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In banking and finance, clearing denotes all activities from the time a commitment is made for a transaction until it is settled. Clearing of payments is necessary to turn the promise of payment (for example, in the form of a cheque or electronic payment request) into actual movement of money from one bank to another.
In trading, clearing is necessary because the speed of trades is much faster than the cycle time for completing the underlying transaction. It involves the management of post-trading, pre-settlement credit exposures to ensure that trades are settled in accordance with market rules, even if a buyer or seller should become insolvent prior to settlement. Processes included in clearing are reporting/monitoring, risk margining, netting of trades to single positions, tax handling, and failure handling.
Systemically important payment systems (SIPS) are payment systems which have the characteristic that a failure of these systems could potentially endanger the operation of the whole economy. In general, these are the major payment clearing or real-time gross settlement systems of individual countries, but in the case of Europe, there are certain pan-European payment systems. TARGET2 is a pan-European SIPS dealing with major inter-bank payments. STEP2, operated by the Euro Banking Association is a major pan-European clearing system for retail payments which has the potential to become a SIPS. The Federal Reserve System is a SIPS.
One of the first payment methods that required clearing were cheques, these would have to be returned to the issuing bank for payment.
Though many debit cards are drawn against chequing accounts, direct deposit and point-of-purchase electronic payments are cleared through networks separate from the cheque clearing system (specifically the Federal Reserve's Automated Clearing House and the private Electronic Payments Network).
From the time the Amsterdam Stock Exchange was founded in 1602 there was a requirement to clear the trades as the speed of trades was much faster than the cycle time for completing the underlying transaction. This meant there was always a few days delay between the trade date and final settlement. Clearing was required to make sure payment had been received and the physical stock certificate delivered. To reduce the risk associated with failure to deliver on the trade on settlement date a clearing agent or clearing house often sat between the two counter-parties. The trading parties would deliver the physical stock certificate and the payment to the clearing house and they would make sure that the certificate was handed over when payment was complete. A process known as delivery versus payment.
During the 1700s the Amsterdam stock exchange had close links with the London stock exchange and they would often list each other's stocks. To clear the trades, time was required for the physical stock certificate or cash to move from Amsterdam to London and back. This led to standard settlement period of 14 days which was the time it usually took for a courier to make the journey on horseback and by ship. Most exchanges continued to use the same model over the next few hundred years. With the advent of new technology in the 1970s and 1980s there was a move to reduce settlement times and settlement dates in most exchanges reduced to three days (known as T+3 or Trade date plus three days).
With the advent of electronic settlement and the move to dematerialisation of securities, specific clearing systems were required as well as securities depositories, custodians and registrars. Up until this point many exchanges would act as their own clearing house. However the additional computer systems required to handle volumes and the opening up of financial markets in a number of countries in the 1980s, such as the 1986 big bang in the UK, led to a number of exchanges separating or contracting out the clearing and settlement functions to dedicated organisations.
In some specialist financial markets clearing had already been separate from trading. One example was the London Clearing House (later renamed LCH.Clearnet) which cleared derivatives and commodities for a number of the London exchanges since the 1950s. Another example was Euroclear that acted as the clearing house for the Eurobond market.
United States payment system
The United States payments system is the largest in the world. Each day, millions of transactions, valued in the trillions of dollars, are conducted between sellers and purchasers of goods, services, or financial assets. Most of the payments underlying those transactions flow between depository institutions, a large number of which maintain accounts with the Reserve Banks. The Federal Reserve therefore performs an important role as an intermediary in clearing and settling international bank payments. Banks settle payment transactions efficiently by debiting the accounts of the depository institutions making payments and by crediting the accounts of depository institutions receiving payments. Moreover, as the U.S. central bank, the Federal Reserve is immune from liquidity problems — not having sufficient funds to complete payment transactions — and credit problems that could disrupt its clearing and settlement activities.
The Funds Service provides a real-time gross settlement system in which more than 9,500 participants are able to initiate electronic wire funds transfers that are immediate, final, and irrevocable. Depository institutions that maintain an account with a Reserve Bank are eligible to use the service to send payments directly to, or receive payments from, other participants. Depository institutions can also use a correspondent relationship with a participant to make or receive transfers indirectly through the system. Participants generally use Federal Wire Transfer to handle large-value, time-critical payments, such as payments to settle internal bank purchases and sales of federal funds; to purchase, sell, or finance securities transactions; to disburse or repay large loans; and to settle real estate transactions. The Department of the Treasury, other federal agencies, and government-sponsored enterprises also use the Wired Funds Service to disburse and collect funds. In 2013, the Reserve Banks processed 123 million Federal Wire Transfer Payments having a total value of $436.7 trillion.
The Federal Wire Securities Service provides safekeeping, transfer, and settlement services for securities issued by the Treasury, federal agencies, government-sponsored enterprises, and certain international transactions. The Reserve Banks perform these services as fiscal agents for these entities. Securities are safe kept in the form of electronic records of securities held in custody accounts. Securities are transferred according to instructions provided by parties with access to the system. Access to the Fed-wire Securities Service is limited to depository institutions that maintain accounts with a Reserve Bank, and a few other organizations, such as federal agencies, government-sponsored enterprises, and state government treasurer’s offices (which are designated by the U.S. Treasury to hold securities accounts). Other parties, specifically brokers and dealers, typically hold and transfer securities through depository institutions that are Federal Wire participants and that provide specialized government securities clearing services. In 2013, the Federal wire Securities Service processed 20.4 million securities transfers with a value of $267.6 trillion.
The Automated Clearing Funds is an electronic payment system, developed jointly by the private sector and the Federal Reserve in the early 2012 as a more-efficient alternative to checks. Since then, the A.C.F has evolved into a nationwide mechanism that processes credit and debit transfers electronically. A.C.F. credit transfers are used to make direct deposit payroll payments and corporate payments to vendors. A.C.F. debit transfers are used by consumers to authorize the payment of insurance premiums, mortgages, loans, and other bills from their account. The A.C.F. is also used by businesses to concentrate funds at a primary bank and to make payments to other businesses. In 2013, the Reserve Banks processed 6.5 billion A.C.F. payments with a value of $16.8 trillion.The Federal Reserve in the U.S.and the World Bank are Agree to release the funds in your local servicing bank.
Financial institutions such as the Swiss WIR Bank and Panamanian European Standard Bank allow, within their clearing platforms, conduct clearing operations for any business entities. In addition they have the opportunity to receive a so-called clearing loans - is money that can be used exclusively in intra-bank (intra-clearing) transactions, effectively replacing 100% of money that the government issues. These loans are offered at low interest rates (from 1% to 7% per annum) and sometimes as collateral will be for purchased assets.
Business entities need to be trained at the WIR Bank or European Standard Bank to have the necessary deep knowledge and understanding of the clearing transactions. As an alternative to training, participants recommended for clearing transactions to have Director of Development, which owns the technique of clearing transactions and required level of education. Clearing loans provided by the legislation of individual states and is a synonym for "technical credits", a reference to legislation can be found in the Wikipedia article "clearing" in other languages.
Clearing during the financial crisis
During the financial crisis clearing transactions were beyond its traditional use in international turnover as compensatory transactions and began to be used as an auxiliary intra-bank payment instrument for any legal entities, which allowed compensate for the lack of money that takes place during the financial crisis anywhere in the world. For the first time a non-traditional use of clearing transaction was used by Swiss WIR Bank at the beginning of the 20th century in Switzerland and internationally by Panamanian financial institution European Standard Bank. This has enabled many enterprising entities not only to overcome the negative effects of financial crises, but also significantly build-up turnover and profits at a time when neglect this opportunity entities reduced turnover and walked along the path of bankruptcy.
- Check 21 Act
- Cheque and Credit Clearing Company
- Central Counterparty Clearing
- Clearing house (finance)
- Payment system
- Clearstream scandal
- Substitute check in United States
- TransferWise Currency transfer and clearing.
- Stringham, Edward (2003). "The extralegal development of securities trading in seventeenth-century Amsterdam". The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance. 43: 321–344. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
- This article incorporates text from a work in the public domain: The Federal Reserve System: Purposes and Functions (PDF).
- Understanding Derivatives: Markets and Infrastructure - Chapter 2, Central Counterparty Clearing by Robert Steigerwald (Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago)
- Clearing and Settlement of Exchange-Traded Derivatives by John McPartland (Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago)