Guadeloupe

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Coordinates: 16°15′N 61°35′W / 16.250°N 61.583°W / 16.250; -61.583

Guadeloupe

Département d’Outre-Mer de la Guadeloupe
Flag of Guadeloupe
Flag
Official logo of Guadeloupe
Guadeloupe in France 2016.svg
Country France
PrefectureBasse-Terre
Departments1
Government
 • President of the Regional CouncilAry Chalus
Area
 • Total1,628 km2 (629 sq mi)
Population
(2016)
 • Total394,110
 • Density240/km2 (630/sq mi)
Demonym(s)Guadeloupean
Time zoneUTC-04 (AST)
ISO 3166 codeGP
GDP (2012)[1]Ranked 25th
Total€8.03 billion (US$10.3 bn)
Per capita€19,810 (US$25,479)
NUTS RegionFRA
Websitewww.guadeloupe.pref.gouv.fr
www.cr-guadeloupe.fr
www.cg971.fr

Guadeloupe (/ˌɡwɒdəˈlp/; French pronunciation: ​[ɡwadəlup]; Antillean Creole: Gwadloup) is an insular region of France located in the Leeward Islands, part of the Lesser Antilles in the Caribbean. Administratively, it is an overseas region consisting of a single overseas department. With a land area of 1,628 square kilometres (629 square miles) and an estimated population of 400,132 as of January 2015, it is the largest and most populous European Union territory in North America.[2]

Guadeloupe's main islands are Basse-Terre, Grande-Terre, Marie-Galante, La Désirade, and the Îles des Saintes.

Guadeloupe, like the other overseas departments, is an integral part of France. As a constituent territory of the European Union and the Eurozone, the euro[3] is its official currency and any European Union citizen is free to settle and work there indefinitely. As an overseas department, however, it is not part of the Schengen Area. The prefecture (regional capital) of Guadeloupe is the city of Basse-Terre, which lies on the island of the same name. The official language is French, but Antillean Creole is spoken virtually by the entire population except recent arrivals from metropolitan France. The island is called "Gwadada" by the locals.

Toponomy[edit]

Guadeloupe – Location Map – UNOCHA

The island was called "Karukera" (or "The Island of Beautiful Waters") by the Arawak people, who settled on there in the year 300.

Christopher Columbus named the island Santa María de Guadalupe in 1493 after the Virgin Mary, venerated in the Spanish town of Guadalupe. Upon becoming a French colony, the Spanish name was retained though altered to French orthography and phonology.

History[edit]

The Battle of the Saintes fought near Guadeloupe between France and Britain, 1782.
A bust of French abolitionist Victor Schoelcher.

Archaeological evidence indicates that between 800 and 1000 AD drought led to a period with no habitation.[4] Gradual resettlement occurred after 1000 AD.[4]

Christopher Columbus landed on the island in 1493. During the 17th century, the Caribs repelled Spanish settlers.

The French Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique delegated Charles Liènard de l'Olive and Jean du Plessis d'Ossonville to colonize one or any of the region's islands, Guadeloupe, Martinique, or Dominica. They settled in Guadeloupe in 1635, took possession of the island, and wiped out many of the natives,[5] finally crushing them in 1641.[6]

Tobacco cultivation in the early 1600s was sustained by indentured servants and European laborers. In 1654 80% of the population of Guadeloupe was of European origin.[7] Later in the 1600s African slaves were brought in, and by 1671 13%. of the population was of European origin.[7]

Guadeloupe produced more sugar than all the British islands combined, worth about £6 million a year. The British captured Guadeloupe in 1759. Britain had also seized Canada in the war, and debate took place in both Britain and France as to which was more valuable, Canada or Guadeloupe.[8] Britain decided Canada, although expensive to maintain, was of greater strategic value and returned Guadeloupe to France in the Treaty of Paris (1763).[9][10]

In 1790, following the French Revolution, monarchists refused to obey the new laws of equal rights for the free people of color and declared independence in 1791. In 1793, a slave rebellion broke out, which made the upper classes turn to the British and ask them to occupy the island. Britain seized Guadeloupe in April 1794. In December 1794, republican governor Victor Hugues used military force, helped by the slave population, to force the British to surrender.[11]

Hugues ended slavery, but in 1802, Napoleon I of France restored it, sending a force to recapture the island.

In 1810 the British again seized the island, handing it over to Sweden.[12] In the Treaty of Paris of 1814, Sweden ceded Guadeloupe to France, giving rise to the Guadeloupe Fund. The Treaty of Vienna (1815) definitively acknowledged French control of Guadeloupe.

In 1848, slavery was abolished. Slaves were replaced by indentured servants imported from India to work in the sugar fields.[13]

An earthquake in 1843 caused the La Soufrière volcano to erupt, killing more than 5000 people.[14]

Guadeloupe lost 12,000 of its 150,000 residents in the cholera epidemic of 1865–66.[15]

Modern times[edit]

"Guadeloupean woman", c. 1911.

In 1925, after the trial of Henry Sidambarom French nationality and the vote was granted to Indian citizens.[16]

In 1946, the colony of Guadeloupe became an overseas department of France.

In 2007 the island communes of Saint-Martin and Saint-Barthélemy were officially detached from Guadeloupe and became two separate French overseas collectivities with their own local administration.

In January 2009, a labour unions and others known as the Liyannaj Kont Pwofitasyon went on strike for more pay. The strike lasted 44 days. Tourism suffered greatly during this time and affected the 2010 tourist season as well. The 2009 French Caribbean general strikes exposed deep ethnic, racial, and class tensions and disparities within Guadeloupe.[17]

Geography[edit]

A satellite photo of Guadeloupe.
A beach at Feuillère.

Guadeloupe is an archipelago of more than 12 islands, as well as islets and rocks situated where the northeastern Caribbean Sea meets the western Atlantic Ocean. It is in the Leeward Islands, in the northern part of the Lesser Antilles, an island arc, partly a volcanic arc.

Most of the inhabitants live on a pair of islands, Basse-Terre Island and Grande-Terre, which form a butterfly viewed from above, the two wings of which are separated by a narrow sea channel, the Salée River.

More than half of Guadeloupe's land surface is on Basse-Terre.[18]

The adjacent French islands of La Désirade, Les Saintes, and Marie-Galante are under jurisdiction of Guadeloupe.

Western Basse-Terre has a rough volcanic relief while eastern Grande-Terre features rolling hills and flat plains.[ambiguous] La Grande Soufrière is the highest mountain peak in the Lesser Antilles, with an elevation of 1,467 metres (4,813 feet).

Further to the north, Saint-Barthélemy and the northern French part of Saint Martin were previously under the jurisdiction of Guadeloupe but on 7 December 2003, both of these areas voted to become overseas territorial collectivities separate from Guadeloupe, a decision that took effect on 22 February 2007.[19]

Geology[edit]

The Lesser Antilles are at the outer edge of the Caribbean Plate. Many of the islands were formed as a result of the subduction of oceanic crust of the Atlantic Plate under the Caribbean Plate in the Lesser Antilles subduction zone. This process is ongoing and is responsible for volcanic and earthquake activity in the region.

There is an active volcano in Guadeloupe called "La Soufrière," located in the South of Basse-Terre. La Soufrière is actually a part of a volcanic complex that is composed of the Carmichael volcanoes, the Nez Cassé, the Echelle, the Cistern and the Madeleine. It is one of the nine active volcanoes of the Lesser Antilles. Its last eruption was in 1976. This eruption led to the evacuation of the southern part of Basse-Terre. 73,600 people were displaced over a course of three and a half months following the eruption.

Climate[edit]

The islands are part of the Leeward Islands so called because they are downwind of the prevailing trade winds, which blow out of the northeast. This was significant in the days of sailing ships.

Notable among storms to make landfall on the islands are:[18] Hurricane Cleo in 1966, Hurricane Hugo in 1989, and Hurricane Maria in 2017.[20][21][22]

Guadeloupe has a tropical climate tempered by maritime influences and the Trade Winds. We distinguish two seasons in Guadeloupe and nearby islands:

  • a dry season called "Lent" that goes from January to June;
  • a wet season called "winter", which lasts from July to December.[23]
Climate data for Guadeloupe
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 29.1
(84.4)
29.1
(84.4)
29.4
(84.9)
30.1
(86.2)
30.7
(87.3)
31.3
(88.3)
31.5
(88.7)
31.6
(88.9)
31.5
(88.7)
31.2
(88.2)
30.5
(86.9)
29.6
(85.3)
30.5
(86.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 24.5
(76.1)
24.5
(76.1)
24.9
(76.8)
25.9
(78.6)
26.9
(80.4)
27.5
(81.5)
27.6
(81.7)
27.7
(81.9)
27.4
(81.3)
27.0
(80.6)
26.3
(79.3)
25.2
(77.4)
26.3
(79.3)
Average low °C (°F) 19.9
(67.8)
19.9
(67.8)
20.4
(68.7)
21.7
(71.1)
23.1
(73.6)
23.8
(74.8)
23.8
(74.8)
23.7
(74.7)
23.3
(73.9)
22.9
(73.2)
22.1
(71.8)
20.9
(69.6)
22.1
(71.8)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 84
(3.3)
64
(2.5)
73
(2.9)
123
(4.8)
148
(5.8)
118
(4.6)
150
(5.9)
198
(7.8)
236
(9.3)
228
(9.0)
220
(8.7)
137
(5.4)
1,779
(70.0)
Average precipitation days 15.0 11.5 11.5 11.6 13.6 12.8 15.4 16.2 16.6 18.1 16.6 15.7 174.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 235.6 229.1 232.5 240.0 244.9 237.0 244.9 248.0 216.0 217.0 207.0 223.2 2,775.2
Source: Hong Kong Observatory[24]

Flora and fauna[edit]

With fertile volcanic soils, heavy rainfall, high temperatures and plenty of rainfall, vegetation on Basse-Terre is lush.[18] Most of the islands' forest is on Basse-Terre.

Demographics[edit]

Guadeloupe's population, 1961-2003.

Guadeloupe recorded a population of 402,119 in the 2013 census.[25]

The population of Guadeloupe is mainly of African or mixed descent of Europeans, Indians (Tamil, Telugu, and other South Indians), Lebanese, Syrians, Chinese, and Carib Amerindians (remnants of the original pre-European population). The archipelago of Îles des Saintes is mostly populated by the descendants of colonists from Brittany and Normandy.

The Guadeloupean population is largely Roman Catholic, speaking both French and a Creole (Antillean Creole).[26]

The population of Guadeloupe has been stable recently, with a net increase of only 335 people between the 2008 and 2013 censuses.[27]

In 2012 the average population density in Guadeloupe was 247.7 inhabitants for every square kilometre, which is very high in comparison to the whole France's 116.5 inhabitants for every square kilometre. One third of the land is devoted to agriculture and all mountains are uninhabitable. This lack of space and shelter makes the population density even higher.

Because Guadeloupe is a wealthy country in comparison to the surrounding Caribbean islands, immigration is popular. People immigrate to Guadeloupe because of its stronger political stability and greater agricultural job opportunities. However, just because foreigners immigrate to Guadeloupe for its opportunities does not mean the country is economically stable; rather, it is stable in comparison to the surrounding regions/islands.

Pointe-à-Pitre church
Carbet Falls, a popular tourist site in Guadeloupe, with approximately 400,000 visitors annually.

Religion[edit]

Over 80% of the population are Roman Catholic. Guadeloupe is in the diocese of Basse-Terre (et Pointe-à-Pitre).[28][29]

Major urban areas[edit]

Rank Urban Area Pop. (08) Pop. (99) Δ Pop Activities Island
1 Pointe-à-Pitre 132,884 132,751 Increase +0.10 % economic center Grande-Terre and
Basse-Terre
2 Basse-Terre 37,455 36,126 Increase +3.68 % administrative center Basse-Terre
3 Sainte-Anne 23,457 20,410 Increase +14.9 % tourism Grande-Terre
4 Petit-Bourg 22,171 20,528 Increase +8.00 % agriculture Basse-Terre
5 Le Moule 21,347 20,827 Increase +2.50 % agriculture Grande-Terre

Health[edit]

In 2011, life expectancy at birth was recorded at 77.0 years for males and 83.5 for females.[30]

Medical centers in Guadeloupe include:

A University Hospital Center (CHU) in Pointe-à-Pitre

A Regional Hospital Center (CHR) in Basse-Terre

Four hospitals located in Capesterre-Belle-Eau, Pointe-Noire, Bouillante and Saint-Claude[31][better source needed]

The Institut Pasteur de la Guadeloupe, which is located in Pointe-à-Pitre and is responsible for researching environmental hygiene, vaccinations, and the spread of tuberculosis and mycobacteria[32]

Administration[edit]

Guadeloupe sends four deputies to the French National Assembly and three senators to the French Senate.

Guadeloupe is divided into two arrondissements (Basse-Terre and Pointe-à-Pitre), 21 cantons and 32 communes.

Formerly called the Regional Council of Guadeloupe, following the local elections of March 2015 the administering Assembly now bears the name of the Departmental Council of Guadeloupe.

Economy[edit]

In 2006, the GDP per capita of Guadeloupe at market exchange rates, not at PPP, was €17,338 (US$21,780).[33]

The economy of Guadeloupe depends on tourism, agriculture, light industry and services. It is dependent upon mainland France for large subsidies and imports. Unemployment is especially high among the youth.

Tourism[edit]

Tourism is a key industry, with 83.3% of tourists visiting from metropolitan France, 10.8% coming from the rest of Europe, 3.4% coming from the United States, 1.5% coming from Canada, 0.4% coming from South America, and 0.6% coming from the rest of the world.[34] An increasingly large number of cruise ships visit Guadeloupe, the cruise terminal of which is in Pointe-a-Pitre.[35]

Agriculture[edit]

The traditional sugar cane crop is slowly being replaced by other crops, such as bananas (which now supply about 50% of export earnings), eggplant, guinnep, noni, sapotilla, giraumon squash, yam, gourd, plantain, christophine, cocoa, jackfruit, pomegranate, and many varieties of flowers. Other vegetables and root crops are cultivated for local consumption, although Guadeloupe is dependent upon imported food, mainly from rest of France.[citation needed]

Light industry[edit]

Light industry features sugar and rum, solar energy, and many industrial products. Most manufactured goods and fuel are imported.

Culture[edit]

Language[edit]

As it is a region of France, Guadeloupe's official language is French, which is spoken by nearly all of the population. In addition, most of the population can also speak Guadeloupean Creole (GC),[36] a variety of Antillean Creole. Throughout the island's colonial history, GC was the language of local community, of resistance to European domination, of ethno-racial identity. Consequently, when from the early 1970s to the mid 1980s, Guadeloupe saw the rise and fall of an at-times violent movement for (greater) political independence from France,[37][38] GC was claimed as key to local cultural pride and unity. In the 1990s, in the wake of the independence movement's demise, GC retained its de-stigmatized status as a symbol of local culture, albeit without de jure support from the state and without de facto being practiced with equal competence in all strata and age groups of society.[39][40] The third millennium, however, brought greater acceptance of GC on the part of France, such that it was introduced as an elective in public schools. Today, the question as to whether French and GC are stable in Guadeloupe, i.e. whether both languages are practised widely and competently throughout society, remains a subject of active research.[41]

High culture[edit]

Maryse Condé, author of historical fiction.

Guadeloupe's culture is probably best known for the islanders' literary achievements, particularly the poetry of Saint-John Perse, the pseudonym used by Alexis Léger. Perse won the 1960 Nobel Prize in Literature "for the soaring flight and the evocative images of his poetry, which, in a visionary fashion, reflects the conditions of our time."

Guadeloupe has always had a rich literary output, continued today by many living writers, poets, novelists, essayists and journalists, among them Mesdames Maryse Condé and Simone Schwarz-Bart, Ernest Pépin [fr].

Carnival of Guadeloupe.

French writer Gisèle Pineau, who currently lives in Marie-Galante, has Guadeloupean parentage.

Music[edit]

Music and dance are also very popular, and the widely accepted interaction of African, French and Indian[42] cultures has given birth to some original new forms specific to the archipelago. Since the 1970s, Guadeloupean music increasingly claimed the local language, Guadeloupean Creole as the preferred language of popular music. Islanders enjoy many local dance styles including zouk, zouk-love, kompa, as well as the modern international dances such as hip hop, etc. One of its most famous artists was Henri Debs (1932-2013) a musician and producer of French, origin of Lebanese parents, who made many Caribbean rhythms like Zouk and Belé heard throughout the Antilles, France, North America and Latin America.

Traditional Guadeloupean music includes biguine, kadans, cadence-lypso, zouk, and gwo ka. Popular music artists and bands such as Experience 7, Francky Vincent, Kassav' (which included Patrick St-Eloi), and Gilles Floro embody the traditional music style of the island and the new generation of music, while some other musical artists, like Tom Frager (who grew up in Guadeloupe), perform colorful reggae music that defines the Guadeloupe island as paradise-like. Many international festivals take place in Guadeloupe, like the Creole Blues Festival, hosted in Marie-Galante. All the Euro-French forms of art are also ubiquitous. The melting pot is emphasized by other communities (from Brazil, Dominican Republic, Haiti, India, Lebanon, Syria), who live on the island and share their cultures.

Another element of Guadeloupean culture is its dress. A few women (particularly of the older generation) wear a unique style of traditional dress, with many layers of colourful fabric, now only worn on special occasions. On festive occasions they also wore a madras (originally a "kerchief" from South India) head scarf tied in many different symbolic ways, each with a different name. The headdress could be tied in the "bat" style, or the "firefighter" style, as well as the "Guadeloupean woman". Jewelry, mainly gold, is also important in the Guadeloupean lady's dress, a product of European, African and Indian inspiration.

Crime[edit]

Guadeloupe is one of the safest islands in the Caribbean,[43] though the most violent overseas French department in 2016.[44] The murder rate is slightly more than that of Paris, at 8.2 per 100,000. The high level of unemployment caused violence and crime to rise especially in 2009 and 2010, the years following a great worldwide recession.[45] Most of this violence is caused by the drug trade or domestic disputes, and the residents of Guadeloupe describe the island as a place with not a lot of everyday crime.[43]

Sport[edit]

Christine Arron, the world's fifth-fastest female 100-metre (330-foot) sprinter (10.73 sec), of all time.
France's all-time top scorer, half Guadeloupean Thierry Henry.

Football (soccer) is popular in Guadeloupe, and several notable footballers are of Guadeloupean origin, including Stéphane Auvray, Ronald Zubar and his younger brother Stéphane, Miguel Comminges, Dimitri Foulquier, and Bernard Lambourde.

The national football team were 2007 CONCACAF Gold Cup semi-finalalists, defeated by Mexico.

Basketball is also popular. Best known players are the NBA players Mickaël Piétrus, Johan Petro, Rodrigue Beaubois, and Mickael Gelabale (now playing in Russia), who were born on the island. Trainer and former player Paul Chonchon, after whom a basketball stadion in Pointe-à-Pitre is named.[46]

Many fine track and field athletes, such as Marie-José Pérec, Patricia Girard-Léno, Christine Arron, and Wilhem Belocian, are also Guadeloupe natives. Triple Olympic champion Marie-José Pérec, and fourth-fastest 100-metre (330-foot) runner Christine Arron.

The island has produced many world-class fencers. Yannick Borel, Daniel Jérent, Mathias Biabiany, Ysaora Thibus, Anita Blaze, Enzo Lefort and Laura Flessel were all born and raised in Guadeloupe. According to olympic gold medalist and world champion Yannick Borel, there is a good fencing school and a culture of fencing in Guadeloupe.[47]

Even though Guadeloupe is part of France, it has its own sports teams. Rugby union is a small but rapidly growing sport in Guadeloupe. France international and RC Toulon centre Mathieu Bastareaud (cousin of footballer William Gallas) was born in Guadeloupe.

The island is also internationally known for hosting the Karujet Race – Jet Ski World Championship since 1998. This nine-stage, four-day event attracts competitors from around the world (mostly Caribbeans, Americans, and Europeans). The Karujet, generally made up of seven races around the island, has an established reputation as one of the most difficult championships in which to compete.

The Route du Rhum is one of the most prominent nautical French sporting events, occurring every four years.

Bodybuilder Serge Nubret was born in Anse-Bertrand, Grande-Terre, representing the French state in various bodybuilding competitions throughout the 1960s and 1970s including the IFBB's Mr. Olympia contest, taking 3rd place every year from 1972 to 1974, and 2nd place in 1975.[48] Bodybuilder Marie-Laure Mahabir also hails from Guadeloupe.

The country has also a passion for cycling. It hosted the French Cycling Championships in 2009 and continues to host the Tour de Guadeloupe every year.

Guadeloupe also continues to host the Orange Open de Guadeloupe tennis tournament (since 2011).

The Tour of Guadeloupe sailing, which was founded in 1981.

Transport[edit]

On 9 September 2013 the county government voted in favour of constructing a tramway in Pointe-à-Pitre. The first phase will link northern Abymes to downtown Pointe-à-Pitre by 2019. The second phase, scheduled for completion in 2023, will extend the line to serve the university.[49]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ INSEE. "Produits intérieurs bruts régionaux et valeurs ajoutées régionales de 1990 à 2012". Retrieved 2014-03-04.
  2. ^ INSEE. "Estimation de population par région, sexe et grande classe d'âge - Années 1975 à 2015" (in French). Retrieved 11 November 2016.
  3. ^ Guadeloupe is pictured on all Euro banknotes – on the reverse, at the bottom, to the right of the Greek ΕΥΡΩ (EURO), next to the denomination.
  4. ^ a b Beets, C.J; et al. (2006). "Climate and Pre-Columbian Settlement at Anse à la Gourde, Guadeloupe, Northeastern Caribbean". Geoarchaeology. 21 (3): 271–280. doi:10.1002/gea.20096.
  5. ^ Régent, Frédéric (2007). La France et ses esclaves: De la colonisation aux abolitions (1620-1848). Paris: Bernard Grasset. pp. 17–18. ISBN 978-2-246-70211-5.
  6. ^ Régent, Frédéric (2007). La France et ses esclaves. Paris: Bernard Grasset. p. 19.
  7. ^ a b Régent, Frédéric (2007). La France et ses esclaves: De la colonisation aux abolitions (1620-1848). Paris: Bernard Grasset. p. 25.
  8. ^ Helen Dewar, "Canada or Guadeloupe?: French and British Perceptions of Empire, 1760–1763," Canadian Historical Review (2010) 91#4 pp. 637-660 | 10.1353/can.2010.0046
  9. ^ Colin G. Calloway (2006). The Scratch of a Pen: 1763 and the Transformation of North America. Oxford U.P. p. 8.
  10. ^ Colin G. Calloway (2006). The Scratch of a Pen: 1763 and the Transformation of North America. Oxford U.P. p. 8. ISBN 9780198041191.
  11. ^ pg 241David Barry Gaspar (Editor), Darlene Clark Hine (Editor) (1996). More Than Chattel: Black Women and Slavery in the Americas (April 1996 ed.). Indiana University Press. p. 360. ISBN 978-0-253-21043-2.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  12. ^ World Statesmen.org: Guadeloupe
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  22. ^ CNN, Euan McKirdy and Holly Yan,. "Hurricane Maria cripples Dominica as it churns toward Puerto Rico". CNN. Retrieved 2017-09-19.
  23. ^ "Wet and Dry Seasons". 20 September 2013.
  24. ^ "Climatological Information for Guadeloupe".
  25. ^ INSEE. "Recensement de la population en Guadeloupe - 402 119 habitants au 1er janvier 2013" (in French). Retrieved 21 May 2016.
  26. ^ "Cruise Port Spotlight: Basse-Terre, Pointe-a-Pitre and Iles Des Saintes, Guadeloupe". Orlando Sentinel. November 22, 2010
  27. ^ INSEE. "Recensement de la population en Guadeloupe - 402 119 habitants au 1er janvier 2013" (in French). Retrieved 9 December 2016.
  28. ^ "Diocese of Basse-Terre (et Pointe-à-Pitre)". Catholic Hierarchy. Retrieved 2016-08-14.
  29. ^ "Neuvaine à l'Immaculée Conception (30 novembre au 8 décembre) 2016". Diocese Guadeloupe. Retrieved 9 December 2016.
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  33. ^ INSEE-CEROM. "Tableau de bord économique de la Guyane" (PDF) (in French). Retrieved 20 January 2008.
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  39. ^ Meyjes, Gregory Paul P, On the status of Creole in Guadeloupe: a study of present-day language attitudes. Unpub. PhD. Dissertation. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 1995.
  40. ^ Durizot-Jno-Baptiste, Paulette. La question du créole à l'école en Guadeloupe : quelle dynamique? Paris, France : L'Harmattan, 1996.
  41. ^ Manahan, Kathe. Diglossia Reconsidered: Language Choice and Code-Switching in Guadeloupean Voluntary Organizations, Kathe Manahan Texas Linguistic Forum. 47: 251-261, Austin, TX. 2004
  42. ^ Sahai, Sharad (1998). Guadeloupe Lights Up: French-lettered Indians in a remote corner of the Caribbean reclaim their Hindu identity Archived 1 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine. Hinduism Today, Digital Edition, February 1998.
  43. ^ a b Graff, Vincent. (2013), Death in Paradise: Ben Miller on investigating the deadliest place on the planet, Radio Times, 8 January 2013
  44. ^ Guadeloupe : la spirale de la violence, francetvinfo.fr, 29 September 2016
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