Cooran railway station opened on 10 June 1889 with the opening of the line from Gympie. It was the terminus of the line until it was extended south to Cooroy on 1 April 1891.
The station today consists of one platform with a steel shelter. In 2009, the platform was extended at its southern end with scaffolding and plywood materials. Initially intended as an interim arrangement until a permanent extension was built, the temporary platform remains. Opposite the platform lies a passing loop. Queensland Rail has announced that the temporary railway station platform at Cooran will be replaced with a permanent station early in 2017.