Basalt fiber is a material made from extremely fine fibers of basalt, which is composed of the minerals plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine. It is similar to fiberglass, having better physicomechanical properties than fiberglass, but being significantly cheaper than carbon fiber. It is used as a fireproof textile in the aerospace and automotive industries and can also be used as a composite to produce products such as camera tripods.
Basalt fiber is made from a single material, crushed basalt, from a carefully chosen quarry source. Basalt of high acidity (over 46% silica content) and low iron content is considered desirable for fiber production. Unlike other materials, such as glass fiber, essentially no materials are added. The basalt is simply washed and then melted.
The manufacture of basalt fiber requires the melting of the quarried basalt rock at about 1,400 °C (2,550 °F). The molten rock is then extruded through small nozzles to produce continuous filaments of basalt fiber. There are three main manufacturing techniques, which are centrifugal-blowing, centrifugal-multiroll and die-blowing. The fibers typically have a filament diameter of between 9 and 13 µm which is far enough above the respiratory limit of 5 µm to make basalt fiber a suitable replacement for asbestos. They also have a high elastic modulus, resulting in excellent specific strength—three times that of steel.[verification needed]
The table refers to the continuous basalt fiber specific producer. Data from all the manufacturers are different, the difference is sometimes very large values.
|Tensile strength||4.84 GPa|
|Elastic modulus||89 GPa|
|Elongation at break||3.15%|
|Carbon fiber (large)||1.74||3.62||2.08||228||131|
|Carbon fiber (medium)||1.80||5.10||2.83||241||134|
|Carbon fiber (small)||1.80||6.21||3.45||297||165|
The first attempts to produce basalt fiber were made in the United States in 1923 by Paul Dhe who was granted U.S. Patent 1,462,446. These were further developed after World War II by researchers in the USA, Europe and the Soviet Union especially for military and aerospace applications. Since declassification in 1995 basalt fibers have been used in a wider range of civilian applications.
- Heat protection
- Friction materials
- High pressure vessels (e.g. tanks and gas cylinders)
- Load bearing profiles
- Windmill blades
- Lamp posts
- Ship hulls
- Car bodies
- Sports equipment
- Concrete reinforcement (e.g. for bridges and buildings)
- Speaker cones
- Cavity wall ties
- Absorbent for oil spills 
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-12-29. Retrieved 2009-12-29.
- The production of basalt fibers Information from the Uzbekistan state scientific committee
- Basalt Continuous Fiber - Information and Characteristics Information from the Basalt Fiber & Composite Materials Technology Development
- Basalt Roving Dome Video demonstration of concrete construction reinforced with basalt fiber
- Generation 2.0 of Continuous Basalt Fiber Comparing the technologies used in CBF production
- Compressive behavior of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Composite The development of basalt fiber reinforced composite is an important milestone in improving the mechanical performance and durability of concrete construction.
- Some aspects of the technological process of continuous basalt fiber CBF