Latticed heath

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Latticed heath
Geometridae - Chiasmia clathrata-001.JPG
Chiasmia clathrata. Upperside
Geometridae - Chiasmia clathrata.JPG
Underside
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Lepidoptera
Family: Geometridae
Genus: Chiasmia
Species: C. clathrata
Binomial name
Chiasmia clathrata
(Linnaeus, 1758)
Synonyms

The latticed heath (Chiasmia clathrata) is a moth of the family Geometridae, belonging to the subfamily Ennominae, placed in the tribe Macariini.

Taxonomy[edit]

The current placement of clathrata in the genus Chiasmia follows from the revision by Scoble (2002) of the tribe Macariini, when he showed that true Semiothisa species were restricted to the Americas. There are a number of described subspecies. Molecular work has confirmed the placement of clathrata within Chiasmia.[1]

Subspecies[edit]

Subspecies include:[2]

  • Chiasmia clathrata clathrata (Linné)
  • Chiasmia clathrata centralasiae (Krulikowski, 1911)
  • Chiasmia clathrata djakonovi (Kardakoff, 1928)
  • Chiasmia clathrata kurilata (Bryk, 1942)

Distribution and habitat[edit]

This species can be found throughout Europe, the Near East, North Africa,[3] and east through Russia, Siberia, Amur River, North Iran, Kazakhstan, China, Korea to Japan.[2] It is a fairly common species in the British Isles [4][5] These moths inhabit a range of open areas, including grassland, moorland, and waste ground.[6]

Description[edit]

Adult[edit]

Chiasmia clathrata has a wingspan of 20–25 mm.[6] In this rather variable species the background colour of the wings varies from yellowish to white, with a network of brown lines (hence its common name). These lines vary in thickness and sometimes the wings are almost entirely dark brown.

Larva[edit]

The final instar larva is pale green with white lines, including a strong lateral line and thin dorsal lines along the body. Abdominal segments A1 through A5 have a strong white line across the rear end of each segment that ends just above the lateral line.[7][8]

Ecology[edit]

Video clip of Chiasmia clathrata

In the British Isles there are one or two generations annually, with adults seen at any time from May to September.[4] These moths are nocturnal. Larvae feed on bedstraws (Galium mollugo, Galium verum) and various legumes such as clovers (Trifolium medium, Trifolium pratense), trefoils, lucerne (Medicago sativa) [6][2] and meadow vetchling, primarily in June and July and from mid-August through September, though in Ireland and northern Britain larvae occur in July and August.[7] The species overwinters as a pupa. This species flies both during the day and also at night when it is attracted to light.[6]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Chinery, M., 1986. Collins Guide to the Insects of Britain and Western Europe (Reprinted 1991)
  • Õunap, E., Javoiš, J., Viidalepp, J. & Tammaru, T., 2011. Phylogenetic relationships of selected European Ennominae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). European Journal of Entomololgy 108: 267-273.
  • Porter, J., 1997. The Colour Identification Guide to Caterpillars of the British Isles. Viking Press, Harmondsworth, Middlesex. xii + 275 pp. ISBN 0-670-87509-0
  • Skinner, B., 1984. Colour Identification Guide to Moths of the British Isles
  • Scoble, M.J. & M. Krüger, 2002. A review of the genera of Macariini with a revised classification of the tribe (Geometridae: Ennominae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 134 (3): 257-315. doi:10.1046/j.1096-3642.2002.00008.x

References[edit]

  1. ^ Õunap, E., Javoiš, J., Viidalepp, J. & Tammaru, T., 2011. Phylogenetic relationships of selected European Ennominae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). European Journal of Entomololgy 108: 267-273.
  2. ^ a b c Funet
  3. ^ Chinery, M., 1986. Collins Guide to the Insects of Britain and Western Europe (Reprinted 1991)
  4. ^ a b Skinner, B., 1984. Colour Identification Guide to Moths of the British Isles
  5. ^ Fauna europaea
  6. ^ a b c d UK Moths
  7. ^ a b Porter, J., 1997. The Colour Identification Guide to Caterpillars of the British Isles. Viking Press, Harmondsworth, Middlesex. xii + 275 pp. ISBN 0-670-87509-0
  8. ^ Kimmo Silvonen Larvae of North-European Lepidoptera

External links[edit]