.; Nygaard, H.; Solberg, M.; Schei, G.; Nielsen, J.; Dundas, I. (1987). "Characterization of Alteromonas denitrificans sp. nov". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 37 (4): 416–421. doi:10.1099/00207713-37-4-416. 
  13. ^ a b "Validation of the Publication of New Names and New Combinations Previously Effectively Published Outside the IJSB: List No. 55". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 45 (4): 879–880. 1995. doi:10.1099/00207713-45-4-879. 
  14. ^ "Validation of the Publication of New Names and New Combinations Previously Effectively Published Outside the IJSB: List No. 61". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 47 (2): 601–602. 1997. doi:10.1099/00207713-47-2-601. 
  15. ^ Gauthier, M. J. (1982). "Validation of the Name Alteromonas luteoviolacea". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 32: 82–86. doi:10.1099/00207713-32-1-82. 
  16. ^ Baumann, P.; Baumann, L.; Bowditch, R. D.; Beaman, B. (1984). "Taxonomy of Alteromonas: A. Nigrifaciens sp. Nov., nom. Rev.; A. Macleodii; and A. Haloplanktis". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 34 (2): 145–149. doi:10.1099/00207713-34-2-145. 
  17. ^ Simidu, U.; Kita-Tsukamoto, K.; Yasumoto, T.; Yotsu, M. (1990). "Taxonomy of Four Marine Bacterial Strains That Produce Tetrodotoxin". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 40 (4): 331–336. doi:10.1099/00207713-40-4-331. PMID 2275851. 
  18. ^ Weiner, R. M.; Coyne, V. E.; Brayton, P.; West, P.; Raiken, S. F. (1988). "Alteromonas colwelliana sp. nov., an Isolate from Oyster Habitats". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 38 (3): 240–244. doi:10.1099/00207713-38-3-240. 
  19. ^ Jensen, M. J.; Tebo, B. M.; Baumann, P.; Mandel, M.; Nealson, K. H. (1980). "Characterization ofAlteromonas hanedai (sp. Nov.), a nonfermentative luminous species of marine origin". Current Microbiology. 3 (5): 311–315. doi:10.1007/BF02601812. 
  20. ^ "Validation of the Publication of New Names and New Combinations Previously Effectively Published Outside the IJSB: List No. 6". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 31 (2): 215–218. 1981. doi:10.1099/00207713-31-2-215. 

External links[edit]