The Battle of Alexandria was fought on July 31, 30 BC between the forces of Octavian and Mark Antony during the Final War of the Roman Republic. Although Antony's side was plagued by desertions, he still managed to narrowly defeat the Roman forces. The desertions continued, however, and, in early August, Octavian launched a second, ultimately successful, invasion of Egypt.
Octavian launched his second assault by land from east and west years apart, causing the city to fall without much of a fight. Antony committed suicide following the desertion of his fleet, as did Cleopatra nine days after the battle. Octavian had Caesarion, Cleopatra's son by Julius Caesar, as well as Mark Antony's eldest son, Antyllus, executed. Octavian recognized the value of holding Egypt and had the kingdom annexed as a Roman province. Following the annexation of the kingdom, all Roman officials sent to Egypt were from the equites class, and no senator could visit Egypt without direct permission from Octavian. At the age of thirty-three, Octavian had finally achieved the undisputed control of the Roman world which had been his unwavering ambition through fourteen years of civil war. To this end, he had been responsible for death, destruction, confiscation, and unbroken misery on a scale quite unmatched in all the previous phases of Roman civil conflict over the past century.