|Mangaon, Maharashtra, India|
The yellow-eyed babbler (Chrysomma sinense) is a passerine bird native to South and Southeast Asia. It inhabits shrubland, grassland and wetland habitats. On the IUCN Red List, it is listed as Least Concern because of its wide distribution and stable population.
Its common name refers to the traditional placement in the Old World babbler family Timaliidae although the genus Chrysomma forms a clade along with the parrotbills within the family Paradoxornithidae.
The yellow-eyed babbler is about 18 centimetres (7.1 in) long with a short bill and a long graduated tail. The body above is brown and the wings are cinnamon coloured. The lores and supercilium are white and the rim of the eye is orange-yellow in adult birds. The beak is black. The underside is whitish buff. The central tail feathers are about twice as long as the outermost. The sexes are indistinguishable in the field.
Within its wide distribution range there are some differences in plumages between populations that have been considered as subspecies. The nominate subspecies is found in Burma, Laos and Thailand. The population in Sri Lanka, nasale, has black nostrils and a stouter bill. The population across much of India, hypoleucum, has yellow nostrils (as with the nominate subspecies) and is paler in plumage. The population in the northeast Duars of India has an almost slaty crown and darker wings and has been called as saturatius or saturatior but this is considered as clinal variation and included in the nominate population.
Distribution and habitat
The usual habitat is grassy or thorny scrub both in dry and wet regions as well as farmland. It occurs mainly on the plains but also in the lower hills 1200 m. It is absent in the dense forest region of the Western Ghats and occurs only on the eastern edges or in gaps such as at Palghat.
Behaviour and ecology
|Length||140 mm (5.5 in)|
|Culmen||14–15 mm (0.6–0.6 in)|
|13–16 mm (0.5–0.6 in)|
|Wing||62–70 mm (2.4–2.8 in)|
|62–70 mm (2.4–2.8 in)|
|Tail||73–102 mm (2.9–4.0 in)|
|78–100 mm (3.1–3.9 in)|
|Head||31–33 mm (1.2–1.3 in)|
|Tarsus||22–27 mm (0.9–1.1 in)|
|25–27 mm (1.0–1.1 in)|
|Weight||15–21 g (0.5–0.7 oz)|
|Length||142–162 mm (5.6–6.4 in)|
|Culmen||14–15 mm (0.6–0.6 in)|
|Wing||63–69 mm (2.5–2.7 in)|
|Tail||70–86 mm (2.8–3.4 in)|
|Head||33–35 mm (1.3–1.4 in)|
|Tarsus||24–26 mm (0.9–1.0 in)|
Like babblers, these birds are usually seen in small groups of five to fifteen, especially in the non-breeding season. They are usually found inside bushes, emerging up to the top of a stem and then diving back into cover to forage. They feed mainly on insects but take berries (Lantana and Salvadora) as well as nectar. When capturing insects, they may hold them down with their feet. The group constantly produces a series of cheeping or churring calls. During the breeding season, mainly the southwest monsoon (June to August) but sometimes during the receding monsoon, the song is a strong whistling twee-twee-ta-whit-chu, often delivered from a prominent perch. The colour of the inside of the mouth is said to turn from orange-brown to black during the breeding season. They appear to nest cooperatively, the nest being a deep cone made with grass and lined with fine fibre. The nest is wedged between upright stems, the vertical stems being incorporated into the wall of the nest. The outside of the nest is well covered in cobwebs. The usual clutch is four but varies from three to five. The eggs are pinkish white with chestnut-red patches. Both parents take part in incubation and feeding the young. The eggs hatch after about 15–16 days and the young birds fledge after about 13 days. Adult birds have been seen feigning injury presumably to detract predators. Birds roost communally in the centre of a bush, all facing in the same direction and sitting side by side. Members of a group will preen each other. In an apparent territorial display, a pair of birds were found to sing while facing another singing pair and they all simultaneously bobbed their heads while perching on legs held straight to appear tall.
- BirdLife International (2016). "Chrysomma sinense". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016: e.T22716323A94490631. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22716323A94490631.en.
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- Ali, S & S.D.Ripley (1996). Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan. Volume 6 (2nd ed.). New Delhi: Oxford University Press. pp. 189–192.
- Oates, EW (1889). The Fauna of British India, including Ceylon and Burma. Birds. Volume 1. London: Taylor and Francis. pp. 137–138.
- Legge, WV (1879). "On two races or subspecies of Indian birds inhabiting Ceylon". Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 3 (14): 168–169. doi:10.1080/00222937908682496.
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- Neelakantan, K.K. (1990). "Yellow-eyed Babbler Chrysomma sinensis in Kerala". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 87 (2): 302.
- Clark Jr., GA (1973). "Holding Food with the Feet in Passerines". Bird-Banding. 44 (2): 91–99. doi:10.2307/4511942.
- Mukherjee, Rathin (1983). "Notes on breeding of Western Yelloweyed Babbler Chrysomma sinense hypocolium (Franklin) in Jammu District". Newsletter for Birdwatchers. 23 (5–6): 9–10.
- Biddulph, CH (1956). "Nesting of the Yelloweyed Babbler (Chrysomma sinensis ssp.) in the Madura District, Madras Presidency". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 53 (4): 697.
- Whistler, H; Kinnear, NB (1932). "The Vernay Scientific Survey of the Eastern Ghats, part II". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 35 (4): 737–760.
- Gaston, AJ (1978). "Social behaviour of the Yellow-eyed Babbler Chrysomma sinense". Ibis. 120 (3): 361–364. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.1978.tb06802.x.
- Whistler, H (1949). Popular handbook of Indian birds (4th ed.). London: Gurney and Jackson. pp. 51–52.
- Rao, VUS (1964). "A Shikra attacking Yelloweyed Babblers". Newsletter for Birdwatchers. 4 (1): 5.
- Finn, Frank (1906). Garden and aviary birds of India. Calcutta: Thacker, Spink and Co. p. 22.
- Harper, EW (1902). "The Yellow-eyed Babbler (Pyctorhis sinensis)". The Avicultural Magazine. 8: 108–110.
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