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Temporal range: Eocene - Recent
Turbinidae - Bolma rugosa.JPG
A Fossil shell of Bolma rugosa from Pliocene of Italy
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Clade: Vetigastropoda
Superfamily: Trochoidea
Family: Turbinidae
Genus: Bolma
Risso, 1826[1]
Type species
Bolma rugosa Linnaeus, C., 1767
  • Astralium (Bolma) Risso, 1826
  • Bolma (Ormastralium) Sacco, 1896 - alternate representation
  • Galeoastraea Habe, 1958 (not available)
  • Hirasazaea Habe, 1958 (not available)
  • Incilaster Finlay, 1926
  • Oobolma Sacco, 1896
  • Ormastralium Sacco, 1896
  • Pseudastralium Schepman, 1908
  • Senobolma Okutani, 1964
  • Tubicanthus Swains, 1840
  • Tylastralium Sacco, 1896

Bolma is a genus of medium to large sea snails with a calcareous operculum, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Turbinidae, the turban snails.[2]

Fossil records[edit]

The genus is known from the Eocene to the Recent periods (age range: from 33.9 to 0.0 million years ago). Fossils shells have been found in France, Greece, Japan, Morocco, Spain, Vanuatu, Guam, Cyprus, Greece, South Africa, Spain, Austria, Italy, Slovakia, New Zealand, Australia and Tonga. There are about 5 extinct species. [3]


The central teeth of the radula have no cusps. They have a narrow long basal plate, which is produced above the body of the tooth. The latter is wide, oval, and not reflected above. Its lower margin is not well-defined in my specimens which are, however, not stained. The laterals are of the usual form and bear cusps.

The imperforate shell has a turbinate shape. The spire is conic with whorls rounded at the periphery. The upper whorls are spiny. The base of the shell is convex. The operculum is nearly round with an excentric nucleus. The outside of the shell is polished, concave in the middle, with a convexity or rib upon the center of the spiral.[4]


This marine genus has a wide distribution. It occurs in the Red Sea, the Eastern Indian Ocean, the West Pacific, the South China Sea, the East China Sea, and off South Africa, Indo-China, the Philippines, Japan, Indonesia, New Caledonia, New Zealand and Australia (New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland).


According to the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS), the following species are included within the genus Bolma :[5]

Species brought into synonymy 
  • Bolma christianeae Nolf, 2005 : synonym of Bolma jacquelineae (Marche-Marchad, 1957)
  • Bolma clemenceae Bozzetti, 2010: synonym of Bolma recens (Dell, 1967)
  • Bolma erectospina Kosuge, 1983: synonym of Bolma persica (Dall, 1907)
  • Bolma formosana (Shikama, 1977): synonym of Bolma millegranosa (Kuroda & Habe in Habe, 1958)
  • Bolma macandrewii (Mørch, 1868): synonym of Anadema macandrewii (Mörch, 1868)
  • Bolma sunderlandi Petuch, 1987: synonym of Cantrainea sunderlandi (Petuch, 1987)

The following species are also included in the Indo-Pacific Molluscan Database [7]

  • 'Bolma (Galeoastraea) asteriola (DALL, 1925)
Bolma persica


  1. ^ Risso A. (1826). H.N. Europe 4: 117.
  2. ^ Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S. (2014). Bolma Risso, 1826. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at on 2014-08-12
  3. ^ Fossilworks
  4. ^ G.W. Tryon (1888), Manual of Conchology X; Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia
  5. ^ WoRMS : Bolma; accessed : 1 February 2011
  6. ^ Powell A. W. B., New Zealand Mollusca, William Collins Publishers Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand 1979 ISBN 0-00-216906-1
  7. ^ OBIS : Bolma
  • Risso, 1826, Histoire naturelle des principales productions de l'Europe méridionale, 4: 117
  • Sacco, 1896, I Molluschi dei terreni terziarii del Piemonte e della Liguria, Parte 21: 19
  • Schepman, 1908, Siboga Expeditie, 49a: 27
  • Finlay, 1926, Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute, 57: 367, 373
  • Beu A. G. & Ponder W. F. (1979). A revision of the species of Bolma Risso, 1826 (Gastropoda: Turbinidae). Records of the Australian Museum 32 (1): 1-68[permanent dead link]
  • Williams, S.T. (2007). Origins and diversification of Indo-West Pacific marine fauna: evolutionary history and biogeography of turban shells (Gastropoda, Turbinidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2007, 92, 573–592
  • Alf A. & Kreipl K. (2011) The family Turbinidae. Subfamilies Turbininae Rafinesque, 1815 and Prisogasterinae Hickman & McLean, 1990. In: G.T. Poppe & K. Groh (eds), A Conchological Iconography. Hackenheim: Conchbooks. pp. 1–82, pls 104-245.

External links[edit]