Canarium acutifolium

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Canarium acutifolium
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Burseraceae
Genus: Canarium
Species: C. acutifolium
Binomial name
Canarium acutifolium
  • Dammara nigra Rumph.
  • Marignia acutifolia DC. (–base name)
  • Canarium nigrum Roxb.

Canarium acutifolium is a forest tree species, of the plant family Burseraceae, growing naturally in New Guinea, the Moluccas, Sulawesi, New Britain, New Ireland, Bougainville and in lowland north-eastern Queensland, Australia.[4][5][6][7][8][9]

In 1917 botanist Elmer D. Merrill was the first to formally describe this species name, based on de Candolle's 1825 name Marignia acutifolia which was in turn based on earlier Rumphius's 1600s description from "Amboina", Ambon Island, in the Moluccas Islands.[2][3] Furthermore, Merrill also based his description on a 1913 type specimen collection from Ambon by Robinson to represent Rumphius’s Ambon description and on other synonymous names described in between these times.[2][3]

The species has four recognised varieties, three have descriptions in Flora Malesiana and more recently in 2000 botanist Wayne Takeuchi described a new fourth variety of isolated known occurrence in New Guinea:[4][5][9]

  • C. acutifolium (DC.) Merr. var. acutifolium — New Guinea, Moluccas, New Britain,[9] New Ireland, Bougainville,[7] lowland Wet Tropics NE. Qld Australia[6]
– differs from the other three varieties in flowers having 3 stamens instead of 6.
  • C. acutifolium var. aemulans Hewson — New Britain, NE. New Guinea
  • C. acutifolium var. celebicum Leenh. — central Sulawesi
  • C. acutifolium var. pioriverensis Takeuchi — known only from lowland forest in the Crater Mt. area of New Guinea[5]

In Australia, C. acutifolium var. acutifolium grows naturally below ca. 100 m (330 ft) altitude in the scarce remaining lowland rainforests of the Wet Tropics region of north-eastern Queensland.[6][8] These only known natural populations of the species in the nation have obtained the national and Qld governments' "vulnerable" species conservation status.[1][10]


  1. ^ a b Canarium acutifolium var. acutifolium, Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment and Heritage, Australia. Retrieved 13 Nov 2013
  2. ^ a b c d Merrill, Elmer D. (1 Nov 1917). An Interpretation of Rumphius's Herbarium Amboinense (Digitised, online, via Publication No. 9. Manila, Philippines: Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Bureau of Science. p. 302. Retrieved 13 Nov 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d "Canarium acutifolium (DC.) Merr.". Australian Plant Name Index (APNI), IBIS database. Centre for Plant Biodiversity Research, Australian Government. Retrieved 13 Nov 2013.
  4. ^ a b c Leenhouts, P. W.; Kalkman, C.; Lam, H. J. (March 1956). "Canarium acutifolium (DC.) Merr.". Burseraceae (Digitised, online, via Flora Malesiana. Series I, Spermatophyta : Flowering Plants. 5. Leiden, The Netherlands: Rijksherbarium / Hortus Botanicus, Leiden University. pp. 291–293. Retrieved 7 Dec 2014.
  5. ^ a b c Takeuchi, Wayne (2000). "Additions to the flora of Crater Mt., Papua New Guinea". Sida, Contributions to Botany. 19 (2): 237–239 (–247). Retrieved 13 Nov 2013.
  6. ^ a b c Hyland, B. P. M.; Whiffin, T.; Zich, F. A.; et al. (Dec 2010). "Factsheet – Canarium acutifolium". Australian Tropical Rainforest Plants. Edition 6.1, online version [RFK 6.1]. Cairns, Australia: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), through its Division of Plant Industry; the Centre for Australian National Biodiversity Research; the Australian Tropical Herbarium, James Cook University. Retrieved 13 Nov 2013.
  7. ^ a b Conn, Barry J.; Damas, Kipiro Q. (2006). "PNGTreesKey – Canarium acutifolium (DC.) Merr" (Online, from Guide to Trees of Papua New Guinea. Retrieved 13 Nov 2013.
  8. ^ a b Cooper, Wendy; Cooper, William T. (June 2004). "Canarium acutifolium (DC.) Merr.". Fruits of the Australian Tropical Rainforest. Clifton Hill, Victoria, Australia: Nokomis Editions. p. 95. ISBN 9780958174213. Retrieved 14 Nov 2013.
  9. ^ a b c Leenhouts, P. W.; Steenis, Cornelis G. G. J. van (Sep 1972). "Canarium acutifolium (DC.) Merr.". Addenda, Corrigenda et Emendanda (Digitised, online, via Flora Malesiana. Series I, Spermatophyta : Flowering Plants. 6. Leiden, The Netherlands: Rijksherbarium / Hortus Botanicus, Leiden University. p. 926. Retrieved 7 Dec 2014.
  10. ^ Queensland Government (27 Sep 2013). "Nature Conservation (Wildlife) Regulation 2006" (PDF). Nature Conservation Act 1992. Online, accessed from Australia. p. 47. Retrieved 4 Dec 2013.

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