Battle of Umm Qasr
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|Battle of Umm Qasr|
|Part of 2003 Invasion of Iraq|
U.S. Marine M1 Abrams tank fires its 120mm cannon at Iraqi forces during fighting near Umm Qasr, 23 March 2003
|Iraq|| United Kingdom
|Commanders and leaders|
| Ali Ibrahim
| Jim Dutton
| 3 Commando Brigade
|Casualties and losses|
The Battle of Umm Qasr was the first military confrontation in the Iraq War. At the start of the war, one of the first objectives was the port of Umm Qasr. On March 21, 2003, as allied forces advanced across Southern Iraq, an amphibious landing force captured the new port area of Umm Qasr. The assault was spearheaded by Royal Marines of the British 3 Commando Brigade, augmented by U.S. Marines of the American 15th MEU and Polish JW GROM troops. Iraqi forces in the old town of Umm Qasr put up unexpectedly strong resistance, requiring several days' fighting before the area was cleared of defenders. The port was finally declared safe and reopened on March 25, 2003.
Umm Qasr consists of a densely inhabited town connected to a port, with a population of 43,000. the ports role grew during the Iran-Iraq war, following the 1991 uprising in Basra, Saddam Hussein decided to punish Basra by focusing development on Umm Qasr, by 2003, it had a modern port with a large dock and a channel that could dock ocean-going ships. It handled 3500 tones of UN-organized oil-for-food, humanitarian aid every day following the Gulf war.
There had been an intelligence report that Iraqi T-72 tanks from the Republican Guard's, Medina Division, had been seen cutting off Umm Qasr from the main roads Basra and Safwan, so the U.S. Marines detached an armored unit to the 15th MEU in the event that the intelligence proved correct.
The Initial assault was carried out on 21 March, by the 15th MEU and the British 26th Armored Engineer Squadron, the U.S. Marine convoy made up of 20 vehicles received Iraqi small arms and mortar fire, the lead company called in supporting fire from the Royal Artillery and its shells hit the mortar positions. The U.S. Marines withdrew from the area because they were too close to the target, after 3 or 4 hours, the 15th MEU, reinforced by two Abrams tanks continued their advanced to Umm Qasr.
Their advance was successful, U.S. marines entered the town and spread out towards the port. There was occasional small arms fire from Iraqi soldiers but no organized resistance and around 200 Iraqi soldiers surrendered. Later on that day, there was increased sniping from Iraqi troops and 1 U.S. Marine was killed.
U.S. secretary of defense Donald Rumsfeld announced at a press conference in the Pentagon that the port of Umm Qasr was secured, however this was incorrect p.211 On 22 March U.S Marines believed that there was no further resistance in the town and moved on to the port area, clearing the railway lines and industrial areas.
On the morning of 23 March, a U.S patrol near the town was fired on by Iraqi snipers, while returning fire they thought they saw Iraqi forces moving into one of the warehouses in the industrial area, the patrol called in tanks which fired on the buildings that were possibly occupied by Iraqi soldiers. A fierce firefight broke out, the intense machine-gun and RPG fire directed at the US Marines prevented them moving forward to identify their targets, so they called in air support. 2 RAF harriers responded, dropping bombs on the Iraqi-occupied buildings which stopped the machine gun fire but the marines came under increased sniper fire from the town, the fighting continued into the night but the Marines were unable to make any progress against the Iraqi forces.
Brigadier Dutton knew the 15th MEU needed more time but they were scheduled to join up with the I Marine Expeditionary Force within the next 2 days, so he decided to relieve the unit and that 42 Commando could take over. On the night of 24 March, M company, 42 Commando, patrolled through the town and port after receiving occasional rifle fire and cleared a Ba'ath Party headquarters in the center of the town, the following day another patrol cleared Iraqi defensive positions, finding that the Iraqi troops had left the town.
Following the seizure of the town and port, the waterway was de-mined by a detachment from HM-14 and Naval Special Clearance Team ONE of the U.S. Navy and reopened, Umm Qasr played an important role in the shipment of humanitarian supplies to Iraqi civilians.
Coalition minesweepers, including HMS Bangor and HMS Sandown (aided by divers), US Navy MH-53E helicopters, and trained dolphins and seals, located the approach to the port and cleared it of mines, allowing RFA Sir Galahad to dock after a couple of days. The first minesweeper HMS Brocklesby found 80 Manta mines laid out close to the shipping lane, they were destroyed in a controlled detonation.
- https://web.archive.org/20140820101422/http://britains-smallwars.com:80/gulf2/units.html. Archived from the original on August 20, 2014. Retrieved February 9, 2016. Missing or empty
- "Wages of War -- Appendix 1. Survey of reported Iraqi combatant fatalities in the 2003 war - Commonwealth Institute of Cambridge". Comw.org. Retrieved 13 October 2014.
- https://web.archive.org/20070109185830/http://icasualties.org/oif/prdDetails.aspx?hndRef=3-2003. Archived from the original on January 9, 2007. Retrieved January 29, 2007. Missing or empty
- "Fierce battle around port," The Guardian, 24 March 2003
- Rossiter, Mike, Target Basra , Corgi, 2009 ISBN 0552157007 ISBN 978-0552157001 p.209 and p.210 and p218
- Rossiter, Mike, Target Basra , Corgi, 2009 ISBN 0552157007 ISBN 978-0552157001, p.210
- Rossiter, Mike, Target Basra , Corgi, 2009 ISBN 0552157007 ISBN 978-0552157001, p210
- Rossiter, Mike, Target Basra , Corgi, 2009 ISBN 0552157007 ISBN 978-0552157001, p.211
- Rossiter, Mike, Target Basra , Corgi, 2009 ISBN 0552157007 ISBN 978-0552157001 p.211
- Rossiter, Mike, Target Basra , Corgi, 2009 ISBN 0552157007 ISBN 978-0552157001, p212
- Rossiter, Mike, Target Basra , Corgi, 2009 ISBN 0552157007 ISBN 978-0552157001, p212-p213
- Rossiter, Mike, Target Basra , Corgi, 2009 ISBN 0552157007 ISBN 978-0552157001, p219
- "Iraq aid confined to south", The Guardian, 2 April 2003
- Rossiter, Mike, Target Basra , Corgi, 2009 ISBN 0552157007 ISBN 978-0552157001, p230-p231
- Tough battle for Umm Qasr (BBC)
- Battle for hearts and minds at Umm Qasr (BBC)
- The Battle for Umm Qasr