Clementine Hunter

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Clementine Hunter
BornDecember, 1886 or January, 1887
Hidden Hill Plantation, near Cloutierville
Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana
DiedJanuary 1, 1988
Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana
NationalityAmerican
OccupationArtist
Years active1940 - 1980
Known forPaintings of Black Southern Life in the Twentieth Century

Clementine Hunter (pronounced Clementeen) (late December 1886 or early January 1887 – January 1, 1988) was a self-taught Black folk artist from the Cane River region of Louisiana, who lived and worked on Melrose Plantation.

Hunter was born into a Louisiana Creole family at Hidden Hill Plantation near Cloutierville, in Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana. She started working as a farm laborer when young, and never learnt to read or write. In her fifties, she began to sell her paintings, which soon gained local and national attention for their complexity in depicting Black Southern life in the early twentieth century.

Initially she sold her first paintings for as little as 25 cents. But by the end of her life, her work was being exhibited in museums and sold by dealers for thousands of dollars. Clementine Hunter produced an estimated 5,000 to 10,000 paintings in her lifetime.[1] Hunter was granted an honorary Doctor of Fine Arts degree by Northwestern State University of Louisiana in 1986, and she is the first African-American artist to have a solo exhibition at the present-day New Orleans Museum of Art. In 2013, director Robert Wilson presented a new opera about her, entitled Zinnias: the Life of Clementine Hunter, at Montclair State University in New Jersey.[2]

Early Life[edit]

Baptism by Clementine Hunter. Mural (detail)

Clementine Hunter was born in late December 1886 or early January 1887[3] at Hidden Hill Plantation, near Cloutierville in Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana.[4][5] She was the first of seven children[6] born to Janvier Reuben ( though Clementine Hunter called him John.[5] ) and Mary Antoinette Adams.[5] Hunter's siblings were named Maria, Ida, Rosa, Edward, Simon, and John.[7] Hunter's maternal grandmother Idole, an enslaved Black and Native American woman, was born in Virginia and brought to Louisiana.[6][7] Her maternal grandfather was called Billy Zack Adams.[5] Hunter's paternal grandfather was of mixed African, French, and Irish descent, raded horses during the Civil War,[7][6] but died before she was born.[5][6] Hunter knew her paternal grandmother well, a Black and Native American woman who she called MéMé (pronounced May-May).[5][6][7] Her parents were married on October 15, 1890 in Cloutierville at the Catholic Church, St. John the Baptist.

She was baptized Roman Catholic on March 19, 1887 in Cloutierville, and it is known that she was about three months old.[5] Although her exact date of birth is unknown, she says she was born around Christmas.[5] She went by the name Clémence for the first part of her life, was baptized Clementiam[5] and changed her name to Clementine after moving to Melrose Plantation.[8] Her family called her by the nickname Tébé, the French for "little baby," a nickname she carried into adulthood.[5]

Clementine Hunter moved at Cloutierville when she was around five years old and sent to St. John the Baptist Catholic Church School.[5][7] The school was segregated and enforced harsh rules, which Clementine Hunter cites as the reason she left school at a young age.[5] As a result, she only attended school for less than a year, and never formally learnt to read or write.[5][4] Clementine Hunter began working in the fields at eight years old, picking cotton alongside her father.[6] Throughout her life she moved around in the Cane River Valley while her father looked for work.[6] At certain points she lived in Robeline, Cypress, and Alexandria.[6] In 1902, around the age of fifteen, Hunter moved to Melrose Plantation. [7][5]

Hunter's father, Janvier "John" Reuben was hired as a wage laborer by John H. Henry, the current owner of Melrose.[5] Clementine Hunter also worked for a wage as a agricultural laborer, harvesting 150 to 200 pounds of cotton a day, making 75 cents.[5] In the fall, she would also harvest pecans, working six days a week for months of the year.[5] While in her teens, Clementine Hunter took informal classes at night with other workers at Melrose Plantation.[5][9] Her mother, Mary Antoinette Reuben, died in 1905 at Melrose.[7]

When Clementine Hunter was about twenty in 1907, she give birth to her first child, Joseph Dupree, called Frenchie.[5] Clementine Hunter's first partner was Charles Dupree, a Creole man about fifteen years Hunter's senior.[7] Charles is rumored to have built a steam engine with having only seen a picture and was well known for his highly skilled labor.[7][5] Their second child, Cora, was born a few years later.[5][6][7] Charles Dupree and Clementine Hunter never married, and Dupree died in 1914.[5][6][7]

In 1924, Clementine married Emmanuel Hunter, a Creole woodchopper at Melrose six years her senior.[7] Until Clementine Hunter married Emmanuel, she only spoke Creole French, and he taught her American English.[5][6] The two lived together in a workers' cabin at Melrose Plantation and had five children, although two were stillborn.[5][6][7] Hunter's children were named Agnes, King, and Mary, although she called Mary "Jackie".[5] On the morning before giving birth to one of her children, she harvested 78 pounds of cotton, went home and called for the midwife.[6] She was back working a few days later.[7]

In the late 1920s, Hunter began working as cook and housekeeper for Cammie Henry, the wife of John H. Henry.[7][10] She was known for her talent adapting traditional Creole recipes, sewing intricate clothes and dolls, and tending to the house's vegetable garden.[7] Before long, Melrose evolved into a salon for artists and writers in this period, hosted by Cammie Henry.[5][6][7] In the late 1930s, Clementine Hunter began to formally paint, using discarded tubes from the visiting artists at Melrose.[5][7][6]

In the early 1940s, Clementine Hunter's husband Emmanuel Hunter became terminally ill and bedridden.[5][6] She was now the sole financial provider for the family, working full time, while caring for Emmanuel, and painting late at night.[7] Emmanuel died in 1944, leaving Hunter to work and care for her children alone.[5]

During this period in the early 1940s, Clementine Hunter adopted Mary Francis LaCour, an eleven year old girl whose parents couldn't care for her.[5] Hunter cared for the girl, teaching her how to paint, the two displaying her creations outside of Hunter's home.[5] In her teens, Mary Francis moved to California to live with her father.[5] In 1951, Mary Francis died at less than twenty years old.[5]

Painting Career[edit]

Clementine Hunter has become one of the most well-known self-taught artists. Hunter is described as a memory painter because she documented Black Southern life in the Cane River Valley in the early 20th century. She was entirely self-taught and received almost no formal education, art or otherwise.[11] Although she was first recognized for her painting skills in 1939, Hunter speaks about painting long before then.[11][12][13] Her most famous work depicts brightly colored depictions of important events like funerals, baptisms, and weddings and scenes of plantation labor like picking cotton or pecans, and domestic labor. However, Clementine Hunter's paintings vary in subject and style, including many abstract paintings and still life paintings of zinnias.[citation needed]

Clementine Hunter painted from memory, “I just get it in my mind and I just go ahead and paint but I can’t look at nothing and paint. No trees, no nothing. I just make my own tree in my mind, that’s the way I paint.” [8]

Cammie Henry created an artists' colony after the death of her husband at Melrose Plantation.[3][14] Numerous artists and writers visited, including Lyle Saxon, Roark Bradford, Alexander Woollcott, Rose Franken, Gwen Bristow, and Richard Avedon.[8] Frequently, the paint and brushes left by New Orleans artist Alberta Kinsey, are cited as the first materials Clementine Hunter used to paint with on a window shade.[15][3][16] However, it's clear from Clementine Hunter's textile work that she was producing narrative and expressionist work before painting.[5][6] Additionally, Hunter's own accounts of her early career contradict the story of Kinsey's influence, Hunter has spoken about painting earlier than 1939..[11][12][13]

Picking Cotton, c 1955


Hunter began selling paintings after the death of her husband, Emmanuel Hunter.[5] On the outside of the cabin where she lived was a sign that read: "Clementine Hunter, Artist. 25 cents to Look."[8] Clementine Hunter's first shows were in 1945 in Rosenwald Grant, Brownwood, and Waco Texas.[8] In 1949, a show of Clementine Hunter's paintings at the New Orleans Arts and Crafts Show garnered attention outside of the Cane River Valley.[8] An article was published about Hunter in Look magazine in June 1953, giving her national exposure.

Hunter gained support from numerous individuals associated with Melrose Plantation, including François Mignon, a friend of Cammie Henry and Clementine Hunter.[4] He supplied her with paint and materials, and promoted her widely.[8] Hunter's paintings were displayed in the local drugstore, where they were sold for one dollar.[8]

In 1956, Clementine Hunter and François Mignon coauthored Melrose Plantation Cookbook, featuring photographs of Melrose Plantation, illustrations drawn by Hunter, and recipes.[17][3] Hunter was skilled at reinterpreting traditional dishes, which were passed down in her family by oral tradition.[3]

Hunter's largest work is a series of murals in the African House at Melrose Plantation. Built the early 19th century by enslaved people at Melrose Plantation, the African House is a Creole hybridization of various African, French, Native American building traditions.[18][19][20] However, little is known about its construction and early uses, however it is known that it served as a storehouse and during Cammie Henry's ownership as a residence for artists.[21] In 1949, Clementine Hunter's first show in the Cane River Valley was hosted by Mignon in the upstairs area of the African House.[11]Hunter painted Murals in the Yucca house and the main Melrose Plantation house.[6][7] In 1955, Clementine Hunter and François Mignon collaborated to produce the series of paneled murals that capture the history of the Cane River Valley and reflect the artist's life.[7] The mural consists of nine rectangular panels, each painted in Hunter's home studio.[7] Completed over three months, the murals were finished Hunter was sixty-eight years old.[7]

Hunter's paintings changed throughout her lifetime. Her early work, such as "Cane River Baptism" from 1950, features more earth tones and muted colors.[6] Before the patronage and support from François Mignon and others, Hunter used paint left by visiting artists at Melrose Plantation, therefore she was working within other artists' palettes.[22] Additionally, Hunter would frequently thin out her supply of paint with turpentine, creating more of a watercolor effect, which promoted many Hunter scholars to believe she had a watercolor experimental phase.[7] From the 1950s on, her painting style was altered by her arthritis in her hands.[11] From this period on, she leaned more towards abstract and impressionist work, with less fine detail, because it was difficult for her to paint.[11] In 1962, her friend James Pipes Register encouraged her to become even more abstract, painting works like Clementine Makes a Quilt.[11] However, by 1964, Hunter returned to more narrative works.[11] In the 1980s, as she approached one hundred years old, she began painting on smaller, more handheld objects like jugs.[11]

In late 1971, sixty of Clementine Hunter's paintings were shown at an exhibition at Louisiana State University.[23]

Quiltmaking[edit]

Hunter lived in communities of Black sharecroppers and tenant farmers where she learned to sew clothes and household items.[6] Before she began painting, she would sew clothes for family, would make quilts, weave baskets.[6] François Mignon recognized Hunter's talents with fabric and sewing before he saw any of her painted works.[24] On December 19, 1939, Mignon recorded in his journals that Clementine (Mignon called her Clemence) first showed him dolls she created with embroidered features.[24] Additionally, he wrote that she was exceptionally talented at making fringe and can spin cotton.[24] James Register also recorded Clementine Hunter's exceptional skill at making fringe in an article in the Natchitoches Times in 1972.[6] She could also make hand-tied lace curtains.

Hunter's quilts and tapestries are clear examples of her artistic talent before she began painting, and feature subjects and her color palette that are central to the majority of her artwork. Many of her quilts are titled "Melrose Quilt" or "Melrose Plantation" Textile or Tapestry as many of them depict buildings on the Melrose grounds. The Melrose Plantation Textile, which is hand appliquéd and sewn, is from 1938 or 1939, and is thematically similar to her painted works.[7] Most of Hunter's textile work is owned in private collections; however, a photograph of Hunter in her home shows her using one of her Chevron as a couch covering.[25] Each square is hand sewn together. Many of Hunter's quilts are not batted, which signals that they are designed to hang as a tapestry, rather than serve a household function.[11]

Hunter made several quilts that are more abstract. One Chevron Quilt is at the New Orleans Museum of Art.[26] Some of the squares of chevron are alternating solid colors, while other squares are pieces of scrap patterned cloth.[26] Although Hunter's abstract paintings made in 1962 and 1936 are generally regarded as a break in her canon, it's clear that her early textile work and paintings play with abstraction and impressionism.[6] Additionally, Shelby Gilley's collection of Hunter's "Crazy Quilts" or Chevron quilts are dated as 1960, and the Chevron Quilt at the New Orleans Museum of Art is dated 1951, before her collaboration with James Register.[6][27][26]

Legacy and honors[edit]

A director of the Museum of American Folk Art in Washington, D.C. described Hunter as "the most celebrated of all Southern contemporary painters."[28]

Inscription on gravestone reads. Distinctive signature, backwards C interlocking with H. Clementine Hunter, Born Natchitoches Parish, Died January 1, 1988, Age 101 Years.
Inscription on Clementine Hunter's Gravestone

Hunter was the first African-American artist to have a solo exhibition at the Delgado Museum (now the New Orleans Museum of Art). In February 1985, the museum hosted A New Orleans Salute to Clementine Hunter's Centennial, an exhibit in honor of her one-hundredth birthday.[29] She achieved significant recognition during her lifetime, including an invitation to the White House from U.S. President Jimmy Carter and letters from both President Ronald Reagan and U.S. Senator J. Bennett Johnston, Jr.[30]

Radcliffe College included Hunter in its Black Women Oral History Project, published in 1980.[8] An interview with Clementine Hunter is part of the Black Women Oral History Project records, 1976-1997, housed at Harvard University, Radcliffe Institute, Schlesinger Library.[31] In the Mildred H. Bailey Collection of Interviews at Northwestern State University of Louisiana, there are digitized interviews with Clementine Hunter and those closest to her.[32]

Northwestern State University of Louisiana granted her an honorary Doctor of Fine Arts degree in 1986.[5] The following year, Louisiana governor Edwin Edwards designated her as an honorary colonel, a state honor, and aide-de-camp.[8]

A biography, Clementine Hunter: Cane River Artist (2012), was co-written by Tom Whitehead, a retired journalism professor who knew Hunter well. \

Hunter has been the subject of biographies and artist studies, and inspired other works of art. In 2013, composer Robert Wilson presented a new opera about her: Zinnias: the Life of Clementine Hunter, at Montclair State University in New Jersey.[2] Shinnerrie Jackson's one-woman musical Ain't I a Woman? honors the lives of four influential African American women, including Clementine Hunter.[33][34]

Hunter's work can be found in numerous museums such as the Dallas Museum of Fine Art, the American Folk Art Museum, Minneapolis Institute of Arts, the Ogden Museum of Southern Art, the New Orleans Museum of Art, and the Louisiana State Museum.[14]

Clementine Hunter's World is a 2017 documentary directed by noted Hunter scholar Art Shiver.[35] The film celebrates Clementine Hunter's life and artwork through the lens of photographs, oral histories, and the newly resorted African House Murals.[35] In addition to the film, the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History & Culture created an exhibition centering on Clementine Hunter called "Clementine Hunter: Life on Melrose Plantation."[36] According to Smithsonian American Art curator Tuliza Fleming, the 22 works by Hunter is the largest collection by a single artist at the museum.[37]

In 2019, Louisiana State Legislators passed a resolution that designated October 1 as Clementine Hunter Day.[38] Loletta Jones-Wynder, the director of the Creole Heritage Center at Northwestern State University of Louisiana, created the resolution to honor Clementine Hunter's legacy and impact on the State of Louisiana.[38]

Clementine Hunter Forgeries[edit]

As Clementine Hunter became increasingly more famous over her lifetime, and began selling her painted works for more money, forged paintings started becoming a problem.[10] Relatives of Clementine Hunter and Cammie Henry created forgeries, although very few.[6][39] Although there were many Clementine Hunter fakes, William and Beryl Toye were the most prolific.[10] In 1974, William J. Toye was charged with forging twenty-two Clementine Hunter paintings by the New Orleans police.[10][7][5][6] Toye was able to pass these paintings off as Hunter originals because he recreated Clementine Hunter's distinctive signature, a backwards C and an H interlocking.[5] William Toye's wife Beryl claimed that she purchased the paintings directly from Clementine Hunter at Melrose Plantation in the 1960s.[5][10] Toye's case never went to trial, despite verification from Clementine Hunter herself that she had not painted the works.[5] In 1996, Toye was accused of forging Matisse and Degas paintings, selling them to an auction house in Baton Rouge.[5][10] Toye likely began forging Hunter paintings again in 1999, selling them or using them as a form of payment for doctor's bills or as collateral for a bank loan until the mid 2000s.[5]

Toye sold many his fakes to New Orleans art and antiques dealer, Robert Lucky Jr.[5] Lucky intentionally lied to his customers about the origins of fifty to one hundred Hunter paintings, reselling paintings that were returned as fakes.[5][10] In 2000, Robert Lucky Jr. took payment for a Clementine Hunter painting that he never gave to the customer, and was charged and arrested.[5] Some noted Clementine Hunter collectors caught on his scheme, such as Robert Ryan who returned some paintings bought from Lucky, demanding a refund.[5] Shelby Gilley and Tom Whitehead, scholars, collectors, and friends of Clementine Hunter, also figured out that the bulk of Hunter fakes were coming from Lucky, leading them to open an investigation.[5][10] Whitehead had bought a total of seventeen fake Clementine Hunter paintings from Lucky, spending a total of $55,000.[39]

In 2005, Tom Whitehead, Shelby Gilley, and Jack Brittain hired Frank Preusser, an art authentication expert, to investigate these Clementine Hunter forgeries.[5] Preusser analyzed the materials used in the paintings in question, compared to those sold by Lucky and determined that they were in fact inconsistent materials.[5] The investigation uncovered paintings sold by William Toye, which were consistent with the fakes sold by Robert Lucky Jr., as Toye began selling the fakes directly to buyers in 2005.[5] At that time, Beryl Toye was selling Hunter fakes for $3,500 a painting at a New Orleans auction house.[39]

In 2009, Federal Bureau of Investigations Special Agent Randolph Deaton assembled a team of noted art authentication experts, to begin a formal investigation into the forgeries.[5] The team included Joseph Barabe of McCrone Associates, a scientific analysis company and James Martin a forensic art expert of Orion Analytical.[5] The group used several methods to analyze Hunter's original works to compare to the alleged forgeries, including an analysis of pigment cracks, paint age, painting style.[5] However, one of the most important clues that a painting was a Hunter original were her fingerprints on the back of the oil paintings.[5][39][6] Hunter did not use an easel, so the backs and borders of her paintings are smudged with paint, unlike Toye who used an easel to paint his fakes.[6]

In September 2009, the FBI determined that William Toye was the one producing the forgeries and raided his home.[10][16][39] Toye, who was accused of selling forged paintings three times over the course of four decades, pleaded guilty in federal court on June 6, 2011.[10][13][5] The couple was charged with mail fraud and conspiracy to commit mail fraud.[39] The price for Hunter paintings ranged between a few thousand dollars to $20,000, according to Tom Whitehead.[40] Both William and Beryl Toye were sentenced to two years probation and a $426,393 fine for the cost of the fakes sold.[5] Robert Lucky Jr. was charged with mail fraud and pled guilty, was sentenced to twenty-five months in prison and a $326,893 fine.[5]

This investigation was crucial to protecting Clementine Hunter's legacy, as many of the fakes were show in museums in private collections around the world.[5] Additionally, very few FBI forgery cases investigate folk artists or outsider artists, and so this case helped to legitimize the value of self-taught artists.[5]

Selected works and collections[edit]

Studies and other related books[edit]

  • Mildred Hart Bailey, Four Women of Cane River (1980)
  • Shelby R. Gilley, Painting by Heart: The Life and Art of Clementine Hunter, Louisiana Folk Artist (2000), St. Emma Press
  • Clementine Hunter, Clementine Hunter: A Sketchbook (2014), University of New Orleans Press. ISBN 978-1-60801-036-3
  • Mary E. Lyons, Talking with Tebé (1998), Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 9780395720318
  • François Mignon, illustrated by Clementine Hunter, Melrose Plantation Cookbook (1956), ASIN B000CS68QA
  • Art Shiver, Tom Whitehead (editors), Clementine Hunter: The African House Murals (2005), Northwestern State University of Louisiana Press. ISBN 0-917898-24-9
  • Art Shiver, Tom Whitehead (co-authors), Clementine Hunter Her Life and Art (2012), LSU Press. ISBN 978-0-8071-4878-5
  • James Register, illustrated by Clementine Hunter, The Joyous Coast (1971), Mid-South Press, Shreveport, Louisiana
  • James Wilson, Clementine Hunter: American Folk Artist (1990), Pelican Publishing Company

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Catlin, Roger. "Self-Taught Artist Clementine Hunter Painted the Bold Hues of Southern Life". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 2020-04-21.
  2. ^ a b Jennifer Moses, "Looking for Clementine Hunter's Louisiana", The New York Times, June 16, 2013, accessed January 17, 2015.
  3. ^ a b c d e Shelby R. Gilley, Painting by Heart: The Life and Art of Clementine Hunter, Louisiana Folk Artist. St. Emma Press (2000).
  4. ^ a b c "Clementine Hunter biography. Archived March 25, 2012, at the Wayback Machine Nader's Gallery, Shreveport, Louisiana.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg Shiver, Art. (2012). Clementine Hunter : Her Life and Art. Whitehead, Tom. Baton Rouge: LSU Press. pp. xvi. ISBN 978-0-8071-4879-2. OCLC 811507091.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Gilley, Shelby R. (2000). Painting by heart : the life and art of Clementine Hunter, Louisiana folk artist. Baton Rouge, La.: St. Emma Press. pp. 39, 45, 49, 58, 73, 75, 131. ISBN 0-9704221-0-5. OCLC 46313974.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Wilson, James L. (James Lynwood) (1988). Clementine Hunter, American folk artist. Gretna: Pelican Pub. Co. pp. 20, 30, 31, 35, 50. ISBN 0-88289-658-X. OCLC 17509029.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j James Lynwood Wilson, Clementine Hunter: American Folk Artist, Pelican Publishing Company (1990), ISBN 0-88289-658-X. Retrieved June 9, 2011.
  9. ^ Hunter, Clementine. Audiotape interview by Mildred Bailey, 1976.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Campbell Robertson, "For a Longtime Forger, Adding One Last Touch" The New York Times (June 8, 2011). Retrieved June 8, 2011.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Shiver, Art. (2012). Clementine Hunter : Her Life and Art. Whitehead, Tom. Baton Rouge: LSU Press. pp. xv, 43, 58, 61, 77. ISBN 978-0-8071-4879-2. OCLC 811507091.
  12. ^ a b Oaks, John (May 8, 1985). "South's Very Own Grandma Moses Nears 100". Fort Worth Star-Telegram.
  13. ^ a b c "Defendant Admits to Selling Counterfeit Clementine Hunter Paintings", KATC, Lafayette, Louisiana (June 6, 2011). Archived March 14, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  14. ^ a b Allured, Janet. "Clementine Hunter". Know Louisiana. Retrieved 22 March 2018.
  15. ^ Janet McConnaughey, "La man admits selling forged folk artist paintings"[permanent dead link] The Washington Examiner (June 6, 2011). Retrieved June 8, 2011.
  16. ^ a b Ruth Laney, Clementine Hunter Fakes" Archived August 9, 2011, at the Wayback Machine Country Roads, Baton Rouge, Louisiana (January 2010). Retrieved June 8, 2011.
  17. ^ "Melrose Plantation Cookbook". National Museum of African American History and Culture. Retrieved 2020-04-22.
  18. ^ "African architecture - Influences of Islam and Christianity". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-04-02.
  19. ^ "Detail of African house at Melrose plantation in Natchitoches Louisiana in 1940". Louisiana Digital Library. Retrieved 2020-04-03.
  20. ^ Layton, Robert; Shennan, Stephen; Stone, Peter G. (2006). A Future for Archaeology: The Past in the Present. Psychology Press. pp. 131–133. ISBN 978-1-84472-126-9.
  21. ^ "African House at Melrose Plantation | National Trust for Historic Preservation". savingplaces.org. Retrieved 2020-04-03.
  22. ^ "Places They Remember: The Art of Clementine Hunter and Sarah Albritton". www.louisianafolklife.org. Retrieved 2020-04-01.
  23. ^ Coles, Bert (December 7, 1971). "Clementine Hunter Painting Exhibit Opening in Library". The Daily Reveille, Vol. 76 No. 51. Retrieved April 21, 2020.
  24. ^ a b c Folder 260, Page 118-19. in the Francois Mignon Papers #3889, Southern Historical Collection, The Wilson Library, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. https://finding-aids.lib.unc.edu/03889/#d1e91
  25. ^ "The life of folk artist Clementine Hunter, the first African American woman to exhibit in the New Orleans Museum of Art: Folk Art America". www.folkartlife.com. Retrieved 2020-04-02.
  26. ^ a b c "Chevron Quilt". New Orleans Museum of Art. Retrieved 2020-03-06.
  27. ^ ManagedArtwork.com. "Chevron Quilt_ Clementine Hunter_ textile_ quilt_ folk art_ outsider art | Clementine Hunter | Gilley's Gallery". www.gilleysgallery.com. Retrieved 2020-03-31.
  28. ^ "Celebrating Clementine Hunter | Fine Art And Antique Appraiser". Retrieved 2020-10-29.
  29. ^ "My Darling Clementine". The Maroon Loyola University Vol 63 no. 17. February 15, 1985. Retrieved April 21, 2020.
  30. ^ Catlin, Roger. "Self-Taught Artist Clementine Hunter Painted the Bold Hues of Southern Life". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 2020-04-21.
  31. ^ "Black women oral history project interviews - The Civil Rights History Project: Survey of Collections and Repositories (The American Folklife Center, Library of Congress)". www.loc.gov. Retrieved 2018-03-30.
  32. ^ Parrie, J. G. "Clementine Hunter Tapes". University Libraries. Retrieved 2020-04-21.
  33. ^ "Shinnerrie Jackson and Core Ensemble Bring Ain't I a Woman to the Morrison Series". San Francisco Classical Voice. Retrieved 2020-04-22.
  34. ^ "Shinnerrie Jackson: 'Ain't I a Woman?'". Grand Forks Herald. Retrieved 2020-04-22.
  35. ^ a b "Clementine Hunter's World". Retrieved 2020-04-21.
  36. ^ Times, Natchitoches. "Locals present for 'Clementine Hunter's World' screening in Washington, D.C | Natchitoches Times". Retrieved 2020-04-21.
  37. ^ Catlin, Roger. "Self-Taught Artist Clementine Hunter Painted the Bold Hues of Southern Life". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 2020-04-21.
  38. ^ a b Times, Natchitoches. "Oct. 1 to be known as Clementine Hunter Day in Louisiana | Natchitoches Times". Retrieved 2020-04-21.
  39. ^ a b c d e f John Ed Bradley, "The Talented Mr. Toye", Garden & Gun (April/May 2010). Retrieved June 13, 2011.
  40. ^ Richard Burgess, "Guilty plea in art forgeries", The Advocate Arcadiana (June 7, 2011). Retrieved June 15, 2011.
  41. ^ "Funeral Procession". Collections. Savannah College of Art and Design. Archived from the original on February 11, 2017. Retrieved February 9, 2017.

External links[edit]