Borel equivalence relation

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In mathematics, a Borel equivalence relation on a Polish space X is an equivalence relation on X that is a Borel subset of X × X (in the product topology).

Formal definition[edit]

Given Borel equivalence relations E and F on Polish spaces X and Y respectively, one says that E is Borel reducible to F, in symbols E ≤B F, if and only if there is a Borel function

Θ : XY

such that for all x,x' ∈ X, one has

x E x' ⇔ Θ(x) FΘ(x').

Conceptually, if E is Borel reducible to F, then E is "not more complicated" than F, and the quotient space X/E has a lesser or equal "Borel cardinality" than Y/F, where "Borel cardinality" is like cardinality except for a definability restriction on the witnessing mapping.

Kuratowski's theorem[edit]

A measure space X is called a standard Borel space if it is Borel-isomorphic to a Borel subset of a Polish space. Kuratowski's theorem then states that two standard Borel spaces X and Y are Borel-isomorphic iff |X| = |Y|.


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