|Birth name||Betty Gray Mabry|
|Born||July 26, 1944|
Durham, North Carolina, U.S.
|Origin||New York City, NY, U.S.|
|Died||February 9, 2022 (aged 77)|
Homestead, Pennsylvania, U.S.
Betty Davis (born Betty Gray Mabry; July 26, 1944 – February 9, 2022) was an American singer, songwriter, and model. She was known for her controversial sexually-oriented lyrics and performance style and was the second wife of trumpeter Miles Davis. Her AllMusic profile describes her as "a wildly flamboyant funk diva with few equals ... [who] combined the gritty emotional realism of Tina Turner, the futurist fashion sense of David Bowie, and the trendsetting flair of Miles Davis".
Betty Gray Mabry was born in Durham, North Carolina, on July 26, 1944. She developed an interest in music when she was about ten, and was introduced to various blues musicians by her grandmother, Beulah Blackwell, while staying at her farm in Reidsville. At 12, she wrote one of her first songs, "I'm Going to Bake That Cake of Love". The family relocated to Homestead, Pennsylvania, so her father, Henry Mabry, could work at a Pennsylvania steel mill. Davis attended and graduated Homestead High School. She decided to pursue a career in showbusiness after watching her father dance like Elvis Presley.
When she was 16, Betty left Homestead for New York City, enrolling at the Fashion Institute of Technology (FIT) while living with her aunt. She soaked up the Greenwich Village culture and folk music of the early 1960s. She associated herself with frequenters of the Cellar, a hip uptown club where young and stylish people congregated. It was a multiracial, artsy crowd of models, design students, actors, and singers. At the Cellar she played records and chatted people up. She was a friend and early muse to fashion designer Stephen Burrows, who also studied at the FIT at the time. She also worked as a model, appearing in photo spreads in Seventeen, Ebony and Glamour.
In New York, she met musicians including Jimi Hendrix and Sly Stone. The seeds of her musical career were planted through her friendship with soul singer Lou Courtney, who reputedly produced her first single, "The Cellar", though the existence of that record has been questioned. She secured a contract with Don Costa, who had written arrangements for Frank Sinatra. As Betty Mabry, she recorded "Get Ready For Betty" b/w "I'm Gonna Get My Baby Back" in 1964 for Costa's DCP International label. Around the same time, she recorded a single, "I'll Be There", with Roy Arlington for Safice Records, under the joint name "Roy and Betty".
Her first professional gig came after she wrote "Uptown (to Harlem)" for the The Chambers Brothers. Their 1967 album was a major success, but Mabry focused on her modeling career. She was successful as a model but felt bored by the work—"I didn't like modeling because you didn't need brains to do it. It's only going to last as long as you look good."
In 1968, when she was in a relationship with Hugh Masekela, she recorded several songs for Columbia Records, with Masekela doing the arrangements. Two of them were released as a single: "Live, Love, Learn" b/w "It's My Life". Her relationship with Miles Davis began soon after her breakup from Masekela. She featured on the cover of Miles Davis' album Filles de Kilimanjaro, which included his tribute to her, "Mademoiselle Mabry", and she introduced him to psychedelic rock and the flamboyant clothing styles of the era. In the spring of 1969, Betty returned to Columbia's 52nd St. Studios to record a series of demo tracks, with Miles and Teo Macero producing. At least five songs were taped during those sessions, three of which were Mabry originals, two of which were covers of Cream and Creedence Clearwater Revival. Miles attempted to use these demo songs to secure an album deal for Betty, but neither Columbia nor Atlantic were interested and they were archived into a vault until 2016 when they were released in the compilation, The Columbia Years, 1968–1969, by Seattle's Light in the Attic Records.
After the end of her marriage with Miles, Betty moved to London, probably around 1971, to pursue her modeling career. She wrote music while in the UK and, after about a year, returned to the US with the intention of recording songs with Santana. Instead, she recorded her own songs with a group of West Coast funk musicians including Larry Graham, Greg Errico, the Pointer Sisters, and members of Tower of Power. Davis wrote and arranged all her songs. Her first record, Betty Davis, was released in 1973. She released two more studio albums, They Say I'm Different (1974) and her major label debut on Island Records Nasty Gal (1975). None of the three albums were a commercial success, but she had two minor hits on the Billboard R&B chart: "If I'm in Luck I Might Get Picked Up", which reached no. 66 in 1973, and "Shut Off the Lights", which reached no. 97 in 1975.
Davis remained a cult figure as a singer, due in part to her unabashedly sexual lyrics and performance style, which were both controversial for the time. She had success in Europe, but in the U.S. she was barred from performing on television because of her sexually aggressive stage persona. Some of her shows were boycotted, and her songs were not played on the radio due to pressure by religious groups and the NAACP. Carlos Santana recalled Betty as "indomitable – she couldn't be tamed. Musically, philosophically and physically, she was extreme and attractive."
In 1976, Davis completed another album for Island Records (which was shelved and unreleased for 33 years), before being dropped by the label. She spent a year in Japan, spending time with silent monks.
In 1980, Davis' father died which prompted her return to the US to live with her mother in Homestead, Pennsylvania. Davis struggled to overcome her father's death, and subsequent mental illness. She acknowledged that she suffered a setback at the time, but stayed in Homestead, accepted the end of her career, and lived a quiet life.
The tracks from Davis' final recording sessions in 1979 were released on two bootleg albums, Crashin' from Passion (1995) and Hangin' Out in Hollywood (1996). A greatest hits album, Anti Love: The Best of Betty Davis, was also released in 1995.
In 2007, Betty Davis (1973) and They Say I'm Different (1974) were reissued by Light in the Attic Records. In 2009, the label reissued Nasty Gal and her unreleased fourth studio album recorded in 1976, re-titled as Is It Love or Desire?. Both reissues contained extensive liner notes and shed some light on the mystery of why her fourth album, considered possibly to be her best work by members of her last band (Herbie Hancock, Chuck Rainey, and Alphonse Mouzon), was shelved and remained unreleased for 33 years.
In 2017, an independent documentary directed by Phil Cox entitled Betty: They Say I'm Different, was released, which renewed interest in her life and music career. When Cox tracked Davis down, he found her living in the basement of a house with no internet, cell phone, or car. He said: "This wasn't a woman with riches or luxury. She was living on the bare essentials."
In 2019, Davis released "A Little Bit Hot Tonight", her first new song in over 40 years, which was performed and sung by Danielle Maggio, an ethnomusicologist who was a friend and associate producer on Betty: They Say I'm Different.
Personal life and death
As a model in 1966, Betty met jazz musician Miles Davis, who was 19 years her senior. He was separated from his first wife, dancer Frances Davis, and was dating actress Cicely Tyson. Betty began dating Miles in early 1968, and they were married that September. During their year of marriage, she introduced him to the fashions and popular music trends of the era that influenced his music. In his autobiography, Miles credited Betty with helping to plant the seeds of his further musical explorations by introducing the trumpeter to psychedelic rock guitarist Jimi Hendrix and funk innovator Sly Stone. The Miles Davis album Filles de Kilimanjaro (1968) features Betty on the cover and includes a song named after her.
In his autobiography, Miles said Betty was "too young and wild", and accused her of having an affair with Jimi Hendrix, which hastened the end of their marriage. Betty denied the affair stating, "I was so angry with Miles when he wrote that. It was disrespectful to Jimi and to me. Miles and I broke up because of his violent temper." After accusing her of adultery, he filed for divorce in 1969. Miles told Jet magazine that the divorce was obtained on a "temperament" charge. He added, "I'm just not the kind of cat to be married." Hendrix and Miles remained close, planning to record, until Hendrix's death. The influence of Hendrix and especially Sly Stone on Miles Davis was obvious on the album Bitches Brew (1970), which ushered in the era of jazz fusion. It has been said that he wanted to call the album Witches Brew but Betty convinced him to change it.
Davis briefly dated musician Eric Clapton, but she refused to collaborate with him.
In 1975 Davis' lover Robert Palmer helped her secure a deal with Island Records. Shortly thereafter she released her album Nasty Gal.
Davis died from cancer at her home in Homestead, Pennsylvania, on February 9, 2022, at the age of 77.
The live action/animated TV series Mike Judge Presents: Tales from the Tour Bus ended its 2018 season with an episode focusing on Davis' controversial career.
Davis' music has been featured in television series including Orange Is the New Black, Girlboss, Mixed-ish, High Fidelity and Pistol.
|1973||Betty Davis||Just Sunshine
Light in the Attic (2007 re-release)
|-||1st studio album; produced by Greg Errico|
|1974||They Say I'm Different||Just Sunshine
Light in the Attic (2007 re-release)
|46||-||2nd studio album; produced by Betty Davis|
Light in the Attic (2009 re-release)
|54||96||3rd studio album; produced by Betty Davis|
|2009||Is It Love or Desire?||Light in the Attic||-||4th album; recorded in 1976 and released in 2009|
|1963?||"The Cellar"/"???"||Independent Release||1st Studio Single; Produced by Lou Courtney|
|1964||"Get Ready for Betty" / "I'm Gonna Get My Baby Back"||DCP||2nd Studio Single; Produced by Don Costa|
|1968||"It's My Life" / "Live, Love, Learn"||Columbia||3rd Studio Single; Produced by Jerry Fuller|
|1973||"If I'm in Luck I Might Get Picked Up" / "Steppin in Her I. Miller Shoes"||Just Sunshine||66||4th Studio Single; Produced by Gregg Errico|
|1973||"Ooh Yea" / "In the Meantime"||Just Sunshine|
|1974||"Shoo-B-Doop and Cop Him" / "He Was a Big Freak"||Just Sunshine|
|1974||"Git in There" /"They Say I'm Different"||Just Sunshine|
|1975||"Shut Off the Lights" / "He Was a Big Freak"||Island||97|
|2016||The Columbia Years 1968-69||Light in the Attic||tracks recorded in 1968 – 1969 and released in 2016; produced by Miles Davis & Teo Macero|
- Crashin' from Passion (1995) (Razor & Tie) / Hangin' Out in Hollywood (1995) (Charly Records) – Compilation of material recorded in 1979
- Anti Love: The Best of Betty Davis (2001) (MPC limited) – Compilation
- This Is It! Anthology (2005) (Vampisoul) – Compilation
- ^ a b Pareles, Jon (February 10, 2022). "Betty Davis, Raw Funk Innovator, Is Dead at 77". The New York Times. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- ^ a b c d Betty Davis at AllMusic
- ^ "Betty Davis obituary". The Times. February 10, 2022. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
- ^ Mervis, Scott (July 22, 2019). "Betty Davis, a funk icon living in Homestead, releases first song in nearly 40 years". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved July 22, 2019.
- ^ a b c Maycock, James (February 2005). "Betty Davis: She's Gotta Have It". MOJO. Retrieved February 10, 2022 – via Rock's Backpages.
- ^ McDonnell, Evelyn (2018). Women Who Rock: Bessie to Beyonce. Girl Groups to Riot Grrrl. New York: Black Dog & Leventhal. ISBN 978-0316558877.
She penned her first song 'I'm going to bake that Cake of Love' when she was 12 years old.
- ^ Tiller, Joe (February 10, 2022). "Betty Davis, Funk Pioneer, Dies Aged 77". Dig!. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- ^ Mahon, Maureen (2020). Black diamond queens : African American women and rock and roll. Durham. ISBN 978-1-4780-1019-7. OCLC 1141516276.
- ^ "Betty Davis". Soulwalking.co.uk. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
- ^ a b Crowhurst, Anna-Marie (March 7, 2018) "Forgotten Women: The taboo-smashing queen of funk", Stylist.co.uk. Retrieved February 10, 2022
- ^ a b "Betty Mabry: 'Get Ready for Betty'", On the Record, November 8, 2011. Retrieved February 10, 2022
- ^ Charles Waring, "Betty Davis RIP", Soul&Jazz&Funk, February 10, 2022. Retrieved February 10, 2022
- ^ Wang, O., liner notes to They Say I’m Different, Betty Davis, Just Sunshine – JSS-3500, LP, 1974.
- ^ Wang, O., "The Music and Mystique of Betty Davis—Read the Liner Notes to the Funk Singer’s Debut LP", vinylmeplease.com, June 22, 2017.
- ^ a b c Patrin, Nate (July 15, 2016). "The Columbia Years 1968-69". Pitchfork. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
- ^ a b Minsker, Evan (June 28, 2016). "Lost Betty Davis 1969 Sessions With Miles Davis Released". Pitchfork. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- ^ a b Dremousis, Lisa (May 31, 2007). "The Soul Singer in the Shadows". Esquire.
- ^ "Betty Davis: Betty Davis / They Say I'm Different". Pitchfork. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
- ^ a b c "Betty Davis Chart History". Billboard.
- ^ Whitburn, Joel (1996). Top R&B/Hip-Hop Singles: 1942–1995. Record Research. p. 104.
- ^ "Her Act Too Spicy For U.S. Tastes; Betty Davis Finds Success In Europe". Jet. 50 (4): 57. April 15, 1976.
- ^ Mahon, Maureen (June 15, 2011). "They Say She's Different: Race, Gender, Genre, and the Liberated Black Femininity of Betty Davis". Journal of Popular Music Studies. 23 (2): 146–165. doi:10.1111/j.1533-1598.2011.01277.x.
- ^ a b Spencer, Neil (September 4, 2010). "Miles Davis: The muse who changed him, and the heady Brew that rewrote jazz". The Obserrver.
- ^ a b Kreps, Daniel (February 9, 2022). "Betty Davis, trailblazing queen of funk, dead at 77". Rolling Stone.
- ^ a b "'I didn't just fade off the planet.' Reconnecting with '70s funk queen Betty Davis". The Washington Post. September 11, 2018.
- ^ a b Bogdanov, Vladimir, ed. (2003). All Music Guide to Soul: The Definitive Guide to R&B and Soul. Ann Arbor, MI: Hal Leonard Corporation. p. 178. ISBN 0879307447. OCLC 52312236. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
- ^ Betty Davis - Anti Love - The Best Of Betty Davis
- ^ Matos, Michaelangelo (June 14, 2007). "Why lost funk queen Betty Davis doesn't live up to the hype". Slate Magazine. Retrieved February 10, 2022.
- ^ Condon, Dan (February 10, 2022). "Betty Davis, the controversial queen of raw funk, has died at 76". ABC.au. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
- ^ "Betty: They Say I'm Different". Betty: They Say I'm Different. Retrieved December 23, 2018.
- ^ "Betty Davis – They Say I'm Different Symposium at NYU Tandon May 25, 2018". Archived from the original on December 22, 2021 – via YouTube.
- ^ "Betty Davis releases first new song since 1979". Thewire.co.uk. July 24, 2019. Retrieved February 18, 2020.
- ^ a b "One Of Sexiest Men Alive". Jet. 35 (2): 48. October 17, 1968.
- ^ Kenny, Jack. "MILES DAVIS - Filles De Kilimanjaro: A Re-evaluation". Jazz Views. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
- ^ Davis, Miles; Troupe, Quincy (1990). Miles: The Autobiography. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-671-72582-2.
- ^ Miles Davis, Quincy Troupe (2012). Miles : The Autobiography. Macmillan. ISBN 9781447218371.
- ^ "Miles Davis Signs $300,000 Record Pact; Sheds Wife". Jet. 37 (24): 53. March 12, 1970.
- ^ "Madonna before Madonna: The woman who introduced Miles to Hendrix finally speaks". Thedailymaverick.co.za. Archived from the original on September 8, 2010. Retrieved June 10, 2012.
- ^ a b Hundley, Jessica (June 15, 2014). "The singer, whose sexually potent 70s funk blueprint virtually created its own genre, talks about her personal soul revolution". Dazed.
- ^ Limbong, Andrew (February 9, 2022). "Betty Davis, funk pioneer and fashion icon, dies at 77". NPR. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
- ^ "Mike Judge Presents: Tales From The Tour Bus Season 2 Episode 8 Betty Davis". Archived from the original on September 22, 2020.
- ^ "Orange is the New Black Soundtrack, a playlist by 22sbbj4p6nqxnurgbrpg555oy on Spotify". Spotify.
- ^ "Girlboss: The Soundtrack (Season One) on TIDAL". Archived from the original on May 21, 2021.
- ^ "Mixed'ish (ABC) TV Soundtrack, a playlist by GrooveScene on Spotify". Spotify.
- ^ Prahl, Amanda (February 23, 2020). ""They Say I'm Different" by Betty Davis". POPSUGAR Entertainment.
- ^ "Pistol soundtrack". Spotify.
- ^ Kent, David (1993). Australian Chart Book 1970–1992 (illustrated ed.). St Ives, N.S.W.: Australian Chart Book. p. 83. ISBN 0-646-11917-6.
- ^ "Crashin' from Passion - Betty Davis". AllMusic. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
- ^ "Hangin' Out in Hollywood - Betty Davis". AllMusic. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
- ^ "Anti Love: The Best of Betty Davis". AllMusic. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
- ^ "This Is It! - Betty Davis". AllMusic. Retrieved February 11, 2022.
- Liner notes to Light in the Attic Records' 2007 re-issue of Betty Davis' self-titled 1973 debut album.
- Betty Davis at AllMusic
- Betty Davis at AllAboutJazz
- Betty Davis discography at Discogs
- Betty Davis at IMDb
- Betty Davis on Weave
- Betty: They Say I'm Different – feature documentary, made in collaboration with Betty Davis herself
- The Sound of Young America – interview on Maximum Fun June 21, 2007 (her first radio interview in 30 years)
- The Beautiful Dichotomy of Betty Davis: A Rare Conversation with the Elusive Mistress of Funk – interview on NoDepression, February 2010, by J. Hayes
- Neil Spencer, "Miles Davis: The muse who changed him, and the heady Brew that rewrote jazz", The Guardian, September 5, 2010 (including 2010 interview).
- Emily Lordi, "The Artful, Erotic and Still Misunderstood Funk of Betty Davis", New Yorker, May 2, 2018
- 1944 births
- 2022 deaths
- 20th-century African-American women singers
- African-American rock musicians
- African-American women singer-songwriters
- American expatriates in the United Kingdom
- American funk singers
- American rhythm and blues singer-songwriters
- American rock singers
- American rock songwriters
- American soul singers
- Deaths from cancer in Pennsylvania
- Fashion Institute of Technology alumni
- Female models from North Carolina
- Female models from Pittsburgh
- Island Records artists
- Miles Davis
- Musicians from Durham, North Carolina
- Musicians from Pittsburgh
- People from Homestead, Pennsylvania
- Singer-songwriters from North Carolina
- Singer-songwriters from Pennsylvania
- Light In The Attic Records artists