The village is notable for being the location of what is now known as the Bakhshali manuscript. This is an ancient mathematical work written on birch bark and is the oldest surviving document in South Asia of Indian mathematics. It was discovered in 1881 during British rule by the tenant of a local police inspector. The manuscript was discovered while the tenant was digging in an abandoned building.  The village also lends its name to the Bakhshali approximation which is a method of finding an approximation to a square root that was described in the manuscript. Famous politician and former provincial minister Ameer Zada Khan of National Awami Party (NAP) was born in Bakhshali. The followings are notable persons remained in the history of Bakhshali. Bibi Abbay, Sahibzada Baba, Shaheed Baba, Mian Mohammad Shah Kakakhel (Mohammad Bacha), Fazal Malik Khan(ptcl) Sahibzada Naqeebullah Bacha, Haji Mehmood Khan, Maulana Fakhruddin Baba, Jalildin Baba, Bibiko Mami, Wawajee, Haji Qalar-din, Maulvi Fazal Hadi, Maulana Ameer Said, Maulana Arsh Ullah, Haji Hidayat Ullah ,Colonel Shahdad Khan, Haji Karim Shah, Israr Ullah Israr and Waqas Ahmad Khan. In addition, renowned educationist and columnist Mian Unwan-ud-din Kakakhel is also from Bakhshali. Famous journalist Syed Fakhar Kakakhel also hails from Bakhshali. In the past, Bakhshali remained the center of provincial assembly seat PK30. But after the death of Ameer Zada Khan, this seat hasn't yet been won by a resident of Bakhshali, but by outsiders. Currently, population of Bakhshali is approximated between 50,000 to 55,000.