-monas

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The suffix -monas is used in microbiology for many genera and is intended to mean "unicellular organism".

Meaning[edit]

The suffix -monas is used in microbiology for many genera in a similar way to -bacter, -bacillus, -coccus or -spirillum. The genera with the suffix monas are not a monophyletic group and the suffix is chosen over -bacter, often simply out of stylistic preferences to match with Greek words.

The first genus to be given the suffix -monas was the Pseudomonas, a genus of gammaproteobacteria. The generic epithet Pseudomonas was coined by Walter Migula in 1894, who did not give an etymology.[1][2] Since the 7th edition of Bergey's manual (=top authority in bacterial nomenclature), other authors have given the etymology to be: Greek pseudes (ψευδες) (false) and monas (μονάς / μονάδα a single unit), which can mean "false unit".[3] However, "false unit" conceptually does not make much sense, namely, it does not mean "an organism which may falsely appear as a single unit but it is not" as it is not found in multicellular chains nor was it ever described as such. One speculation is that the name was chosen simply out of aesthetics,[4] while the most plausible theory states that Migula intended it as false Monas,[4] a nanoflagellate protist (Chrysophyceae: Ochromonadales: Ochromonadaceae: Chrysomonadida: Ochromonadidae). Subsequently, the term "monas" was used in the early history of microbiology to denote single-celled organisms.[4]

Grammar[edit]

Main article: Bacterial taxonomy

When suffices are added to a name of a genus ending in -monas to make higher ranks, the stem becomes -monad-, in fact it is quite common in Greek and in Latin that the stem differs between the singular nominative case and the rest (c.f. Latin declension or Greek declension), here μονάς / μονάδα.

In English to make a vernacular name for members of a genus, i.e. trivialising the scientific name, the scientific name is taken and written with sentence case and in roman type (i.e. "standard") as opposed to uppercase italic, the plurals are generally constructed by adding an "s", regardless of Greco-Roman grammar. In the case of genera ending in monas the ending is changed to monad with plural -monads.[5] Example: a member of the Pseudomonas genus is a pseudomonad, while two are pseudomonads. The use of the stem for non-nominative cases is seen more often in botany, where trivialisation is more common, e.g. a bromeliad is a member of the genus Bromelia.

Archaeal genera[edit]

Genus Phylum Class Order Family
Natronomonas Euryarchaeota Halobacteria Halobacteriales Halobacteriaceae
Thermogymnomonas Euryarchaeota Thermoplasmata Thermoplasmatales

Bacterial genera[edit]

Genus Phylum Class Order Family
Acidomonas Proteobacteria Alphaproteobacteria Rhodospirillales Acetobacteraceae
Aeromonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Aeromonadales Aeromonadaceae
Agromonas Proteobacteria Alphaproteobacteria Rhizobiales Bradyrhizobiaceae
Aidingimonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Oceanospirillales Halomonadaceae
Albimonas Proteobacteria Alphaproteobacteria Rhodobacterales Rhodobacteraceae
Alkalimonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria
Allomonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Vibrionales Vibrionaceae
Alteromonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Alteromonadales Alteromonadaceae
Aminomonas Synergistetes Synergistia Synergistales Synergistaceae
Aquimonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Xanthomonadales Xanthomonadaceae
Aquisalimonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Chromatiales Ectothiorhodospiraceae
Arenimonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Xanthomonadales Xanthomonadaceae
Arhodomonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Chromatiales Ectothiorhodospiraceae
Aspromonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Xanthomonadales Xanthomonadaceae
Aurantimonas Proteobacteria Alphaproteobacteria Rhizobiales Aurantimonadaceae
Azohydromonas Proteobacteria Betaproteobacteria Burkholderiales Alcaligenaceae
Azomonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Pseudomonadales Pseudomonadaceae
Balneimonas Proteobacteria Alphaproteobacteria Rhizobiales Bradyrhizobiaceae
Blastomonas Proteobacteria Alphaproteobacteria Sphingomonadales Sphingomonadaceae
Brachymonas Proteobacteria Betaproteobacteria Burkholderiales Comamonadaceae
Brevundimonas Proteobacteria Alphaproteobacteria Caulobacterales Caulobacteraceae
Butyricimonas Bacteroidetes Bacteroidia Bacteroidales Porphyromonadaceae
Caenimonas Proteobacteria Betaproteobacteria Burkholderiales Comamonadaceae
Caldimonas Proteobacteria Betaproteobacteria Burkholderiales Comamonadaceae
Camelimonas Proteobacteria Alphaproteobacteria Rhizobiales Beijerinckiaceae
Carnimonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Oceanospirillales Halomonadaceae
Celerinatantimonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Alteromonadales Celerinatantimonadaceae
Cellulomonas Actinobacteria Actinobacteria Actinomycetales Cellulomonadaceae
Chitinimonas Proteobacteria Betaproteobacteria Burkholderiales Burkholderiaceae
Chryseomonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Pseudomonadales Pseudomonadaceae
Citreimonas Proteobacteria Alphaproteobacteria Rhodobacterales Rhodobacteraceae
Cocleimonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria
Collimonas Proteobacteria Betaproteobacteria Burkholderiales Oxalobacteraceae
Comamonas Proteobacteria Betaproteobacteria Burkholderiales Comamonadaceae
Conglomeromonas Proteobacteria Alphaproteobacteria Rhodospirillales Rhodospirillaceae
Dechloromonas Proteobacteria Betaproteobacteria Rhodocyclales Rhodocyclaceae
Dehalogenimonas Chloroflexi Dehalococcoidetes
Desulfomonas Proteobacteria Deltaproteobacteria Desulfovibrionales Desulfovibrionaceae
Desulfosalsimonas Proteobacteria Deltaproteobacteria Desulfobacterales Desulfobacteraceae
Desulfuromonas Proteobacteria Deltaproteobacteria Desulfuromonadales Desulfuromonadaceae
Dysgonomonas Bacteroidetes Bacteroidia Bacteroidales Porphyromonadaceae
Endozoicomonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Oceanospirillales Hahellaceae
Epilithonimonas Bacteroidetes Flavobacteria Flavobacteriales Flavobacteriaceae
Erythromonas Proteobacteria Alphaproteobacteria Sphingomonadales Sphingomonadaceae
Ferrimonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Alteromonadales Ferrimonadaceae
Filimonas Bacteroidetes Sphingobacteria Sphingobacteriales Chitinophagaceae
Flagellimonas Bacteroidetes Flavobacteria Flavobacteriales Flavobacteriaceae
Flavimonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Pseudomonadales Pseudomonadaceae
Fulvimonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Xanthomonadales Xanthomonadaceae
Gallaecimonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria
Gemmatimonas Gemmatimonadetes Gemmatimonadetes Gemmatimonadales Gemmatimonadaceae
Gracilimonas Bacteroidetes Sphingobacteria Sphingobacteriales Chitinophagaceae
Halomonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Oceanospirillales Halomonadaceae
Herminiimonas Proteobacteria Betaproteobacteria Burkholderiales Oxalobacteraceae
Hydrogenimonas Proteobacteria Epsilonproteobacteria Campylobacterales Hydrogenimonaceae
Hyphomonas Proteobacteria Alphaproteobacteria Caulobacterales Hyphomonadaceae
Kistimonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Oceanospirillales Hahellaceae
Kordiimonas Proteobacteria Alphaproteobacteria Kordiimonadales Kordiimonadaceae
Lebetimonas Proteobacteria Epsilonproteobacteria Nautiliales Nautiliaceae
Luteimonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Xanthomonadales Xanthomonadaceae
Lutimonas Bacteroidetes Flavobacteria Flavobacteriales Flavobacteriaceae
Macromonas Proteobacteria Betaproteobacteria Burkholderiales Comamonadaceae
Malonomonas Proteobacteria Deltaproteobacteria Desulfuromonadales Desulfuromonadaceae
Marinomonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Oceanospirillales Oceanospirillaceae
Maritimimonas Bacteroidetes Flavobacteria Flavobacteriales Flavobacteriaceae
Marixanthomonas Bacteroidetes Flavobacteria Flavobacteriales Flavobacteriaceae
Megamonas Firmicutes Negativicutes Selenomonadales Veillonellaceae
Methylohalomonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria
Methylomonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Methylococcales Methylococcaceae
Miniimonas Actinobacteria Actinobacteria Actinomycetales Beutenbergiaceae
Neptunomonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Oceanospirillales Oceanospirillaceae
Nitrosomonas Proteobacteria Betaproteobacteria Nitrosomonadales Nitrosomonadaceae
Oceanimonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Aeromonadales Aeromonadaceae
Paraferrimonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Alteromonadales Ferrimonadaceae
Parapusillimonas Proteobacteria Betaproteobacteria Burkholderiales Alcaligenaceae
Parvimonas Firmicutes Clostridia Clostridiales
Paucimonas Proteobacteria Betaproteobacteria Burkholderiales Burkholderiaceae
Pelomonas Proteobacteria Betaproteobacteria Burkholderiales Comamonadaceae
Petrimonas Bacteroidetes Bacteroidia Bacteroidales Porphyromonadaceae
Pleomorphomonas Proteobacteria Alphaproteobacteria Rhizobiales Methylocystaceae
Plesiomonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Enterobacteriales Enterobacteriaceae
Polaromonas Proteobacteria Betaproteobacteria Burkholderiales Comamonadaceae
Porphyromonas Bacteroidetes Bacteroidia Bacteroidales Porphyromonadaceae
Propionicimonas Actinobacteria Actinobacteria Actinomycetales Propionibacteriaceae
Protomonas Proteobacteria Alphaproteobacteria Rhizobiales Methylobacteriaceae
Pseudoalteromonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Alteromonadales Pseudoalteromonadaceae
Pseudofulvimonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Xanthomonadales Xanthomonadaceae
Pseudomonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Pseudomonadales Pseudomonadaceae
Pseudoxanthomonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Xanthomonadales Xanthomonadaceae
Psychromonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Alteromonadales Psychromonadaceae
Pusillimonas Proteobacteria Betaproteobacteria Burkholderiales Alcaligenaceae
Rhizomonas Proteobacteria Alphaproteobacteria Sphingomonadales Sphingomonadaceae
Rhodopseudomonas Proteobacteria Alphaproteobacteria Rhizobiales Bradyrhizobiaceae
Roseomonas Proteobacteria Alphaproteobacteria Rhodospirillales Acetobacteraceae
Rubrimonas Proteobacteria Alphaproteobacteria Rhodobacterales Rhodobacteraceae
Rugamonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Pseudomonadales Pseudomonadaceae
Salinarimonas Proteobacteria Alphaproteobacteria Rhizobiales Bradyrhizobiaceae
Salinimonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Alteromonadales Alteromonadaceae
Sediminimonas Proteobacteria Alphaproteobacteria Rhodobacterales Rhodobacteraceae
Selenomonas Firmicutes Negativicutes Selenomonadales Veillonellaceae
Silanimonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Xanthomonadales Xanthomonadaceae
Silvimonas Proteobacteria Betaproteobacteria Neisseriales Neisseriaceae
Singularimonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Xanthomonadales Sinobacteraceae
Sinomonas Actinobacteria Actinobacteria Actinomycetales Micrococcaceae
Solimonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria
Sphingomonas Proteobacteria Alphaproteobacteria Sphingomonadales Sphingomonadaceae
Stenotrophomonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Xanthomonadales Xanthomonadaceae
Succinatimonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Aeromonadales Succinivibrionaceae
Succinimonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Aeromonadales Succinivibrionaceae
Sulfurimonas Proteobacteria Epsilonproteobacteria Campylobacterales Helicobacteraceae
Syntrophomonas Firmicutes Clostridia Clostridiales Syntrophomonadaceae
Tepidimonas Proteobacteria Betaproteobacteria Burkholderiales
Terrimonas Bacteroidetes Sphingobacteria Sphingobacteriales Chitinophagaceae
Thalassomonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Alteromonadales Colwelliaceae
Thermanaeromonas Firmicutes Clostridia Thermoanaerobacterales Thermoanaerobacteraceae
Thermomonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Xanthomonadales Xanthomonadaceae
Thiohalomonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria
Thiomonas Proteobacteria Betaproteobacteria Burkholderiales
Tolumonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Aeromonadales Aeromonadaceae
Tranquillimonas Proteobacteria Alphaproteobacteria Rhodobacterales Rhodobacteraceae
Tropicimonas Proteobacteria Alphaproteobacteria Rhodobacterales Rhodobacteraceae
Wohlfahrtiimonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Xanthomonadales Xanthomonadaceae
Xanthomonas Proteobacteria Gammaproteobacteria Xanthomonadales Xanthomonadaceae
Xylanimonas Actinobacteria Actinobacteria Actinomycetales Promicromonosporaceae
Zymomonas Proteobacteria Alphaproteobacteria Sphingomonadales Sphingomonadaceae

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Migula, W. (1894) Über ein neues System der Bakterien. Arb Bakteriol Inst Karlsruhe 1: 235–328.
  2. ^ Migula, W. (1900) System der Bakterien, Vol. 2. Jena, Germany: Gustav Fischer.
  3. ^ Pseudomonas entry in LPSN [Euzéby, J.P. (1997). "List of Bacterial Names with Standing in Nomenclature: a folder available on the Internet". Int J Syst Bacteriol. 47 (2): 590–2. doi:10.1099/00207713-47-2-590. ISSN 0020-7713. PMID 9103655. ]
  4. ^ a b c Palleroni, N. J. (2010). "The Pseudomonas Story". Environmental Microbiology. 12 (6): 1377–1383. doi:10.1111/j.1462-2920.2009.02041.x. PMID 20553550. 
  5. ^ Buchanan, R. E. (1955). "Taxonomy". Annual Review of Microbiology. 9: 1–20. doi:10.1146/annurev.mi.09.100155.000245. PMID 13259458.