Brenda Shaffer

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Professor Brenda Shaffer is an American-Israeli scholar and past president of the Foreign Policy Section of the American Political Science Association. She was the former Research Director of the Caspian Studies Program at Harvard's Kennedy School of Government and is currently a faculty member at the University of Haifa in the School of Political Science, and a visiting professor at the Azerbaijan Diplomatic Academy and at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C.. Prof. Shaffer is the author of the book "Energy Politics" and specializes on energy in international relations and energy policy in the Caspian region. Prof. Shaffer has also written a number of books on the topic of identity and culture in the Caucasus. Her work is the subject of some controversy.


Brenda Shaffer was born in the United States. She received her Ph.D. from Tel Aviv University and worked for a number of years as a researcher and policy analyst for the Government of Israel. Shaffer has also given Congressional testimonies on several occasions in front of the United States House Committee on Foreign Affairs on issues related to U.S. policy in the Caspian region,[1] and provides consultancies to energy companies, such as SOCAR, the State Oil Company of Azerbaijan.[2] Shaffer reads a number of languages, including English, Turkish, Azerbaijani, Russian, and Hebrew. Shaffer was a postdoctoral fellow at the International Security Program of Harvard's Kennedy School of Government and later became the Research Director of the Caspian Studies Project at the Kennedy School.[3] She is currently a faculty member in the School of Political Science at the University of Haifa, division of governance and political thought, and has also taught at the department of Asian Studies and at the Graduate School of Management, division of natural resources management, at the University of Haifa.[4] Shaffer is a visiting professor at the Azerbaijan Diplomatic Academy [5] and at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C.[6]

Short Bio[edit]

  • 2006-2012 Faculty member at the University of Haifa and visiting professor at both the Azerbaijan Diplomatic Academy and at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C..
  • 2001-2004 Post-doctoral Fellow, “Young Truman Scholar” three-year fellowship in the field of Middle East Studies, Harry S. Truman Research Institute for the Advancement of Peace at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel).
  • 2000-2001 Post-doctoral Fellow, International Relations & Middle East Studies, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel).
  • 1999-2005 Post-doctoral Fellow, International Security Program, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University (USA).
  • 1996-1999 Ph. D. School of History, Tel Aviv University (Israel). Dissertation topic: “The Formation of Azerbaijani Collective Identity: in Light of the Islamic Revolution in Iran and the Soviet Breakup.”
  • 1986-1989 MA in Political Science (with specialization in Russian Studies) Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel). (MA thesis topic: “Soviet Power Projection— the View of the Military”).
  • 1983-1986 BA in Political Science and International Relations, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (Israel).



  • Co-editor of "Beyond the Resource Curse" (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012).
  • Author of "Energy Politics" (University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009).
  • Editor of "The Limits of Culture: Islam and Foreign Policy" (MIT Press, 2006).
  • Author of "Partners in Need: The Strategic Relationship of Russia and Iran" (the Washington Institute for Near East Policy).
  • Author of "Borders and Brethren: Iran and the Challenge of Azerbaijani Identity" (MIT Press, 2002). The book was also published in Turkish (Bilgi University Press, Istanbul, 2008) and in Persian (Ulus Press, Tehran, 2008).

Book chapters and other publications[edit]

  • “Energy Resources in the Eastern Mediterranean: Prospects for energy markets and regional developments” in Michael Leigh (ed.), Eastern Mediterranean Energy: Fuel for conflict or cooperation? (D.C.: German Marshall Fund, 2012).
  • “US Policy and the Strategic Caucasus” in Frances Burwell and Svante E. Cornell, eds., The Transatlantic Partnership and Relations with Russia (Washington: Atlantic Council of the United States and Institute for Security and Development Policy, 2012).
  • “Ethnic Politics in Iran,” in Reuven Pedatzur (editor), Iran and Regional Hegemony (S. Daniel Abraham Strategic Dialogue Center in association with the Friedrich Ebert Stiftung, 2010).
  • "The Islamic Republic of Iran: Is It Really?" in Brenda Shaffer (ed.), The Limits of Culture: Islam and Foreign Policy (Cambridge, MA.: MIT Press, 2006).
  • “Iran’s Internal Azerbaijani Challenge: Implications for Policy in the Caucasus,” in Moshe Gammer (ed.), The Caucasus (London: Frank Cass, 2004).
  • “U.S. Policy in the South Caucasus,” in Dov Lynch (ed.) The South Caucasus: a challenge for the EU (Chaillot Paper 65, EU ISS, December 2003).
  • “Azerbaijan” in Waisman and Vasserman (ed.), Political Organizations in Central Asia and Azerbaijan: Sources and Documents (London: Frank Cass, 2003).
  • “Azerbaycan Cumhuryetinin Kurulusu: Iran’daki Azeriler Uzerinde Etkisi”, in Emine Gursoy-Naskali and Erdal Sahin (eds.) Turk Cumhuriyetleri (Amsterdam/Istanbul, SOTA Publications, 2002)(in Turkish).
  • "Statement on The Caucasus and Caspian Region: Understanding U.S. Interests and Policy", Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Europe of the Committee on International Relations, House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session, October 10, 2001, Serial No. 107–51.[7]
  • "U.S. Russian Relations: Implications for the Caspian Region", Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard University, June 2001.
  • “Postscript” in David Menashri (ed.), Central Asia Meets the Middle East (London: Frank Cass, 1998).

Selected Articles, Papers, etc[edit]

Prof. Shaffer's articles have appeared in a number of newspapers and journals, including an article in "Current History" entitled “Is there a Muslim Foreign Policy?” and “Iran at the Nuclear Threshold” (Arms Control Today; November 2003). Her Opinion Editorials have been published in the Wall Street Journal, Boston Globe, the International Herald Tribune, and The Jerusalem Post.[3]

  • "Israel: New Natural Gas Producer in the Mediterranean", Energy Policy 38, pp. 5379–5387 (2011)
  • “The Foreign Policies of Landlocked States,” Post-Soviet Affairs Vol. 27, No. 3, pp. 1–37 (July 2011) (Co-Authored with Dr. Avinoam Idan)
  • "Caspian Energy Phase II: Beyond 2005", Energy Policy 38, pp. 7209–7215 (2010)
  • "Turkey's Energy Policies in a Tight Global Energy Market", Insight Turkey, issue 2, volume 8 (April–June 2006)
  • "From Pipedream to Pipeline: Lessons from the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Pipeline Project", Current History, issue 684, volume 104, pp. 343–347 (October 2005)
  • "The Formation of Azerbaijani Collective Identity in Iran", Nationalities Papers, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 449–477 (September 2000)
  • "Foreign Policies of the States of the Caucasus: Evolution in the Post-Soviet Period", Uluslararasi Iliskiler International Relations (Ankara) Vol. 7, No. 26, pp. 51–65. Turkish and English. (Summer 2010)


On the book "Energy Politics", Michael L. Ross, a professor of political science at the University of California, Los-Angeles and one of the leading experts on oil in international relations wrote:

Scott Pegg, of Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis added:

On the book "Beyond the Resource Curse", Svante Cornell of Johns Hopkins University wrote:

In a review to CHOICE Magazine, B. J. Peterson wrote:

On the book "Borders and Brethren: Iran and the Challenge of Azerbaijani Identity", Camron Michael Amin, an Associate Professor of History at the University of Michigan-Dearborn wrote:

Hamlet Isaxanli, President and Founder of Khazar University, Baku, Azerbaijan, added to "Borders and Brethren":


Shaffer's book, "Borders and Brethren: Iran and the Challenge of Azerbaijani Identity" was controversial among scholars and historians of Iranian studies.

Touraj Atabaki, a Professor of Social History at the University of Amsterdam and a Senior Research Fellow at the International Institute of Social History, critically challenged Shaffer in his review of her book concluding that:

Evan Siegel in his review of Shaffer's book, states:[15]

Shaffer's article "U.S. Policy toward the Caspian Region: Recommendations for the Bush Administration" has also created controversy with regards to the objectivity of Harvard's Caspian Studies Program. Ken Silverstein, of Harper's Magazine, in an article titled "Academics for Hire", comments:

The American historian Ralph E. Luker echoes Silversteins article, saying:

In an article by Altay Goyushov in Foreign Policy, Brenda is named as an adviser for SOCAR and it is mentioned that she was promoting Azerbaijani policy in media without disclosing this fact.[18]

Shaffer has also drawn criticism for writing on geostrategic issues regarding Azerbaijan under her academic affiliations, while working as a consultant to the President of SOCAR, the State Oil Company of Azerbaijan.[19] On September 17, 2014, the New York Times published an editor's note to highlight that Shaffer did not disclose her affiliation to SOCAR when publishing an Op-Ed in its pages about the conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh.[20] This has drawn critique in other notable news outlets.[2]


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  3. ^ University of Haifa. School of Political Sciences - Faculty: Dr. Brenda Shaffer
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  8. ^ Scott Pegg. "Review of Brenda Shaffer, Energy Politics", Perspectives on Politics, March 2011, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 129-132
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  11. ^ Camron Michael Amin. "Review of Brenda Shaffer, Borders and Brethren: Iran and the Challenge of Azerbaijani Identity," H-Gender-MidEast, H-Net Reviews, August, 2003.
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  13. ^ Touraj Atabaki, Review of "Brenda Shaffer, Borders and Brethren, Iran and the Challenge of Azerbaijan Identity", In Slavic Review, 63:1 (2004). Also here: [1]
  14. ^ Evan Siegal, Reviews:, Iranian Studies, Volume 37, Issue 1 March 2004 , pages 140 – 143. Published by Routeledge Taylor Francis Group. Also here [2]
  15. ^ Academics for Hire - Tuesday, May 30, 2006
  16. ^ History News Network
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  18. ^ Energy Charter Secretariat (20 March 2013). "WORKSHOP ON CONTRACTUAL ISSUES RELATED TO ENERGY TRADE" (PDF). Retrieved 17 September 2014. 
  19. ^ Editors’ Note (September 17, 2014). "Disclosure Update". New York Times. Retrieved 17 September 2014. 

External links[edit]