Musical bow

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Obu man playing a musical bow in Obubra, Cross River State, Nigeria

The musical bow (bowstring or string bow, a subset of bar zithers) is a simple string instrument used by a number of South African peoples, which is also found in the Americas via slave trade.[1] It consists of a flexible, usually wooden, stick 1.5 to 10 feet (0.5 to 3 m) long, and strung end to end with a taut cord, usually metal. It can be played with the hands or a wooden stick or branch. It is uncertain if the musical bow developed from the hunting bow, though the San or Bushmen people of the Kalahari Desert do convert their hunting bows to musical use.[2]

Types of bow include mouth-resonated string bow, earth-resonated string bow, and gourd-resonated string bow.[3][2]


Indian Musical bow in art
India, ca. 1725, Bundi style. A divine musician plays a hunting bow with its tip placed in a resonance pot. Possible pinaka vina or ravanahatha.[4]
engraving of cave wall art
Lithograph of scene from the Trois Frères cave, showing a figure on the wall whose bow(?) has been thought to possibly be musical.

There is speculation that the hunting bow may have been used as a musical instrument from as early as circa 13,000 B.C.[5] Henri Breuil surveyed the Trois Frères in France caves and made an engraving that attempted to reproduce a c. 13,000 B.C. cave painting into a black-and-white lithograph engraving.[6] His engraving showed a mysterious figure, a "man camouflaged to resemble a bison," in the midst of a mass of herd-animals, "herding the beasts and playing the musical bow."[6][7][8] The artwork is confused, and those who are trying to reproduce the art in color have had to work to bring out legible images.[7][8] One interpretation of the "magician-hunter" image considers his hunting-bow to be a musical bow, used as a single-stringed musical instrument.[8][9]

Whether the bow in the cave illustration is a musical instrument or the hunting tool in a paleolithic hunt, musicologists have considered whether the bow could be a possible relative or ancestor to the chordophone: the lute, lyre, harp, and zither family. Curt Sachs said that there was good reason not to consider hunters' bows as likely musical bows.[10] One reason was that the oldest known musical bows were 10 feet long, useless for hunting, and that "musical bows were not associated with hunters' beliefs and ceremonies."[10] Sachs considered the musical bows important, however. He pointed out that the name for the Greek lute, pandura was likely derived from pan-tur, a Sumerian word meaning "small bow."[11] He considered this evidence in support of the theory that the musical bow was ancestral to the pierced lute.[11]

The bows used for music required a resonator, a hollowed object like a bowl, a gourd, or a musician's mouth, in order to produce audible sound.[10] Although the musical bow could be manipulated to produce more than one tone, instruments were developed from it that used one note per string.[10][12] Since each string played a single note, adding strings added new notes for instrument families such as bow harps, harps, and lyres.[12] In turn, this led to being able to play dyads and chords.[12] Another innovation occurred when the bow harp was straightened out and a bridge used to lift the strings off the stick-neck, creating the lute.[13]

Ravanahatha is also one of the oldest string instrument played with a bow written in 5000 years old Indian Epic Ramayana.

Musical bows are still used in a number of cultures today. It can be found as far south as Eswatini, and as far east as eastern Africa, Madagascar, and Réunion. and also outside of Africa, as in the case of berimbau, malunga (derivations of the African musical bow) or the Appalachian mouth-bow.

Playing ways[edit]

Madosini playing the umrubhe mouth bow.

The usual way to make the bow sound is to pluck the string, although sometimes a subsidiary bow is used to scrape the string, much as on a violin. The Onavillu of Kerala sounds when struck with a thin stick. Unlike string instruments used in classical music, however, they do not have a built-in resonator, although resonators may be made to work with the bow in a number of ways.

The most usual type of resonator consists of a gourd attached to the back of the string bearer. The bow may also be stood in a pit or gourd on the ground, or one end of it may be partially placed in the mouth. This last method allows the size of the resonator to be varied as the instrument is played, thus allowing a melody to be heard consisting of the notes resonating in the player's mouth. As well as these various forms of resonators, the bow is frequently played without a resonator at all.

In Africa, the musical bow is usually played by a solo performer. In capoeira, the berimbau is played as part of the roda, a musical group standing in a circle, in the centre of which the capoeiristas perform or play. The Appalachian mouth-bow can be played amplified in old-time music jams.

Ground bow[edit]

The ground-bow or an earth-bow is a single-string bow-shaped folk musical instrument, classified as a chordophone. It is known in cultures of equatorial[14] and south[15] Africa, and in other cultures with African roots. It consists of a flexible stick planted into the ground (possibly a stripped sapling or a branch[16]), with a string from its free end to a resonator of some kind based on a pit in the ground.[17] It looks like a game trap or a child toy, therefore its distribution over Africa used to be overlooked. Hornbostel (1933) classified is in the category of harps, although it has combined characteristics of a harp and a musical bow.[16]

The resonator may be a pit covered by a board, with a string attached to it.[17] Kruges describes several other constructions by Venda, e.g., the other end of a string is tied to a stone dropped into the pit, with the string passing through the board covering the pit, etc.[16]

Other names include "ground harp" (Sachs, 1940, History of Musical Instruments) and ground-bass. It is called kalinga or galinga by Venda people. In their language "galinga" means simply a hole in the ground, while the origins of "kalinga" are uncertain.[16] It is known as gayumba in Haiti,[18] Dominican Republic,[19] and tumbandera in Haitian traditions of Cuba.[18][20] Baka people call it angbindi.[21]

It is also known in Cuba under the onomatopoeic name tingo-talango (tingotalango).[22][23] Julio Cueva's song Tingo Talango dedicated to this musical instrument describes its construction thus:

Tingo Talango is also a song by Ñico Lora.

The instrument is reportedly nearly-extinct in the native cultures.[16][18]

Playing techniques[edit]

Kalinga may be struck by a stick or plucked in various ways. The bow stick may be bent to change the tension of the string, and hence the tone. It can be played in a glissando manner: the stick is bent, struck, and released, producing a peculiar sound. The produced pitches are not always stable.[16]

Kalinga is usually played to provide repetitive accompaniment to the choral song.[16]

In Africa[edit]

See: Uhadi musical bow See:Umuduri

musical bow
The Uhadi or 'thomo' musical bow used by the Basotho people.
Umuduri musical bow
The Umuduri musical bow used in Burundi and Rhwanda is similar to the Uhadi bow of South Africa.
Two bows in which the resonator is a gourd, attached to the instrument's center and pressed into the musician's chest or stomach. Both are sounded with a stick.

Due to the nature of their construction and playing, musical bows are quiet instruments, therefore needing a resonator to resound. The resonator can either be a gourd (as in uhadi, umakhweyana, segankure, xitende, berimbau, etc.) or the player's mouth (as in umrhubhe, umqangala, tshihwana, xizambi, etc.)

Musical bows are the main instruments of the Nguni and Sotho people, the predominant peoples of South Africa. Historians believe that many of the musical bows came from Khoisan peoples. Although there are many differences between musical bows, all of them share two things: a resonator, and at least two fundamental notes.

The strongest notes are the fundamentals, the deepest notes produced by the string, whereas the higher notes (the harmonic partials) are produced by the resonator.

There are at least two fundamental notes produced by all musical bows, an open (when the player does not shorten it or touch it) and a closed (where the string is shortened or stopped by the player's hand). In Xhosa they are called vu (from the word Vuliwe, 'open') and ba (from Banjiwe, 'held') respectively. These two notes can already be on the string, if it is divided or stopped by a string attached to the gourd, as in the case of umakhweyana, xitende, berimbau, hungu, etc. The pitch difference between a vu and a ba is usually about a whole tone. In certain places, it can be closer to a semitone (e.g. Zulu) or closer to a minor third (Tsonga).

Some of those instruments have more than two notes, for example the Zulu umakhweyana and the Tsonga xitende have three, whereas the Venda tshihwana has four.[24]

Other names[edit]

Samo musicians from the Upper Volta, Burkina Faso playing a musical bow, using their mouths as resonators. 1970-1971.

Musical bows are known by various names in the different languages of South Africa - some refer only to musical bows using gourds as resonators, others using the mouth:[24][25]

In other places[edit]

Richard Nunns playing a Māori musical bow

The most popular musical bow today is the Brazilian adaptation of the musical bow, the berimbau, most commonly associated with the jogo de capoeira.

Kse diev, a gourd resonated "musical bow cum stick" whose string is made out of copper, is used in Cambodia and is considered one of the oldest Cambodian instruments, with bas-reliefs going back to the 12th century AD. Has been thought of as musical bow; under Hornbostel-Sachs classification, it is a "Musical bow cum stick" because it has only one curved end to flex.[27] Under Hornbostel-Sachs, musical bows are defined as flexible and curved string bearers or as stick zithers with both ends flexible and curved.[27]

Malunga, a musical bow made of bamboo, gut strings, and a coconut gourd is used by the Siddi people of India, of African origin.

Belembaotuyan is found in Guam, probably introduced through trade between South America and Asia in the nineteenth century.

Bobre, musical bow of Mauritius and Réunion.

Kunkulkawe is the name of a musical bow found among the Mapuche people in Chile and Argentina.

Piompirintzi is the name of a musical bow found among the Ashaninka people in Peru.

Latajkiaswolé is the name of a musical bow found among the Wichi, Pilaga, and other tribes of the Gran Chaco region of South America.

In the United States a musical bow is primarily found in the Appalachian Mountains, where it is called a "mouthbow" or "mouth bow".

In northwestern Mexico, the Tepehuán Indians of Durango use the musical bow during their mitote. The Tepehuán's musical bow has a gourd attached to it.

The kalumbu is played by the Tonga and Ila people of Zambia and Zimbabwe.

The ku is a Maori instrument from New Zealand, made of matai wood and a fibre string, and is tapped with a rod.[28]

The ukeke is a three-stringed musical bow from Hawaii, played using the mouth as a resonating chamber.

The Yelatáj chos woley is a musical bow (played with another bow), from the Wichí culture of the Argentinian Gran Chaco.

In the Caribbean, on the island of Curaçao, the benta is a one-stringed musical bow, played using the mouth as a resonating chamber. Most probably brought to the island by Africans from Ghana, Angola, Nigeria during the slave trade, it is played as a leading instrument in “muzik di zumbi”, ghost music (zumbi means ghost).[29] The name refers to the spooky atmosphere on the plantations since there was no electricity, and the hauling wind carries the sound of the music in all directions. It is mostly accompanied by drum, hoe and “wiri” (scraper of a serrated piece of iron). The Curaçaoan benta resembles the Brazilian berimbao, the Indian malunga, the Hawaiïan ukeke, and string bows of several African countries.

A variant called the "whizzing bow", which is swung with the arm in a circle is played in Central America, China, Indonesia, and west Africa.[30]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Musical Bow".
  2. ^ a b Donald Keith Robotham. "African music Musical bows".
  3. ^ Nzewi, Meki and Nzewi, Odyke (2007). A Contemporary Study of Musical Arts: Informed by African Indigenous Knowledge Systems, Volume 1: The Root: Foundation, p. 108. African Minds. ISBN 9781920051624
  4. ^ Joep Bor (1986–1987). "The Voice of the Sarangi, An Illustrated History of Bowing in India". National Center for Performing Arts Quarterly Journal. 15 & 16: 38–47. [Three issues of this quarterly journal were combined into one; Volume 15 (issues 3 and 4) and Volume 16 (issue 1).]
  5. ^ Bo Lawergren (1988). "The Origin of Musical Instruments and Sounds". Anthropos (83 ed.). Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft mbH. 83 (1/3): 36. JSTOR 40461485.
  6. ^ a b "Trois Freres Cave". Retrieved March 27, 2015. Henri Breuil surveyed the cave... a detailed study was published by H.Breuil and R.Begouen of the hundreds of engraved drawings in the deep gallery known as the "Sanctuary"...Its walls are filled with some 280 engraved (often superimposed) images of bison, horses, stags, reindeer, ibexes, and mammoths...
  7. ^ a b Garcia, Alfredo (5 October 2014). "EL ARTE RUPESTRE PALEOLÍTICO EN LAS CUEVAS FRANCESAS. LA CUEVA DE LASCAUX". Archived from the original on 2 September 2018. [Concerning a pair of images below the text; the top image is a line drawing showing a herd of animals drawn over one another with the hunter and bow in the pack; the other image is a photo of the cave wall with that image, enhanced to show the hunter and animals directly in front of him distinctly:] En Les Trois Frères destacaría su estilo tan naturalista... Es famosa la escena que del hombre camuflado como un bisonte, ¿Un chamán o un cazador?, que persigue o conduce a otros animales y que he destacado del conjunto superpuesto de abajo. [In Les Trois Frères I would highlight his naturalistic style...The scene is famous, that of the man camouflaged to resemble a bison, (a shaman or a hunter?), that pursues or leads other animals, and that I have stood out from the set superimposed below...]
  8. ^ a b c Walter, Eugene Victor (1988). Placeways: A Theory of the Human Environment. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: UNC Press Books. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-8078-1758-2. a semi-human figure dances in the midst of the animals...herding the beasts and playing a musical bow. He wears the head and fur of a bison with human legs...
  9. ^ Campen, Ank van. "The music-bow from prehistory till today". Retrieved March 26, 2015. A cave-painting in the "Trois Frères" cave in France dating from about 15,000 years ago. The magician-hunter plays the musical bow.
  10. ^ a b c d Sachs, Curt (1940). The History of Musical Instruments. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. p. 56–57. ISBN 9780393020687.
  11. ^ a b Sachs, Curt (1940). The History of Musical Instruments. New York: W. W. Norton & Company. p. 136–137. ISBN 9780393020687.
  12. ^ a b c Dumbrill 1998, pp. 179, 231, 235–236, 308–310
  13. ^ Dumbrill 1998, pp. 308–310
  14. ^ "Ground Bow", Encyclopædia Britannica
  15. ^ Kubik, Gerhard (23 September 2009). Africa and the Blues. ISBN 9781604737288.
  16. ^ a b c d e f g Kruger, Jaco (Autumn 1989). "Rediscovering the Venda Ground-Bow". Ethnomusicology. 33 (3): 391–404. doi:10.2307/851766. JSTOR 851766.
  17. ^ a b "Arco de tierra", referring to François-René Tranchefort, Los instrumentos musicales en el mundo, ISBN 8420685208, 1985, and later editions
  18. ^ a b c Music in Latin America and the Caribbean: An Encyclopedic History , vol. 2, p. 210
  19. ^ Fradique Lizardo, Instrumentos musicales indígenas dominicanos, 1975, Section "Gayumba", p. 64
  20. ^ "La Tumbandera". Les instruments typiques de la musique cubaine. Archived from the original on 2017-03-02. Retrieved 2020-02-29.
  21. ^ "Instruments of Baka Forest People". Archived from the original on 21 April 2001. Retrieved 17 January 2022.
  22. ^ "CUBANISM: WHAT IS The "Tíngo Talángo" ? *** Cubanismos: Que es el "Tíngo Talángo" ?. | The History, Culture and Legacy of the People of Cuba". Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  23. ^ "TINGO TALANGO". Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  24. ^ a b Lucia, Christine (2005). The World of South African Music: A Reader. Cambridge Scholars Press. p. 239. ISBN 9781904303367.
  25. ^ "Musical Bow". Retrieved 2015-01-22.
  26. ^ Dargie, Dave (September 2001). Oehrle, Elizabeth (ed.). "Magical Musical Bows". The Talking Drum. Digital Innovation South Africa (16).
  27. ^ a b von Hornbostel, Erich M.; Sachs, Curt (March 1961). "Classification of Musical Instruments: Translated from the Original German by Anthony Baines and Klaus P. Wachsmann". The Galpin Society Journal. 14: 20–21. doi:10.2307/842168. JSTOR 842168.
  28. ^ Best, Elston (2005). Games and Pastimes of the Maori. pp. 313–4. Retrieved 2015-01-22.
  29. ^ "Isocco Performance @ Curacao International Song Festival 1987". YouTube. Retrieved 19 April 2021.
  30. ^ Whizzing Bow. Oxford Music Online, published January 20, 2001.

External links[edit]