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|Native name||אָב (Hebrew)|
|Number of days||30|
|Season||Summer (Northern Hemisphere)|
Av (also Menachem Av, Hebrew: אָב, Modern: ʾAv, Tiberian: ʾĀḇ; from Akkadian ʾAbū "father") is the eleventh month of the civil year and the fifth month of the ecclesiastical year on the Hebrew calendar. The name comes from Araḫ Abu, "month of Abu", from the Babylonian calendar. The name Ab (Arabic: آﺏ) also appears in the Arabic language for the month of August in the Levant (see Arabic names of calendar months).The name first appears in Second Temple literature, such as Megillat Taanit. It is one of several months which are not explicitly named in the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh). It is a month of 30 days. Av usually occurs in July–August on the Gregorian calendar.
The Babylonian Talmud, Taanit 29a, states that "when we enter [the month of] Av, our joy is diminished". This is because the darkest events in Jewish history occurred during the first week and a half of this month, particularly the Nine Days which culminate in Tisha B'Av, the 9th of Av. However, there is a minor and largely unknown holiday during the full moon of the month called Tu B'Av which was, in ancient times, one of the happiest days of the year.
Holidays in Av
Av in Jewish history
- 1 Av (circa 1273 BCE) – Death of high priest Aaron
- 1 Av (513 BCE) – Ezra and his followers arrive in Israel
- 5 Av (1572 CE) – Hillula of the Arizal
- 7 Av (586 BCE) – First Temple invaded by King Nebuchadnezzar
- 7 Av (67 CE) – Civil war breaks out in besieged Jerusalem; one group set fire to the city's food stores, which is said to have quickened starvation.
- 7 Av (1492 CE) – Jews of Spain expelled by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella.
- 7 Av (1853) - Death of Rabbi Moshe Greenwald, Rav of Khust and author of Arugath Habosem
- 9 Av (586 BCE and 70 CE) – Holy Temples destroyed by the Babylonians and Romans respectively.
- 9 Av (133 CE) – Fall of Betar to the Romans, ending Bar Kochba's rebellion.
- 9 Av (1290 CE) – Jews are expelled from England by King Edward I and not permitted to legally return for 350 years.
- 10 Av (70 CE) – The Holy Temple, set on fire the previous day, finishes burning.
- 12 Av (1263) – Disputation of Barcelona between Nachmanides and Pablo Christiani.
- 13 Av (1984) - Death of Rabbi Yosef Greenwald, Rebbe of Pupa and author of Vaychi Yosef
- 15 Av (148 CE) – Betar dead buried, 15 years after the fall of the fortress.
- 15 Av – The Day of the Breaking of the Ax – when the Holy Temple existed, the cutting of firewood for the altar was completed on this date every year. The event was celebrated by feasting, rejoicing, and the ceremonial breaking of the axes.
- 17 Av (1929) – 67 Jews are killed in the Hebron Massacre.
- 24 Av (circa 100 BCE) – A Hasmonean holiday commemorates the reinstatement of Jewish civil law in place of Hellenist secular law on this day.
- Telushkin, Joseph (1991). Jewish Literacy: Most Important Things to Know About the Jewish Religion, Its People and Its History. William Morrow & Co, 656. ISBN 0-688-08506-7.
- "The Month of Av - Jewish Holidays". Jewish Holidays. 2006-06-26. Retrieved 2017-04-21.
- "חדש אב - The month of Av". www.hebrew4christians.com. Retrieved 2017-04-21.
- "Megillat Taanit". Sefaria. Warsaw, 1874. Retrieved 27 October 2021.
- Numbers 33:38.
- II Kings 25:8
- "Taanit 31a". www.sefaria.org. Retrieved 2018-07-15.
- "Av". Megillat Taanit.