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Av (Hebrew: אָב, Standard Av Tiberian ʾĀḇ Aramaic אבא Abba; from Akkadian abu; "father") is the eleventh month of the civil year and the fifth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. The name is Babylonian in origin and appeared in the Talmud around the 3rd century. This is the only month which is not named in the Bible. It is a summer month of 30 days. Av usually occurs in July–August on the Gregorian calendar.
The Babylonian Talmud, Taanit 29a, states that "when we enter [the month of] Av, our joy is diminished". This is because the darkest events in Jewish history occurred during the first week and a half of this month, particularly The Nine Days which culminate in Tisha B'Av, the 9th of Av. However, there is a minor and largely unknown holiday during the full moon of the month called Tu B'Av which was, in ancient times, one of the happiest days of the year.
The month is also sometimes referred to as Menachem Av (Hebrew: מנחם אב) (Av of Comfort or Comforter of Father(s)), but most only use this title in the sanctification of the month recited on the Shabbat before Rosh Chodesh and following Tisha B'Av.
Holidays in Av
Av in Jewish history
- 1 Av (circa 1273 BCE) - Death of high priest Aaron
- 1 Av (513 BCE) - Ezra and his followers arrive in Israel
- 5 Av (1572 CE) - Hillula of the Arizal
- 7 Av (586 BCE) - First Temple invaded by King Nebuchadnezzar
- 7 Av (67 CE) - Civil war breaks out in besieged Jerusalem; one group set fire to the city's food stores, which is said to have quickened starvation.
- 7 Av (1492 CE) - Jews of Spain expelled by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella.
- 9 Av (586 BCE and 70 CE) - Holy Temples destroyed by the Babylonians and Romans respectively.
- 9 Av (133 CE) - Fall of Betar to the Romans, ending Bar Kochba's rebellion.
- 9 Av (1290 CE) - Jews are expelled from England by King Edward I and not permitted to legally return for 350 years.
- 10 Av (70 CE) - The Holy Temple, set on fire the previous day, finishes burning.
- 10 Av (1994) - AMIA Bombing in Buenos Aires, Argentina - the deadliest attack in Jewish diaspora since the Holocaust.
- 10 Av (2005) - Gaza Disengagement begins
- 12 Av (1263) - Disputation of Barcelona between Nachmanides and Pablo Christiani.
- 15 Av (148 CE) - Betar dead buried, 15 years after the fall of the fortress.
- 15 Av - The Day of the Breaking of the Ax - when the Holy Temple existed, the cutting of firewood for the altar was completed on this date every year. The event was celebrated by feasting, rejoicing, and the ceremonial breaking of the axes.
- 17 Av (1929) - 67 Jews are killed in the Hebron Massacre.
- 24 Av (circa 100 BCE) - A Hasmonean holiday commemorates the reinstatement of Jewish civil law in place of Hellenist secular law on this day.
- In the story of Xenogears, Av is the name of a country, named after the Hebrew month. In the official Japanese version translation, however, it was transliterated Ave. This was later further changed by the translation process to Aveh for the English version.
- Ab (Arabic: آﺏ) is the name for the month of August in the Levant (see Arabic names of calendar months).
- Telushkin, Joseph (1991). Jewish Literacy: Most Important Things to Know About the Jewish Religion, Its People and Its History. William Morrow & Co, 656. ISBN 0-688-08506-7.
- "חדש אב - The month of Av". www.hebrew4christians.com. Retrieved 2017-04-21.
- "The Month of Av - Jewish Holidays". Jewish Holidays. 2006-06-26. Retrieved 2017-04-21.
- Numbers 33:38.
- II Kings 25:8