Collared inca

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Collared inca
Coeligena torquata.jpg
Male hovering
Collared Inca.jpg
CITES Appendix II (CITES)[4]
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Apodiformes
Family: Trochilidae
Genus: Coeligena
C. torquata
Binomial name
Coeligena torquata
(Boissonneau, 1840)
Coeligena torquata map.svg

The collared inca (Coeligena torquata) is a species of hummingbird found in humid Andean forests from western Venezuela, through Colombia and Ecuador, to Peru and Bolivia. It is very distinctive and unique in having a white chest-patch and white on the tail. Like other hummingbirds it takes energy from flower nectar (especially from bromeliads), while the plant benefits from the symbiotic relationship by being pollinated. Its protein source is small arthropods such as insects. It is normally solitary and can be found at varying heights above the ground, often in the open.[5]


The collared inca is subfamily Lesbiinae, the so-called "typical hummingbirds", of family Trochilidae. The family is placed by some taxonomic systems in the order Apodiformes, which contains swifts as well as hummingbirds. Others assign hummingbirds and swifts to order Caprimulgiformes.[6][7][8][9]


Collared incas found in different parts of their range tend to have certain morphological features characteristic of that region, and are considered separate subspecies. The South American Classification Committee of the American Ornithological Society and the International Ornithological Committee (IOC) recognize these eight subspecies:[6][7][5][10][11]

  • C. t. conradii (Bourcier, 1847) "green inca" – Venezuela. Much greener than typical, cinnamon-buffy throat with rufous-brown spots, smaller chest-patch, buffy belly.
  • C. t. torquata Boissonneau, 1840) – Colombia, east slope of Andes in Ecuador, and part of Peru.
  • C. t. fulgidigula (Gould, 1854) – West slope in Ecuador. Greener than typical. Patch on male's forehead shimmering blue. Male's chin metallic turquoise.
  • C. t. margaretae Zimmer, JT, 1948 – Central Amazonas Region of Peru to the Pasco Region of Peru. Two-part (shimmering green and blue) forehead patch in male. Female has white and green-spotted chin.
  • C. t. eisenmanni Weske, 1985 – Within a relatively small area to the northwest of Cusco, Peru. Both genders have some coppery uppertail coverts. Male has black head except for crown. Female has rufous chin.
  • C. t. insectivora (Tschudi, 1844) – Pasco Region to the Ayacucho Region of Peru.
  • C. t. omissa Zimmer, JT, 1948 "Gould's inca" in part.
  • C. t. inca (Gould, 1852) "Gould's inca" – from Cuzco south to the end of the range of the species in Bolivia. Both sexes have a completely rufous, rather than white, chest-patch.

The Clements taxonomy and BirdLife International's Handbook of the Birds of the World (HBW) treat subspecies C. t. conradii as a separate species, the "green inca". They also treat C. t. inca as a separate species, "Gould's inca", and include C. t. omissa as a subspecies of it.[8][9]


10–14 centimetres (3.9–5.5 in) in length, with a rather long (3–3.5 centimetres (1.2–1.4 in)), straight, black beak. Under most lighting conditions Coeligena torquata torquata appears black except for a very large and distinctive white chest-patch. However, in ideal lighting other features can be discerned: a shimmering metallic violet forehead patch in males, white thighs, fleshy-dusky feet, shimmering green throat in males, dull and containing some white in females, and some dark green mixed in with the black of the body. The tail of both genders is black except for white on the basal half of the outer four rectrices, and part of the underside. The female is slightly lighter green overall than the male and has a slightly smaller chest-patch[5][11]

Vocalizations are infrequent. Quiet, low-pitched, reedy whistle "tu-tee." Longer series of "pip... pip..." Very quiet spitting sound when foraging.[11]

Distribution and habitat[edit]

Humid subtropical and temperate forest regions, including cloud forests on both slopes of the Andes from Venezuela to Bolivia between 1,800 metres (5,900 ft) and 3,000 metres (9,800 ft), usually above 2,100 metres (6,900 ft) in Ecuador.[5][10] It typically forages below half the height of the canopy, and can most often be found around thickets near the forest edge.[5][11]

It is fairly common throughout most of its range.[5][10] No reasons for concern have been claimed.



Like other hummingbirds, the collared inca obtains most of its energy from nectar, which it drinks while it in turn pollinates the flower, and feeds on insects and other small insect-like arthropods as a source of protein.[11] It seems to prefer epiphytes.[5] It is a solitary trap-liner, meaning that it forages alone by flying a routine route between several flowers.[11]


Two single females of other Coeligena species have been observed caring for two offspring each. The nests were 1–2 metres (3.3–6.6 ft) above ground, about 7 centimetres (2.8 in) tall and wide, with an interior cup about 3 centimetres (1.2 in) deep and wide, and were composed of seed down and other materials. The eggs were completely white and measured about 1.5x1 cm. The mother visited once or twice every hour, to feed the young for a period of 9–55 seconds.[12][13]


The IUCN follows HBW taxonomy and so assesses the collared inca sensu stricto, the green inca, and Gould's inca separately. All three are assessed as being of Least Concern. None of their population sizes are known and all are believed to be decreasing. No immediate threats to any of them have been identified.[1][2][3]


  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2016). "Collared Inca Coeligena torquata". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016: e.T22726720A94930361. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22726720A94930361.en. Retrieved 22 November 2022.
  2. ^ a b BirdLife International (2016). "Green Inca Coeligena conradii". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016: e.T22726729A94930553. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22726729A94930553.en. Retrieved 22 November 2022.
  3. ^ a b BirdLife International (2016). "Gould's Inca Coeligena inca". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2016: e.T22726743A94930915. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22726743A94930915.en. Retrieved 22 November 2022.
  4. ^ "Appendices | CITES". Retrieved 2022-01-14.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Greenfield, P.; Ridgely, R. (2001). The Birds of Ecuador. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press.
  6. ^ a b Remsen, J. V., Jr., J. I. Areta, E. Bonaccorso, S. Claramunt, A. Jaramillo, D. F. Lane, J. F. Pacheco, M. B. Robbins, F. G. Stiles, and K. J. Zimmer. Version 24 July 2022. A classification of the bird species of South America. American Ornithological Society. retrieved July 24, 2022
  7. ^ a b Gill, F.; Donsker, D.; Rasmussen, P., eds. (August 2022). "Hummingbirds". IOC World Bird List. v 12.2. Retrieved August 9, 2022.
  8. ^ a b Clements, J. F., T. S. Schulenberg, M. J. Iliff, T. A. Fredericks, J. A. Gerbracht, D. Lepage, S. M. Billerman, B. L. Sullivan, and C. L. Wood. 2022. The eBird/Clements checklist of birds of the world: v2022. Downloaded from retrieved November 10, 2022
  9. ^ a b HBW and BirdLife International (2021) Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International digital checklist of the birds of the world. Version 6. Available at: retrieved August 7, 2022
  10. ^ a b c Schulenberg, T.; Stotz, D.; Lane, D.; O'Neill, J.; Parker, T. (2007). Birds of Peru (revised and updated ed.). Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
  11. ^ a b c d e f Restall, R.; Rodner, C.; Lentino, M. (2006). Birds of Northern South America: An Identification Guide. London: A&C Black.
  12. ^ Dyrcz, A.; Greeney, H. (2008). "Observations on the Breeding Biology of Bronzy Inca (Coeligena coeligena) in Northeastern Ecuador". Ornitologia Neotropical. 19: 565–571.
  13. ^ Greeney, H.; Nunnery, T. (2006). "Notes on the breeding of north-west Ecuadorian birds". Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club. 126 (1): 38–45.

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