Cyclone Kina

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Severe Tropical Cyclone Kina
Category 3 severe tropical cyclone (Aus scale)
Category 4 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
Kina Dec 30 1992 0438Z.png
Satellite image of Cyclone Kina near its peak intensity
FormedDecember 23, 1992
DissipatedJanuary 5, 1993
Highest winds10-minute sustained: 150 km/h (90 mph)
1-minute sustained: 220 km/h (140 mph)
Lowest pressure955 hPa (mbar); 28.2 inHg
Fatalities26
Damage$110 million (1993 USD)
Areas affectedFiji, Southern Tonga
Part of the 1992–93 South Pacific cyclone season

Severe Tropical Cyclone Kina was a significant tropical cyclone which became the second-costliest storm to ever hit Fiji, only after Cyclone Winston of 2016. Total losses from Kina are estimated to be near $F170 million ($US110 million). The system was first noted as a tropical depression, to the east of the Solomon Islands on December 23. Over the next few days the system moved south-eastwards and gradually developed further, before it was named Kina, after it had developed into a tropical cyclone during December 26.

Meteorological history[edit]

Map plotting the track and the intensity of the storm, according to the Saffir–Simpson scale

During the middle of December 1992, an active phase of the Madden–Julian oscillation took place which helped to reinforce atmospheric convection across the western Pacific Ocean.[1] A tropical depression subsequently developed, within this area of atmospheric convection in the monsoon trough to the east of the Solomon Islands during December 23.[1][2][3] Over the next couple of days the system moved south-eastwards and passed to the north-east of Temotu Province, before the Fiji Meteorological Service (FMS) started issuing warnings on it during December 26.[2][3] During that day the system rapidly developed further, before the United States Joint Typhoon Warning Center initiated advisories on the system and designated it as Tropical Cyclone 07P.[3][4] The systems subsequently relaxed for about twelve hours, before it started to steadily develop further during December 27.[3] The system was subsequently named Kina by the FMS, after it had become a category 1 tropical cyclone on the Australian tropical cyclone intensity scale.[3][5] After being named the system posed a threat to Vanuatu, as it moved south-eastwards and continued to develop further.[3]

During December 29, the JTWC reported that Cyclone Kina had reached its peak intensity with 1-minute sustained wind speeds of 220 km/h (140 mph), which made the system equivalent to a category 4 hurricane on the SSHWS.[2] At around the same time TCWC Nadi also reported that the system had reached its initial peak intensity, with 10 - minute sustained wind speeds of 150 km/h (90 mph) which made it a category 3 severe tropical cyclone on the Australian scale.[3][5] The system subsequently remained at its peak intensity until early on December 31, when it start to weaken and move eastwards towards the Yasawa island group.[3][5] During the next day as the system approached the Northern Yasawa islands, Kina turned sharply towards the southeast, which made it pass between Fiji's two main islands of Viti Levu and Vanua Levu.[3]

Preparations and impact[edit]

Severe Tropical Cyclone Kina impacted the island nations of Fiji and Tonga, while it also threatened Vanuatu during its developing stages.[3] Kina was one of the most destructive tropical cyclones to affect Fiji, with parts of the archipelago experiencing the full brunt of a cyclone, for the first time in twenty years.[3] Fiji also suffered its second-greatest ever financial loss from a tropical cyclone, as a result of Kinas strange track through the island nation.[3] The only cyclone to cause more damage in Fiji was Winston of February 2016.[6] Due to the impact of this system, the name Kina was subsequently retired, from the list of names for the region by the World Meteorological Organization.[7]

Wettest tropical cyclones and their remnants in Fiji
Highest-known totals
Precipitation Storm Location Ref.
Rank mm in
1 1,139 44.84 Wally (1980) Sakisa [8]
2 1,040 40.94 Kina (1992-93) Monasavu dam [9]
3 913 35.94 04F (2016) Monasavu dam [10]
4 755 29.72 Bebe (1972) Naseuvou [11]
5 615 24.21 Gavin (1997) Monasavu dam [12]
6 545 21.46 June (1997) Matei [13]
7 529 20.83 Evan (2012) Monasavu dam [14]
8 508 20.00 09F 2017 Nagado [15]
9 495 19.49 Mick (2009) Monasavu dam [16]
10 479 18.86 Winston (2016) Nadarivatu [17]

The systems rain bands started to impact the island nation during December 28, and over the next few days produced torrential rainfall throughout the archipelago.[3] Strong winds were observed in the islands during January 1 and gradually increased to hurricane force over the next few days, as the system passed virtually through the middle of Fiji.[3] As a result, most parts of the archipelago suffered moderate to severe damage was recorded, while 23 people were killed in Fiji by Kina mostly as a result of drowning and being struck by flying objects.[3]

Tonga[edit]

Late on January 2, the FMS issued a gale warning for the Tongan island groups of Haʻapai, Tongatapu and Vavaʻu, while the system was located about 555 km (345 mi) to the northwest of Nuku'alofa.[3] During the next day as Kina moved more towards the south-southeast than had been expected, a hurricane warning was issued for Tongatapu, while a storm warning was issued for Haʻapai.[3] Later that day the cyclone subsequently passed about 110 km (70 mi) to the southwest of Nuku'alofa.[3] The FMS subsequently downgraded the warnings to gale force as the system moved rapidly towards the south, before all warnings were cancelled early on January 4.[3] Within the islands major damage was confined to the Tongatapu group where the system caused a moderate amount of damages, with severe damage reported to food crops while a minimal amount of damage was reported to dwellings.[3] Within Nuku'alofa two people drowned, while another person was electrocuted.[3]

Wallis and Futuna[edit]

In conjunction with Kina, Nina affected Wallis and Futuna between January 3–4, however, there were no tropical cyclone warnings were issued for the French Territory by the FMS.[18][19] Kina affected Futuna during January 3, where sustained winds of up to 53 km/h (33 mph) and wind gusts of up to 69 km/h (43 mph) were recorded.[18] Nina affected Wallis Island later that day where sustained winds of up to 80 km/h (50 mph) and wind gusts of up to 68 km/h (42 mph) were recorded.[18][19][20] Within the islands some damage to crops and houses was reported.[18]

Tuvalu[edit]

After Severe Tropical Cyclone Joni had affected Tuvalu during the previous month, Nina and Kina indirectly impacted the island nation during the opening days of January 1993.[18][21][22] The systems contributed to the strength of the westerly winds that were already present over the islands, with winds of up to 130 km/h (80 mph) reported throughout the islands.[18][21] As these winds combined with a heavy westerly swell and high seas, where they caused flooding of up to 2 ft (0.61 m) over the islands of Nanumea, Nanumaga, Niutao, Nui and Vaitupu.[18][23] As a result, damage was reported to crops and several buildings in the island nation, including thirty houses.[21][24] The two cyclones caused a severe amount of erosion in the island nation, with the shoreline on Vaitupu, receding by about 5–6 m (16–20 ft).[22] The Vaitupu Fisheries Harbour, that had only just been built during 1992, was seriously damaged by waves attributed to the two cyclones.[25]

On the island of Nanumea, a poorly designed sea wall trapped the storm surge on the island, which caused salt water contamination of the island vegetation and killed several trees.[23] The An appeal for international assistance was subsequently made by the Government of Tuvalu, as supplied of food and other essentials like petrol and kerosene on the worst affected islands were running low.[21] International assistance was subsequently provided, by the United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs, who provided an emergency grant of US$10 thousand.[26] The European Commission also provided emergency aid to Tuvalu which enabled the Red Cross, to provide foodstuffs, shelter, medical supplies and utensils to people whose homes were destroyed.[27]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Darwin Regional Specialised Meteorological Centre (1992). "December 1992" (PDF). Darwin Tropical Diagnostic Statement. Australian Bureau of Meteorology. 11 (12): 2. ISSN 1321-4233. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 6, 2015. Retrieved December 13, 2015.
  2. ^ a b c Joint Typhoon Warning Center; Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center. "Tropical Cyclone 07P (Kina) best track analysis". United States Navy, United States Air Force. Archived from the original on March 25, 2013. Retrieved July 8, 2014.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Prasad, Rajendra (February 19, 1993). Tropical Cyclone Kina, December 26, 1992 – January 5, 1993 (PDF) (Tropical Cyclone Report 92/1). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 26, 2013. Retrieved December 17, 2015.
  4. ^ Joint Typhoon Warning Center; Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Center (1993). Annual Tropical Cyclone Report: 1993 (PDF) (Report). United States Navy, United States Air Force. pp. 165–170, 216–224. Retrieved July 8, 2014.
  5. ^ a b c MetService (May 22, 2009). "TCWC Wellington Best Track Data 1967–2006". International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship.
  6. ^ Romm, Joe. "Hottest Winter On Record By Far Drives Devastating Weather Disasters Globally". Climate Progress. Climate Progress. Retrieved 14 April 2016.
  7. ^ RA V Tropical Cyclone Committee (October 11, 2018). Tropical Cyclone Operational Plan for the South-East Indian Ocean and the Southern Pacific Ocean 2018 (PDF) (Report). World Meteorological Organization. pp. I–4&nbsp, – II–9 (9–21). Archived from the original on October 12, 2018. Retrieved October 12, 2018.
  8. ^ Campbell, John R (1984). Dealing with disaster: hurricane response in Fiji. p. 55. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 23, 2014. Retrieved July 23, 2014.
  9. ^ Prasad, Rajendra (February 19, 1993). Tropical Cyclone Kina, December 26, 1992 – January 5, 1993 (Tropical Cyclone Report 92/1). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 26, 2013. Retrieved October 26, 2013.
  10. ^ Climate Services Division (January 10, 2017). Fiji Islands Climate Summary December 2016 Volume 33 Issue 12 (Report). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 17, 2017. Retrieved January 17, 2017.
  11. ^ Krishna, Ram (January 4, 1981). Publication No. 2: Tropical Cyclones in Fiji: November 1969 – April 1980 (Report). Fiji Meteorological Service. p. 3-5.
  12. ^ Terry, James P; Raj, Rishi (1999). "Island Environment and Landscape Responses to 1997 Tropical Cyclones in Fiji". Pacific Science. University of Hawai'i Press. 53 (3): 257–272. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
  13. ^ RSMC Nadi — Tropical Cyclone Centre (May 27, 1997). Preliminary Report on Tropical Cyclone "June" — May 3 - 5, 1997 (Report). Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 21, 2014. Retrieved March 21, 2014.
  14. ^ Climate Services Division (January 7, 2013). Fiji Islands Climate Summary December 2012 (Report). 33. Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on January 7, 2013. Retrieved January 8, 2013.
  15. ^ Climate Services Division (March 7, 2017). Fiji Islands Climate Summary February 2017 (Report). 38. Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 1, 2017. Retrieved July 1, 2017.
  16. ^ Climate Services Division (January 13, 2010). Fiji Islands Climate Summary December 2009 (Report). 30. Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 12, 2010. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
  17. ^ Climate Services Division (March 8, 2016). Fiji Climate Summary: February 2016 (Report). 37. Fiji Meteorological Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 8, 2016. Retrieved March 8, 2016.
  18. ^ a b c d e f g Tropical Cyclone Nina, December 21, 1992 – January 4, 1993 (Report). Fiji Meteorological Service. May 20, 1996. Archived from the original on December 5, 2015. Retrieved December 5, 2015.
  19. ^ a b "Wallis and Futuna Cyclone Passes De 1880 à nos jours". Météo-France. Archived from the original on July 1, 2014. Retrieved December 21, 2015.
  20. ^ "Pacific storms leave 15 dead and thousands homeless". Agence France Presse. January 4, 1993.
  21. ^ a b c d "Tuvalu Cyclone Nina January 1993 DHA-UNDRO Situation Report 1" (PDF). Relief Web. The United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs. January 5, 1993. Archived from the original on March 9, 2013. Retrieved December 18, 2015.
  22. ^ a b Chunting, Xue (April 30, 2005). "Causes of Land Loss in Tuvalu, a small island nation in the Pacific" (PDF). Journal of Ocean University of China. 4 (2): 120. ISSN 1672-5182. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 20, 2015. Retrieved December 20, 2015.
  23. ^ a b Tuvalu’s Views on the Possible Security Implications of Climate Change to be included in the report of the UN Secretary General to the UN General Assembly 64th Session (PDF) (Report). The United Nations Department of Humanitarian Affairs. January 5, 1993. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 19, 2015. Retrieved December 18, 2015.
  24. ^ Tuvalu national report prepared for the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction mid-term review and the 1994 World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction, Yokohama, Japan, May 23-27, 1994 (PDF). Prevention Web (Report). February 16, 1994. p. 15. Archived (PDF) from the original on December 11, 2015. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
  25. ^ Xue, Chunting (April 30, 2005). "Coastal erosion and management of Vaitupu Island, Tuvalu" (PDF). 4 (2). he Pacific Islands Applied Geoscience Commission: 120. ISSN 1672-5182. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 20, 2015. Retrieved December 20, 2015.
  26. ^ OCHA-Geneva Contributions Report: Tuvalu — Cyclone "Nina" - January 1993 (Report). April 14, 1999. Archived from the original on December 19, 2015. Retrieved December 11, 2015.
  27. ^ "EU-Tuvalu cooperation". The Courier. 149 (January–February 1995).

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