Boula in the Caribbean
The Guadeloupean boula is a hand drum, similar to the tambou bèlè, and is used in gwo ka and special occasions likes wakes, wrestling matches and Carnival celebrations. It is a hand drum that plays low-pitched sounds and is played single-handed and transversally.
In the Greater Antilles of Haiti, the boula is in the same family as the Manman, Segon, and is the smallest of the three (7-8 inches in diameter and 18 – 24 inches tall) and is responsible for playing an ostinato pattern which really propels the rhythm forward. This drum is played with two sticks, and the base rests flat on the floor. The tone created is high, but somewhat muted. While this drum's parts seem simple, it requires true skill and stamina to play them accurately, especially at fast tempos. This drum serves the same function as the Boula in the Rada batterie and is played in the same way. Drummers claim that this addition “heats-up” the music.
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- McDaniel, Lorna (1999). "Trinidad and Tobago". Garland Encyclopedia of World Music, Volume Two: South America, Mexico, Central America, and the Caribbean. Routledge. pp. 952–967. ISBN 0-8153-1865-0.