List of musical instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs number: 321.21
This is a list of instruments by Hornbostel-Sachs number, covering those instruments that are classified under 321.21 under that system. These instruments may be known as bowl lyres.
- 3: Instruments in which sound is produced by one or more vibrating strings (chordophones, string instruments).
- 321.21: Instruments in which the resonator is bowl-shaped, either carved or natural
These instruments may be classified with a suffix, based on how the strings are caused to vibrate.
- 4: Hammers or beaters
- 5: Bare hands and fingers
- 6: Plectrum
- 7: Bowing
- 71: Using a bow
- 72: Using a wheel
- 73: Using a ribbon
- 8: Keyboard
- 9: Using a mechanical drive
||Baganda peoples of Uganda||321.21||Bowl lyre made of lizardskin with strings tied to a piece of wood inserted into two holes on two arms|
||Crete||321.21-71||Three-stringed fretted, pear-shaped instrument with a hollow body and a vaulted back, propped up on the knee|
||Greece, Ancient||321.21-5||Stringed instrument, strummed with a plectrum, with the free hand silencing unwanted strings, traditionally made from a tortoise shell|
||Kenya||321.21-5||3-foot-long (0.91 m) harp, plucked with both hands, made of wood and goat or antelope skin|
- von Hornbostel, Erich M.; Curt Sachs (March 1961). "Classification of Musical Instruments: Translated from the Original German by Anthony Baines and Klaus P. Wachsmann". The Galpin Society Journal. Galpin Society. 14: 3–29. JSTOR 842168. doi:10.2307/842168.
- Wachsmann, Klaus (1964). "The Migration of Musical Instruments: Human Migration and African Harps". Journal of the International Folk Music Council. 16: 84–88. JSTOR 835087. doi:10.2307/835087.
- Dawes, Kevin (October 2003). "Lyres and the body politic: studying musical instruments in the Cretan musical landscape". Popular Music and Society. 26.3 (21): 263.
The island's "national" instrument, the lyra has become emblematic of the struggle that many Cretans experience in their attempt to retain a sense of a local identity.
- "Review of Midiaeval Music: An Historical Sketch by Robert Charles Hope" (pdf). Saturday Review of Books and Art. New York Times. December 16, 1899. Retrieved December 21, 2007.
- Roberts, Helen (February 1981). "Reconstructing the Greek Tortoise-Shell Lyre". Archaeology and Musical Instruments. 12 (3): 303–312. JSTOR 124242. doi:10.1080/00438243.1981.9979805.
- Nidel, Richard (2005). World Music: The Basics. Routledge. p. 58. ISBN 0-415-96800-3.
Much of Kenya's music is derivative of other Afropop forms, most obviously Congolese, but the singing, high-pitched guitar work, use of the national instrument, the nyatiti (a seven-stringed harp), and bottle percussion give it a unique, identifiable sound.
- Verjee, Zain (August 30, 1999). "Journey through a rhythm nation". Kenya. BBC News. Retrieved February 19, 2008.
- Radano, Ronald Michael; Philip Vilas Bohlman (2000). Music and the Racial Imagination. Houston A Baker, Jr. and Houston A. Baker. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-70199-9.