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Aquincum 3 - KKriszti.jpg
The ruins of Aquincum
Aquincum is located in Hungary
Shown within Hungary
Location Budapest, Central Hungary, Hungary
Region Pannonia
Coordinates 47°33′51″N 19°2′58″E / 47.56417°N 19.04944°E / 47.56417; 19.04944Coordinates: 47°33′51″N 19°2′58″E / 47.56417°N 19.04944°E / 47.56417; 19.04944
Type Settlement
Founded Approximately 41–54
Periods Roman Empire

Aquincum (Latin pronunciation: [aˈkʷɪŋkũː], Hungarian: [ˈɒkviŋkum]) was an ancient city, situated on the northeastern borders of the province of Pannonia within the Roman Empire. The ruins of the city can be found today in Budapest, the capital city of Hungary. It is believed that Marcus Aurelius wrote at least part of his book Meditations at Aquincum.


Location of the city within the Roman Empire

Aquincum was originally settled by the Eravisci, a Celtic tribe. Aquincum served as a military base (castrum), having been part of the Roman border protection system called limes. Around AD 41-54, a 500-strong cavalry unit arrived, and a Roman legion of 6,000 men (Legio II Adiutrix)[1][2] was stationed here by AD 89. The city gradually grew around the fortress, and after Pannonia was reorganised by the Romans in AD 106, Aquincum became the capital city of the Roman province of Pannonia Inferior. Being the centre of operations on the Roman frontier against the neighbouring Iazyges, Aquincum was occasionally the headquarters of emporers.[2] The city had around 30,000 to 40,000 inhabitants by the end of the 2nd century, and covered a significant part of the area today known as the Óbuda district within Budapest. Ruins from the old Roman settlement can be seen in other parts of Budapest as well, notably Contra-Aquincum. These Roman structures were, during the 2nd and 3rd century AD, the heart of the commercial life of the Pannonia province. The excavations show evidence of the lifestyle of this period. The most important monuments in Aquincum are the two amphitheatres: the Aquincum Civil Amphitheatre and the Aquincum Military Amphitheatre, built in the 1st century AD.[3]

Settlement buildings[edit]

Aquincum Amphitheatre, Budapest, 1996

People living in the settlement could enjoy the achievements of the Empire, like central heating in the houses, public baths, a Mithraeum and palaces, as well as two amphitheatres, the Aquincum Civil Amphitheatre and the larger Aquincum Military Amphitheatre for gladiatorial combats and beast fights.

Aquincum Museum[edit]

Many historic artifacts from the city now appear in the Aquincum Museum. The museum exhibits a reconstruction of the hydraulic system, Roman houses and paintings that have been recovered on site. The ruins of a three-level aqueduct have been discovered around the city.


  1. ^ Cassius Dio, Historia Romana 55.24
  2. ^ a b  Smith, William, ed. (1854–1857). "Acincum". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray.
  3. ^ Lovely Budapest

External links[edit]