|Subgenus:||Cornus subg. Syncarpea|
F.Buerger ex Hance
Cornus kousa is a small deciduous tree 8–12 m (26–39 ft) tall, in the flowering plant family Cornaceae. Common names include kousa, kousa dogwood, Chinese dogwood, Korean dogwood, and Japanese dogwood. Synonyms are Benthamia kousa and Cynoxylon kousa. It is a plant native to East Asia including Korea, China and Japan. Widely cultivated as an ornamental, it is naturalized in New York State.
Like other Cornus, C. kousa has opposite, simple leaves, 4–10 cm long. The tree is extremely showy when in bloom, but what appear to be four, white petals are actually four spreading bracts below the cluster of inconspicuous yellow-green flowers. The blossoms appear in late spring, weeks after the tree leafs out.
It can be distinguished from the flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) of eastern North America by its more upright habit, flowering about a month later, and by the pointed rather than rounded flower bracts.
The fruit is a globose pink to red compound berry 2–3 cm in diameter, though these berries tend to grow larger towards the end of the season and some berry clusters that do not fall from the tree exceed 4 cm. It is edible, with a sweet and creamy flavour, and is a delicious addition to the tree's ornamental value. The fruit is sometimes used for making wine.
It is resistant to the dogwood anthracnose disease, caused by the fungus Discula destructiva, unlike C. florida, which is very susceptible and commonly killed by it; for this reason, C. kousa is being widely planted as an ornamental tree in areas affected by the disease.
Fall foliage is a showy red color.
Varieties, hybrids and cultivars
- Cornus kousa F.Buerger ex Hance or Cornus kousa Hance subsp. kousa – Japanese dogwood, native to Japan and Korea.
- Cornus kousa Hance subsp. chinensis (Osborn) Q. Y. Xiang – Chinese dogwood, native to China. This variety supposedly flowers more freely and produces larger flower bracts, with leaves that are also said to be larger than average. The validity of this variety, however, is questioned by some authorities.
Hybrids between C. kousa and C. florida (Cornus × rutgersensis Mattera, T. Molnar, & Struwe) and C. kousa and C. florida (Cornus × elwinortonii Mattera, T. Molnar, & Struwe) have been created by Rutgers University. Several selected for their disease resistance and good flower appearance have been named, patented, and released.
|'Beni Fuji'||The deepest red-pink bracts of any cultivar.||The color may not be as strong in warm summer areas.|
|'Elizabeth Lustgarten' and 'Lustgarten Weeping'||Notable for weeping habit, grow to 15' with branches that arch downwards.||The habit is rounded and gentle, a mature specimen is attractive.|
|'Gold Star'||White||Center of each leaf has a broad gold band, with stems that are somewhat reddish.||Relatively slow-growing, but in time does form a small-medium rounded tree.||The contrast between the red fruit and gold-splashed foliage can be striking.|
|'Little Beauty'||Forms a small, densely branched tree that may never exceed 15' tall.||Other traits are as per the species.|
|'Milky Way'||Pure White||Extremely floriferous and sets a very heavy crop of fruit. When in bloom, the bracts can conceal the foliage.||One of the most common cultivars. This chinensis cultivar is probably composed of over a dozen similar clones.|
|'Satomi' or 'Miss Satomi'
(also sold as 'Rosabella')
|Deep pink bracts.||Leaves turning purple and deep red in autumn.||Spreading medium-sized shrub.||This is a very popular cultivar. Warm summers seem to dull the color and many plants bloom light pink or white-pink.|
|'Snowboy'||Sports gray-green leaves that are edged in white, with occasional splashes of variegation throughout the foliage.||Very slow-growing.||The plant is attractive when well grown. Best sited in a shady location to avoid leaf scorch.|
|'Summer Stars'||Blooms heavily and grows to 25' tall with a vase shape.||The flower bracts on this selection are not as large as those of other cultivars, but they are retained longer.|
|'Temple Jewel'||White||Variegated form with leaves that show a light marbling of green, gold and light pink that turns mostly green with age.||Grows well to 20' tall and wider with a dense habit.|
|'Variegata'||Various clones exist with differing degrees of yellow or white variegation.||Most are slower growing.||The pattern may be unstable, plus the plants can produce green growth reversions. It benefits from siting in some shade.|
|'Wolf Eyes'||Variegated form with leaves that show a uniform white margin. The leaf margins are often prominently wavy. In fall, the leaves develop attractive pink to red coloration.||Shrubby and slow-growing, to 10' tall and wide.||This is a very popular cultivar. The variegation pattern is quite stable and resistant to burning. A shaded planting site is desirable.|
Culinary and food usage
C. kousa has edible berries. The soft pulp is sweet with a similar flavour to a ripe persimmon but the presence of hard seeds that are well attached to the pulp can be inconvenient when eaten directly. The rind of the berries is usually discarded because it has a bitter taste, although it is edible. The seeds are usually not eaten, but could be ground into jam and sauces. While less popular than the berries, young leaves can also be consumed.
C. kousa in June at the UBC Botanical Garden
C. kousa 'Samaratin' in an arboretum in Vossem, Belgium
- Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI) & IUCN SSC Global Tree Specialist Group (2018). "Cornus kousa". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2018: e.T130048568A130048571. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-2.RLTS.T130048568A130048571.en. Retrieved 19 May 2021.
- "Taxon: Cornus kousa Bürger ex Hance". U.S. National Plant Germplasm System. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
- Gilman EF (1997). Trees for urban and suburban landscapes. Albany, NY: Delmar Publishers. p. 237. ISBN 978-0-8273-7053-1.
- Tenenbaum F (2003). Taylor's encyclopedia of plants. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. p. 109. ISBN 978-0-618-22644-3.
- English Names for Korean Native Plants (PDF). Pocheon: Korea National Arboretum. 2015. p. 421. ISBN 978-89-97450-98-5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 May 2017. Retrieved 22 December 2016 – via Korea Forest Service.
- "Korean dogwood". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 15 April 2017.
- "Cornus kousa F.Buerger ex Hance". The Plant List. Kew Gardens. 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
- Nowicki, Marcin; Houston, Logan C.; Boggess, Sarah L.; Aiello, Anthony S.; Payá‐Milans, Miriam; Staton, Margaret E.; Hayashida, Mitsuhiro; Yamanaka, Masahiro; Eda, Shigetoshi; Trigiano, Robert N. (11 July 2020). "Species diversity and phylogeography of Cornus kousa (Asian dogwood) captured by genomic and genic microsatellites". Ecology and Evolution. 10 (15): 8299–8312. doi:10.1002/ece3.6537. ISSN 2045-7758. PMC 7417245. PMID 32788980.
- "Chinese dogwood". Bernheim Arboretum and Research Forest. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
- "Cornus kousa subsp. chinensis". www.efloras.org. Retrieved 1 July 2011.
- "Cornus kousa subsp. kousa". The Plant List. 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- "Taxon: Cornus kousa Hance subsp. kousa". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy). Beltsville, Maryland: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. 2018. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- "Cornus kousa subsp. chinensis (Osborn) Q.Y.Xiang". The Plant List. 2013. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- "Taxon: Cornus kousa Hance subsp. chinensis (Osborn) Q. Y. Xiang". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN-Taxonomy). Beltsville, Maryland: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. 2018. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- Brand MH. "Cornus kousa". University of Connecticut Plant Database. Storrs, CT: Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- Mattera R, Molnar T, Struwe L (2015). "Cornus×elwinortonii and Cornus×rutgersensis (Cornaceae), new names for two artificially produced hybrids of big-bracted dogwoods". PhytoKeys (55): 93–111. doi:10.3897/phytokeys.55.9112. PMC 4547027. PMID 26312045.
- Nowicki M, Boggess SL, Saxton AM, Hadziabdic D, Xiang QJ, Molnar T, Huff ML, Staton ME, Zhao Y, Trigiano RN (23 October 2018). Heinze B (ed.). "Haplotyping of Cornus florida and C. kousa chloroplasts: Insights into species-level differences and patterns of plastic DNA variation in cultivars". PLOS ONE. 13 (10): e0205407. Bibcode:2018PLoSO..1305407N. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0205407. PMC 6198962. PMID 30352068.
- "RHS Plantfinder - Cornus kousa 'Miss Satomi'". Retrieved 2 February 2018.
- "AGM Plants - Ornamental" (PDF). Royal Horticultural Society. July 2017. p. 23. Retrieved 24 January 2018.
- "RHS Plantfinder - Cornus kousa 'John Slocock'". Retrieved 2 February 2018.
- "RHS Plantfinder - Cornus kousa 'Summer Fun'". Retrieved 2 February 2018.
- "RHS Plantfinder - Cornus kousa 'Teutonia'". Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- "RHS Plantfinder - Cornus kousa 'Wolf Eyes'". Retrieved 30 January 2018.
- "RHS Plantfinder - Cornus kousa var. chinensis 'China Girl'". Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- "RHS Plantfinder - Cornus kousa var. chinensis 'Wisley Queen'". Retrieved 30 January 2018.
- "Eat The Weeds and other things, too: Kousa Dogwood". Eat The Weeds and other things, too. 10 September 2018. Retrieved 12 October 2021.
- Lloyd TA (24 September 2012). "Wild Harvests: Kousa Dogwood, another urban wonder". Wild Harvests. Retrieved 25 September 2017.