A bullshit job or pseudowork is meaningless or unnecessary wage labour which the worker is obliged to pretend has a purpose. According to a 2015 YouGov poll, 37% of workers in the United Kingdom say that their job is a bullshit job.
Graeber also formulated the concept of bullshitization, where previously meaningful work turns into a bullshit job through corporatization, marketization or managerialism. This has been applied to academia, which Graeber and others contend has been bullshitized by the expansion of managerial roles and administrative work caused by neoliberal educational reforms, contributing to the erosion of academic freedom.
- Emotional labour
- On Bullshit
- Front organization
- Parkinson's Law
- Refusal of work
- Fogh Jensen, Anders; Nørmar, Dennis (2021). Pseudowork: How we ended up being busy doing nothing. Copenhagen: Gyldendal.
- Graeber, David (2018). Bullshit Jobs. Simon & Schuster. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-5011-4331-1.
- Heller, Nathan (2018-07-06). "The Bullshit-Job Boom". The New Yorker.
- Graeber, David (2018-05-06). "Are You in a BS Job? In Academe, You're Hardly Alone". The Chronicle of Higher Education.
- Kezar, Adrianna; DePaola, Tom; Scott, Daniel T. (2019). The Gig Academy: Mapping Labor in the Neoliberal University. JHU Press. pp. 69–70. ISBN 978-1-4214-3271-7.
- Maiese, Michelle; Hanna, Robert (2019). The Mind-Body Politic. Springer. p. 146. ISBN 978-3-030-19546-5.
- Reichman, Henry (2019). The Future of Academic Freedom. JHU Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-4214-2859-8.
- On the Phenomenon of Bullshit Jobs, Strike Magazine (August 2013)