Council for Higher Education Accreditation
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The Council for Higher Education Accreditation (CHEA) is a United States organization of degree-granting colleges and universities. It identifies its purpose as providing national advocacy for self-regulation of academic quality through accreditation in order to certify the quality of higher education accrediting organizations, including regional, faith-based, private, career, and programmatic accrediting organizations.
The organization has approximately 3,000 academic institutions as members, and currently recognizes approximately 60 accrediting organizations. CHEA is based in Washington, DC. CHEA is a member of The International Network for Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher Education (INQAAHE).
Established in 1996, CHEA is the successor to several earlier national nongovernmental associations formed to coordinate the U.S. accreditation process for higher education. In 1974, the Federation of Regional Accrediting Commissions of Higher Education (FRACHE; an association of regional accreditors) and the National Commission on Accrediting (an association of specialized and national accreditation agencies) had merged to form the Council on Postsecondary Accreditation (COPA), which had the purpose of ensuring the quality of accreditation.
In 1993, COPA was dissolved because of tensions among the different types of accreditation agencies that formed its membership—ultimately the result of the increasing problems for higher education in the 1980s and 1990s. Problems with tuition increases, scandals, and doubts about the value of postsecondary higher education plagued all parts of the higher education sector.
Consequently, the 1992 amendments to the Higher Education Act of 1965 included Program Integrity provisions designed to strengthen the gatekeeping triad for student loan guarantees and financial aid (i.e., state licensing bodies, accreditation associations, and Federal government). The higher education community viewed with alarm the establishment of State Postsecondary Review Entities (SPREs), which were given accrediting powers under special conditions. "When campus lobbyists heard about the legislation and realized that non-governmental accreditation was being replaced by a federal-state agency evaluation of institutions, including assessments of academic quality never before carried out by government, they 'went apoplectic', as one observer put it."
Early in 1993, the regional accreditors voted to leave COPA, indicating their dissatisfaction with COPA's political representation in the U.S. Congress, which representation was widely viewed as ineffective, particularly in regard to the new legislation establishing the SPREs. In April 1993, COPA voted to disband itself by the end of the year.
Work by the National Policy Board on Higher Education Institutional Accreditation (NPB), and other groups laid the groundwork for a national successor to COPA. Among their concerns were establishing a more grassroots membership, billing and fees, and advisory role of the accrediting associations, and improving the public image of accrediting and improving the ability to lobby the Federal government.
CHEA's immediate predecessor was the Council for Recognition of Postsecondary Accreditation (CORPA), which was formed following the dissolution of COPA. CHEA grandfathered in those accrediting associations recognized by COPA, provided that more than half the institutions that they accredited granted degrees.
Each accreditor recognized by CHEA is independent, which means that accreditation requirements vary from group to group. CHEA maintains a website that contains a searchable database to check the accreditation status of recognized accreditation agencies, accredited schools, or schools currently in the process of getting accreditation (i.e., "candidates" for accreditation). CHEA's "user agreement for publications of the Council for Higher Education Accreditation" states that it does not guarantee that all accredited schools are listed in the database.
In 2012 Chea launched the Chea International Quality Group (CIQG) to advance understanding of international quality assurance and to promote high-quality higher education through international accreditation bodies worldwide. The Chea International Quality Group (CIQG) provides a database of recognized accreditation agencies globally. It's a non-profit, non-governmental association focused on U.S. and NON U.S. accreditation and higher education quality assurance worldwide.
Board of directors
CHEA is led by a board of directors that consists of 20 members, including presidents of colleges and universities, other institutional representatives, and members of the public. As of 2013, John E. Bassett, President of Heritage University, is the chair of the CHEA Board of Directors.
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The organization faces challenges by having helped the public to better understand accreditation in U.S., and distinguish between the recognition of accrediting agencies conducted by the U.S. Secretary of Education, and those recognized by private nongovernmental associations, such as CHEA.
Relationship to government
For the purpose of state government oversight of higher education, the state of Oregon authorizes accreditation organizations recognized by both the U.S. Department of Education and CHEA to operate in the state. However, organizations that are recognized by CHEA and not also by the Department of Education may operate only with oversight from the Oregon Student Assistance Commission.
- "CHEA at a Glance" (PDF). Council for Higher Education Accreditation. 2006.
- CHEA website. Retrieved January 31, 2010.
- International Affairs Office, U.S. Department of Education 12/2007 page 2 "INTERNATIONAL ACCREDITATION" https://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ous/international/usnei/us/accred-postsec.doc
- INQAAHE Website http://www.inqaahe.org/council-higher-education-accreditation
- Bloland, Harland G. (2001). "Chapter 3, The Mounting Threat to Higher Education's Pragmatic and Moral Legitimacy". Creating the Council for Higher Education Accreditation. Oryx Press. pp. 33–43. ISBN 9781573562331.
- Cook, Constance Ewing (1998). "Challenges in the Early 1990s". Lobbying for Higher Education: How Colleges and Universities Influence Federal Policy. Vanderbilt University Press. pp. 34–44. ISBN 9780826513175.
- "U.S. Senate, Abuses in Federal Student Aid Programs, Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Committee on Governmental Affairs" (PDF). Eric.ed.gov. May 17, 1991. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-05-25.
- Bloland, Harland G. (2001). Creating the Council for Higher Education Accreditation. page 182.
- Constance Ewing Cook, Lobbying for Higher Education: How Colleges and Universities Influence Federal Policy (1998), The Story of the State Postsecondary Review Entities, pages 44-51. The quotation here is from page 47.
- Bloland, Harland G. (2001), Creating the Council for Higher Education Accreditation, Chapter 3, and page 39.
- Harland G. Bloland, Creating the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (2001)
- Atwell, Robert; Rogers, James T. (October 1994). "Independence, Accreditation, and the Public Interest, Special Report on Accreditation" (PDF). National Policy Board on Higher Education Institutional Accreditation (NBP). Eric.ed.gov.
- Jane Wellman: Recognition of Accreditation Organizations: A Comparison of Policy & Practice of Voluntary Accreditation and The United States Department of Education CHEA January 1998
- Wellman, Jane (January 1998). "Recognition of Accreditation Organizations: A Comparison of Policy & Practice of Voluntary Accreditation and The United States Department of Education" (PDF). Chea.org.
- Bloland, Harland G. (2001), Creating the Council for Higher Education Accreditation, page 183.
- "CHEA Database of Institutions and Programs Accredited by Recognized US Accrediting Organizations". Council for Higher Education Accreditation. Retrieved 2006-10-01. (You must accept the license agreement to see the source text.)
- "Council for Higher Education Accreditation Board of Directors 2013-2014" (PDF). Council for Higher Education Accreditation. Retrieved 2013-08-07.
- "Resolution of the Board of Directors" (PDF). Washington D. C.: Council for Higher Education Accreditation. May 7, 2007.
- CHEA website [www.chea.org]
- Wellman, Jane (January 1998). "Recognition of Accreditation Organizations: A Comparison of Policy & Practice of Voluntary Accreditation and The United States Department of Education" (PDF). pp. 3–4. See also, Harland G. Bloland, Creating the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (2001), page 181.
- Schray, Vickie. "Assuring Quality in Higher Education: Key Issues and Questions for Changing Accreditation in the United States, Issue Paper, The Secretary of Education's Commission on the Future of Higher Education (Fourth in a series of Issue Papers released at the request of Chairman Charles Miller to inform the work of the Commission)" (PDF). U.S. Department of Education, Washington D.C. p. 3.
- "583-070-0002, Oversight of Post-Secondary Accrediting Bodies". Oregon Administrative Rules. Retrieved August 27, 2013.
- Eaton, Judith S. (March 24, 2008). "The Future of Accreditation?". Insidehighered.com.
- Official website
- CHEA, Resolution of the Board of Directors, May 7, 2007, Washington D. C.
- Judith S. Eaton, The Future of Accreditation? March 24, 2008, Inside Higher Ed
- Doug Lederman, Dissent and a Disputed Phone Call April 27, 2007, Inside Higher Ed
- Vickie Schray, Assuring Quality in Higher Education: Key Issues and Questions for Changing Accreditation in the United States, Issue Paper, The Secretary of Education’s Commission on the Future of Higher Education (Fourth in a series of Issue Papers released at the request of Chairman Charles Miller to inform the work of the Commission), U.S. Department of Education, Washington D.C. No date.
- Jane Wellman, Recognition of Accreditation Organizations: A Comparison of Policy & Practice of Voluntary Accreditation and The United States Department of Education, January 1998.
- Robert Atwell, James Rogers, Independence, Accreditation, and the Public Interest, Special Report on Accreditation, October 1994, National Policy Board on Higher Education Institutional Accreditation (NBP). Available at ERIC.
- U.S. Senate, Abuses in Federal Student Aid Programs, Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, Report 102-58, May 17, 1991, Washington, D.C.