Comparison of MQTT implementations

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MQTT (MQ Telemetry Transport or Message Queuing Telemetry Transport) is an ISO standard (ISO/IEC PRF 20922)[1] publish-subscribe-based messaging protocol. It works on top of the TCP/IP protocol. It is designed for connections with remote locations where a "small code footprint" is required or the network bandwidth is limited. The publish-subscribe messaging pattern requires a message broker.

All comparison categories use the stable version of each implementation listed in the overview section. The comparison is limited to features that relate to the MQTT protocol.

Overview[edit]

The following table lists MQTT both libraries and implementations, along with general information about each.

Implementation Developed by Open source Software license Copyright owner Programming language Type Latest stable release, release date Origin
Adafruit IO Adafruit Yes MIT License Adafruit Ruby, Node.js, Python, Go[2] Client 2.0.0,[3]
?
US
EMQ X[4] EMQ Yes Apache License version 2.0 EMQ Enterprise, Inc. Erlang[5] Broker V4.2.7,[6]
2021-01-29
China
flespi[7] Gurtam No Commercial license Gurtam C Broker 2018-04-05 Belarus
GridServer GRID System No Commercial license GRID System S.A.S Pascal, Delphi Broker 2019-09-15 France
HiveMQ MQTT Client[8] HiveMQ Yes Apache License version 2.0 HiveMQ Java Client 1.2.2,[9]
2021-04-08
Germany
HiveMQ Community Edition[10] HiveMQ Yes Apache License version 2.0 HiveMQ Java Broker 2021.1,[11]
2021-03-05
Germany
HiveMQ[12] HiveMQ No Commercial license HiveMQ Java Broker 4.6.0,[13]
2021-04-28
Germany
IBM WIoTP Message Gateway[14] IBM No Commercial license IBM C Broker 5.0.0.1 2019-02-29
JoramMQ[15] ScalAgent D.T. No, based on OW2/Joram 5.17, open-source broker (LGPL) Commercial license ScalAgent D.T. Java Broker 1.14 2021-02-26 France
KMQTT[16] Davide Pianca Yes MIT License Davide Pianca Kotlin Broker 0.2.1,[17]

2020-08-15

Italy
M2Mqtt[18] Eclipse Yes Eclipse Public License 1.0 Eclipse C# Client 4.3.0.0,[19]
2017-05-20
Canada
Machine Head[20] ClojureWerkz[21] Yes Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License Alexander Petrov, Michael Klishin, ClojureWerkz Team Clojure Client 1.0.0,[20]
2017-03-05
moquette[22] Andrea Selva Yes Apache License version 2.0 Andrea Selva Java Broker 0.12.1,[23]
2019-03-03
Italy
Mosquitto[24] Eclipse Yes Eclipse Public License 2.0, Eclipse Distribution License 1.0 (BSD) Eclipse C Client and Broker 2.0.2,[25]
2020-12-10
UK
MQTT🤖[26] Pascal de Kloe Yes Public Domain nobody Go Client v1.0.0, 2020-02-22 The Netherlands
MQTT-C[27] Liam Bindle Yes MIT License Liam Bindle C Client 1.1.5,[28]
2021-04-01
Canada
mqttools[29] Erik Moqvist Yes MIT License Erik Moqvist Python Client and Broker 0.34.0, 2020-01-20 Sweden
net-mqtt[30] Dustin Sallings Yes BSD 3-Clause Dustin Sallings Haskell Client 0.6.0.0, 2019-10-12 US
OpenRemote MQTT Broker[31] OpenRemote Yes AGPLv3 OpenRemote Java Broker 3.0.1, 2021-03-10 US
Paho MQTT[32] Eclipse Yes Eclipse Public License 1.0, Eclipse Distribution License 1.0 (BSD)[33] Eclipse C, C++, C#, Go, Java, JavaScript, Python, Rust[34] Client 1.4.0 (Photon),[35]
2018-06-27
UK
PubSub+[36] Solace No Commercial license, free version Solace C, C#/.Net, Java, JavaScript (NodeJs), Python, Go [37][38] Broker 9.8.1
2021-01-14[39]
Canada
Thingstream[40] Thingstream No Commercial licence Thingstream C, C++, Java, JavaScript, Python, Go Client and broker 3.3.0

2019-03-14[41]

UK
VerneMQ[42] VerneMQ/Erlio Yes Apache License version 2.0 VerneMQ/Erlio Erlang/OTP Broker 1.11.1

2020-10-01

Switzerland
wolfMQTT[43] wolfSSL[44] Yes GNU General Public License, version 2, Commercial License[43] wolfSSL C Client 1.7[45]
2020-08-21
US
eMQTT5[46] Cyril Russo Yes MIT License Cyril Russo C++ Client 1.0, 2020-03-31 France
Bevywise MQTTBroker[47] Bevywise Networks No Commercial license Bevywise Networks C, Python Broker v1.1, 2018-10-20 India
OpenHAB MQTT binding[48] OpenHAB Yes Eclipse Public License OpenHAB Java Client 2.5.4, 2020-04-21 Germany
Waterstream[49] SimpleMatter[50] No Commercial license SimpleMatter Srl Kotlin Broker 1.00.03 Italy

A more complete list of MQTT implementations can be found on GitHub.

Protocol support[edit]

There are several versions of the MQTT protocol currently standardized. Below is a list containing the more recent versions of the MQTT protocol, with the organization that standardized them.

The following table lists the versions of MQTT that each implementation supports, and also lists their support for SSL/TLS and TCP. The security provided by SSL/TLS may be desirable depending on the type traffic being sent between devices, as MQTT transmits messages in the clear.[56]

Implementation MQTT-SN v1.2 MQTT 3.1 MQTT 3.1.1 MQTT 5.0 SSL/TLS TCP WS/WSS
EMQ Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
flespi Yes Yes Yes[57] Yes Yes Yes
HiveMQ Yes (only for broker) Yes Yes[58] Yes Yes Yes
IBM WIoTP Message Gateway Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
JoramMQ Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
KMQTT Yes Yes Yes Yes
M2Mqtt Yes Yes Yes Yes
Machine Head
moquette Yes Yes Yes[59] Yes
Mosquitto Yes Yes Yes Supports certificate-based and pre-shared-key-based SSL/TLS,

general support for SSL/TLS across bridges[60]

Yes Yes
MQTT-C Yes Yes Yes Yes
mqttools Yes Yes Yes
net-mqtt Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Paho MQTT[32] Yes[61] Yes Yes Yes (only in C and Java client library)[62] Yes Yes Yes
Solace PubSub+ Yes[63] Yes[64] Yes Yes Yes
Thingstream Yes Yes Yes Yes
VerneMQ Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
wolfMQTT Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
eMQTT5 Yes Yes Yes
Bevywise Networks Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Waterstream Yes Yes Yes Yes

Quality of service levels offered[edit]

From the MQTT page, quality of service (QoS) is described as,

Quality of service refers to traffic prioritization and resource reservation control mechanisms rather than the achieved service quality. Quality of service is the ability to provide different priority to different applications, users, or data flows, or to guarantee a certain level of performance to a data flow.

A description of each QoS level is found below.[65]

  1. At most once delivery (fire and forget)
  2. At least once delivery (acknowledged delivery)
  3. Exactly once delivery (assured delivery)

The following table lists each implementation's support of the QoS levels.

Implementation 0 1 2
Adafruit IO Yes Yes No[66]
EMQ[67] Yes Yes Yes
flespi[57] Yes Yes Yes
HiveMQ[68] Yes Yes Yes
IBM WIoTP Message Gateway Yes Yes Yes
JoramMQ Yes Yes Yes
KMQTT Yes Yes Yes
M2Mqtt[18] Yes Yes Yes
moquette[69] Yes Yes Yes
Mosquitto[70] Yes Yes Yes
MQTT-C Yes Yes Yes
mqttools Yes No No
net-mqtt Yes Yes Yes
Paho MQTT Yes Yes Yes
Solace PubSub+ Yes Yes No[71]
Thingstream Yes Yes Yes
VerneMQ Yes Yes Yes
wolfMQTT[43] Yes Yes Yes
eMQTT5 Yes Yes Yes
Bevywise MQTTBroker Yes Yes Yes
Waterstream Yes Yes Yes

Portability concerns[edit]

Portability concerns in this section refers to technical details that may be deciding factors in selecting an implementation to use. In general, this table should be used by those with more knowledge about the device they will be using.

Implementation Platform requirements Network requirements Thread safety Able to cross-compile Bare metal
Adafruit IO Adafruit Feather Huzzah, ESP8266, Raspberry Pi, Arduino, any platform that supports Python, Ruby, or Node.js Platform-dependent
EMQ Linux, Unix, MacOS, Windows, Raspberry Pi[72] Yes Yes Yes
flespi
HiveMQ JVM, Linux, MacOS, Windows, Raspberry Pi Yes Yes Yes
JoramMQ JVM, Linux, MacOS, Windows, Raspberry Pi Yes Yes Yes
KMQTT JVM, Linux, Windows, Raspberry Pi Yes Yes
M2Mqtt Any .NET platform (.NET Framework, .NET Compact Framework, .NET Micro Framework), WinRT
Machine Head Leiningen 2[73]
mosquitto C90, Linux, Unix, MacOS, Windows, Raspberry Pi Yes Yes
MQTT-C ANSI C (C89)
Platform agnostic (in use in bare metal, Linux, MacOS, and Windows applications)
Network IO callbacks Yes. Additionally supports single-thread applications.[74] Yes Yes
net-mqtt GHC Yes Yes Yes
Paho MQTT ANSI C (for C client),
C++11 (for C++ client),
JVM or Android (for Java client)
For C, C++ clients For C, C++ clients
wolfMQTT C89 Network IO callbacks Yes Yes Yes
eMQTT5 Linux, Unix, MacOS, Windows, ESP32, STM32 (with lwIP and MBedTLS) C++11 BSD socket implementation Yes Yes Yes
Bevywise MQTTBroker Linux, Unix, MacOS, Windows, Raspberry Pi Yes

General requirements[edit]

The following table shows various requirements that may be useful when deciding on which implementation to use for a device.

Implementation Build tools Platform requirements Supported operating systems
Adafruit IO
EMQ Erlang/OTP R19+ (when building from source)[72] Linux, Unix, MacOS, Windows, Raspberry Pi[72] CentOS, Debian, Docker, Mac OS X, Ubuntu, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Windows 10, Windows 7, Raspbian (Raspberry Pi OS)[75]
flespi N/A (it's cloud-based)
HiveMQ Linux, Unix, MacOS, Windows, Raspberry Pi CentOS, Debian, Docker, Ubuntu, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Mac OS X, Windows 10, Windows 7, Raspbian (Raspberry Pi OS)
IBM WIoTP Message Gateway Linux CentOS, Docker, Red Hat Enterprise Linux
JoramMQ Maven, Java Linux, Unix, MacOS, Windows, Raspberry Pi CentOS, Debian, Docker, Ubuntu, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Mac OS X, Windows 10, Windows 7, Raspbian (Raspberry Pi OS)
KMQTT Gradle, Kotlin Linux, JVM, Windows, Raspberry Pi Linux, Windows
M2Mqtt Visual Studio Any .NET platform (.NET Framework, .NET Compact Framework, .NET Micro Framework),
WinRT
Windows 98 or later, Windows Phone 8.1[18]
Machine Head Maven, Leiningen Leiningen 2[73] Mac OS X, Linux (specific mentions of Debian, Ubuntu)[76]
mosquitto Make, CMake C90 BSD, Linux, macOS, QNX, Windows[77]
MQTT-C Make (optional)
CMake (optional)
C compiler (ANSI C/C89 or later) Bare metal, Linux, MacOS, Windows
net-mqtt stack GHC
Paho MQTT Autotools, CMake, gmake, gcc, g++ or clang++ for C++ clients, Maven for Java clients ANSI C (for C client),
C++11 (for C++ client),
JVM or Android (for Java client)
Varies upon language. Please see official Eclipse Paho MQTT Download page here.
Solace PubSub+ Linux, MacOS, Windows CentOS, Debian, Docker, KVM, Ubuntu, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Mac OS X, Windows 10, Windows 7; also Cloud[78]
wolfMQTT Autotools (autoconf, automake), wolfSSL to enable extra features such as SSL/TLS support C89 Win32/64, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, ThreadX, VxWorks, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, embedded Linux, Yocto Linux, OpenEmbedded, WinCE, Haiku, OpenWRT, iPhone (IOS), Android, Nintendo Wii and Gamecube through DevKitPro, QNX, MontaVista, NonStop, TRON/ITRON/µITRON, Micrium µC/OS-III, FreeRTOS, SafeRTOS, NXP/Freescale MQX, Nucleus, TinyOS, HP/UX, AIX, ARC MQX, TI-RTOS, uTasker, embOS, INtime, Mbed, uT-Kernel, RIOT, CMSIS-RTOS, [1], Green Hills INTEGRITY, Keil RTX, TOPPERS, PetaLinux, Apache Mynewt, PikeOS[43] (IDEs: Arduino, MPLAB Harmony[79])
eMQTT5 cmake, MbedTLS to enable extra features such as SSL/TLS support C++11 Win32/64, Linux, Mac OS X, FreeRTOS, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, embedded Linux, Yocto Linux,
Bevywise MQTTBroker Autotools , Visual Studio Linux, Unix, MacOS, Windows, Raspberry Pi CentOS, Debian, Docker, KVM, Ubuntu, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Mac OS, Windows32/64, Windows Server, Raspberry Pi, also Cloud
OpenHAB Eclipse Java build system Linux, Unix, MacOS, Windows, Raspberry Pi CentOS, Debian, Ubuntu, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, Mac OS, Windows32/64, Raspberry Pi

References[edit]

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