Dashiell Hammett

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Dashiell Hammett
Photo portrait of Hammett from the cover of his final novel, The Thin Man (1934)
Photo portrait of Hammett from the cover of his final novel, The Thin Man (1934)
BornSamuel Dashiell Hammett
(1894-05-27)May 27, 1894
St. Mary's County, Maryland, U.S.
DiedJanuary 10, 1961(1961-01-10) (aged 66)
Manhattan, New York City, U.S.
OccupationNovelist
NationalityAmerican
Period1929–1951
GenreCrime and detective fiction
Spouse
Josephine Dolan
(m. 1921; div. 1937)
[1]
PartnerLillian Hellman (1931–1961)
Children2

Samuel Dashiell Hammett (/dəˈʃl ˈhæmɪt/;[2] May 27, 1894 – January 10, 1961) was an American author of hard-boiled detective novels and short stories. He was also a screenwriter and political activist. Among the enduring characters he created are Sam Spade (The Maltese Falcon), Nick and Nora Charles (The Thin Man), and the Continental Op (Red Harvest and The Dain Curse).

Hammett "is now widely regarded as one of the finest mystery writers of all time".[3] In his obituary in The New York Times, he was described as "the dean of the... 'hard-boiled' school of detective fiction."[4] Time magazine included Hammett's 1929 novel Red Harvest on its list of the 100 best English-language novels published between 1923 and 2005.[5] His novels and stories also had a significant influence on films, including the genres of private-eye/detective fiction, mystery thrillers, and film-noir.

Early life[edit]

Hammett was born near Great Mills on the “Hopewell and Aim” farm in Saint Mary's County, Maryland[6] to Richard Thomas Hammett and his wife Anne Bond Dashiell. His mother belonged to an old Maryland family, whose name in French was De Chiel. He had an older sister, Aronia, and a younger brother, Richard, Jr.[7] Known as Sam, Hammett was baptized a Catholic,[8] and grew up in Philadelphia and Baltimore.

He left school when he was 13 years old and held several jobs before working for the Pinkerton National Detective Agency. He served as an operative for Pinkerton from 1915 to February 1922, with time off to serve in World War I. He claimed that while with the Pinkertons, he was sent to Butte, Montana, during the union strikes, though some researchers doubt this really happened.[9] The agency's role in union strike-breaking eventually left him disillusioned.[10]

Hammett enlisted in the United States Army in 1918 and served in the Motor Ambulance Corps. He was afflicted during that time with the Spanish flu and later contracted tuberculosis. He spent most of his time in the Army as a patient at Cushman Hospital in Tacoma, Washington, where he met a nurse, Josephine Dolan, whom he married on July 7, 1921, in San Francisco.[11]

Marriage and family[edit]

Hammett and Dolan had two daughters, Mary Jane (born 1921) and Josephine (born 1926).[12] Shortly after the birth of their second child, health services nurses informed Dolan that due to Hammett's tuberculosis, she and the children should not live with him full-time. Dolan rented a home in San Francisco, where Hammett would visit on weekends. The marriage soon fell apart; however, he continued to financially support his wife and daughters with the income he made from his writing.[13]

Career and personal life[edit]

Building at 891 Post St. where Hammett lived while writing The Maltese Falcon: The character Sam Spade may have also lived in the building.[14][15]

Hammett was first published in 1922 in the magazine The Smart Set.[16] Known for the authenticity and realism of his writing, he drew on his experiences as a Pinkerton operative.[17] Hammett wrote most of his detective fiction while he was living in San Francisco in the 1920s; streets and other locations in San Francisco are frequently mentioned in his stories. He said that "I do take most of my characters from real life."[18] His novels were some of the first to use dialogue that sounded authentic to the era. "I distrust a man that says when. If he's got to be careful not to drink too much, it's because he's not to be trusted when he does". [19]

The bulk of his early work, featuring a nameless private investigator, The Continental Op, appeared in leading crime-fiction pulp magazine, Black Mask. Both Hammett and the magazine struggled in the period when Hammett became established.[20]

Because of a disagreement with editor Philip C. Cody about money owed from previous stories, Hammett briefly stopped writing for Black Mask in 1926. He then took a full-time job as an advertisement copywriter for the Albert S. Samuels Co., a San Francisco jeweller. He was wooed back to writing for the Black Mask by Joseph Thompson Shaw who became the new editor in the summer of 1926. Hammett dedicated his first novel, Red Harvest, to Shaw and his second novel, The Dain Curse, to Samuels.[21] Both these novels and his third, The Maltese Falcon, and forth, The Glass Key, were first serialized in Black Mask before being revised and edited for publication by Alfred A. Knopf. The Maltese Falcon, considered to be his best work, was voted #2 of The Top 100 Mystery Novels of All Time.[22] by the Mystery Writers of America and is dedicated to his wife Josephine.

For much of 1929 and 1930, he was romantically involved with Nell Martin, a writer of short stories and several novels. He dedicated The Glass Key to her, and in turn, she dedicated her novel Lovers Should Marry to him. In 1931, Hammett embarked on a 30-year romantic relationship with the playwright Lillian Hellman. Though he sporadically continued to work on material, he wrote his final novel in 1934, more than 25 years before his death. The Thin Man is dedicated to Hellman. Why he moved away from fiction is not certain; Hellman speculated in a posthumous collection of Hammett's novels, "I think, but I only think, I know a few of the reasons: he wanted to do new kind of work; he was sick for many of those years and getting sicker."[23] In the 1940s, Hellman and he lived at her farm, Hardscrabble Farm, in Pleasantville, New York.[24]

Raymond Chandler, often considered Hammett's successor, summarized his accomplishments in The Simple Art of Murder:

Hammett was the ace performer, but there is nothing in his work that is not implicit in the early novels and short stories of Hemingway. Yet for all I know, Hemingway may have learned something from Hammett, as well as from writers like Dreiser, Ring Lardner, Carl Sandburg, Sherwood Anderson and himself... Hammett gave murder back to the kind of people that commit it for reasons, not just to provide a corpse; and with the means at hand, not with hand-wrought duelling pistols, curare, and tropical fish... He is said to have lacked heart, yet the story he thought most of himself [The Glass Key] is the record of a man's devotion to a friend. He was spare, frugal, hard-boiled, but he did over and over again what only the best writers can ever do at all. He wrote scenes that seemed never to have been written before.

Politics and service in World War II[edit]

Hammett devoted much of his life to left-wing activism. He was a strong antifascist throughout the 1930s, and in 1937 joined the Communist Party.[25] On May 1, 1935, Hammett joined the League of American Writers (1935-1943), whose members included Lillian Hellman, Alexander Trachtenberg of International Publishers, Frank Folsom, Louis Untermeyer, I. F. Stone, Myra Page, Millen Brand, and Arthur Miller. (Members were largely either Communist Party members or fellow travelers.)[26] He suspended his anti-fascist activities when, as a member (and in 1941 president) of the League of American Writers, he served on its Keep America Out of War Committee in January 1940 during the period of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact.[27]

Especially in Red Harvest, literary scholars have seen a Marxist critique of the social system. One Hammett biographer, Richard Layman, calls such interpretations "imaginative", but he nonetheless objects to them, since, among other reasons, no "masses of politically dispossessed people" are in this novel. Herbert Ruhm found that contemporary left-wing media already viewed Hammett's writing with skepticism, "perhaps because his work suggests no solution: no mass-action ... no individual salvation ... no Emersonian reconciliation and transcendence".[28] In a letter of November 25, 1937, to his daughter Mary, Hammett referred to himself and others as "we reds". He confirmed, "in a democracy all men are supposed to have an equal say in their government", but added that "their equality need not go beyond that." He also found, "under socialism there is not necessarily [...] any leveling of incomes."[29]

A the beginning of 1942, he wrote the screenplay of Watch on the Rhine, based on Hellman successful play, which received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Writing (Adapted Screenplay). But that year the Oscar went to Casablanca. In early 1942, following the attack on Pearl Harbor, Hammett again enlisted in the United States Army. He was a disabled veteran of World War I, a victim of tuberculosis, and a Communist, but he pulled strings to be admitted.[citation needed] However, biographer Diane Johnson suggests that confusion over Hammett's forenames was the reason he was able to re-enlist.[30] He served as a enlisted man in the Aleutian Islands and initially worked on cryptanalysis on the island of Umnak. For fear of his radical tendencies, he was transferred to the Headquarters Company where he edited an Army newspaper entitled The Adakian.[31] In 1943, while still a member of the military, he co-authored The Battle of the Aleutians with Cpl. Robert Colodny, under the direction of an infantry intelligence officer, Major Henry W. Hall. While in the Aleutians, he developed emphysema.[citation needed]

After the war, Hammett returned to political activism, "but he played that role with less fervour than before". He was elected president of the Civil Rights Congress (CRC) on June 5, 1946, at a meeting held at the Hotel Diplomat in New York City, and "devoted the largest portion of his working time to CRC activities".[32]

In 1946, a bail fund was created by the CRC "to be used at the discretion of three trustees to gain the release of defendants arrested for political reasons."[33] Those three trustees were Hammett, who was chairman, Robert W. Dunn, and Frederick Vanderbilt Field, "millionaire Communist supporter."[33] On April 3, 1947, the CRC was identified as a Communist front group on the Attorney General's List of Subversive Organizations, as directed by U.S. President Harry S. Truman's Executive Order 9835.[34]

Imprisonment and the blacklist[edit]

The CRC's bail fund gained national attention on November 4, 1949, when bail in the amount of "$260,000 in negotiable government bonds" was posted "to free eleven men appealing their convictions under the Smith Act for criminal conspiracy to teach and advocate the overthrow of the United States government by force and violence." On July 2, 1951, their appeals exhausted, four of the convicted men fled rather than surrender themselves to federal agents and begin serving their sentences. The United States District Court for the Southern District of New York issued subpoenas to the trustees of the CRC bail fund in an attempt to learn the whereabouts of the fugitives.[33]

Hammett testified on July 9, 1951, in front of United States District Court Judge Sylvester Ryan, facing questioning by Irving Saypol, the United States Attorney for the Southern District of New York, described by Time as "the nation's number-one legal hunter of top Communists". During the hearing, Hammett refused to provide the information the government wanted, specifically the list of contributors to the bail fund, "people who might be sympathetic enough to harbor the fugitives."[33] Instead, on every question regarding the CRC or the bail fund, Hammett declined to answer, citing the Fifth Amendment, refusing to even identify his signature or initials on CRC documents the government had subpoenaed. As soon as his testimony concluded, Hammett was found guilty of contempt of court.[33][35][36][37]

Hammett served time in a West Virginia federal penitentiary, where according to Lillian Hellman, he was assigned to clean toilets.[38][39] Hellman noted in her eulogy of Hammett that he submitted to prison rather than reveal the names of the contributors to the fund because "he had come to the conclusion that a man should keep his word."[40]

By 1952, Hammett's popularity had declined as result of the hearings. He found himself impoverished due a combination of the cancellation of radio programs, The Adventures of Sam Spade and The Adventures of the Thin Man, and a lien on his income by the Internal Revenue Service for back taxes owed since 1943. Furthermore his books were no longer in print.[41]

Later years and death[edit]

During the 1950s, Hammett was investigated by Congress. He testified on March 26, 1953, before the House Un-American Activities Committee about his own activities, but refused to cooperate with the committee. No official action was taken, but his stand led to him being blacklisted, along with others who were blacklisted as a result of McCarthyism.

Hammett became an alcoholic before working in advertising,[17] and alcoholism continued to trouble him until 1948, when he quit under doctor's orders. However, years of heavy drinking and smoking worsened the tuberculosis he contracted in World War I, and then according to Hellman, "jail had made a thin man thinner, a sick man sicker ... I knew he would now always be sick."[42]

Hellman wrote that during the 1950s, Hammett became "a hermit", his decline evident in the clutter of his rented "ugly little country cottage", where "signs of sickness were all around: now the phonograph was unplayed, the typewriter untouched, the beloved foolish gadgets unopened in their packages."[43] He may have meant to start a new literary life with the novel Tulip, but left it unfinished, perhaps because he was "just too ill to care, too worn out to listen to plans or read contracts. The fact of breathing, just breathing, took up all the days and nights."[44] Hammett could no longer live alone, and they both knew it, so he spent the last four years of his life with Hellman. "Not all of that time was easy, and some of it very bad", she wrote, but, "guessing death was not too far away, I would try for something to have afterwards."[45]

Death[edit]

Hammett's grave, in Arlington National Cemetery, (section 12, site 508)

Hammett died in Lenox Hill Hospital in Manhattan on January 10, 1961, of lung cancer, diagnosed just two months before.

A veteran of both world wars, Hammett was buried at Arlington National Cemetery.[46]

Archive[edit]

  • Another collection is housed at the Irvin Department of Rare Books and Special Collections at the University of South Carolina. It contains the Dashiell Hammett Family Papers which consist of many types of materials relating to the personal lives of Dashiell Hammett and his family, including the letters that he sent to his daughters and to Josephine, materials about Hammett’s time in military service, financial documents and publications both professional and political.[48]

Legacy[edit]

Hammett's relationship with Lillian Hellman was portrayed in the 1977 film Julia. Jason Robards won an Oscar for his depiction of Hammett, and Jane Fonda was nominated for her portrayal of Lillian Hellman.

Hammett was the subject of a 1982 prime time PBS biography, The Case of Dashiell Hammett, that won a Peabody Award and a special Edgar Allan Poe Award from the Mystery Writers of America.[49]

Frederic Forrest portrayed Hammett semifictionally as the protagonist in the 1982 film Hammett, based on the novel of the same name by Joe Gores.

Sam Shepard played Hammett in the 1999 Emmy-nominated biographical television film Dash and Lilly along with Judy Davis as Hellman.

Bibliography[edit]

Series[edit]

The Continental Op

Sam Spade

  1. The Maltese Falcon (initially a 5 part serial from September 1929 to January 1930 in Black Mask)
  2. "A Man Called Spade" (July, 1932, The American Magazine; also collected in A Man Called Spade and Other Stories)
  3. "Too Many Have Lived" (October, 1932, The American Magazine; also collected in A Man Called Spade and Other Stories)
  4. "They Can Only Hang You Once" (November 19, 1932, Colliers; also in A Man Called Spade and Other Stories)
  5. "A Knife Will Cut for Anybody" (Unpublished - posthumously published in 2013)

Nick and Nora Charles

  1. The First Thin Man (November 4, 1975, City Magazine)
  2. The Thin Man (January 8, 1934)
  3. After the Thin Man (September 17, 1935)
  4. Another Thin Man (May 13, 1938)
  5. "Sequel to the Thin Man" (December 7, 1938)

Other short stories[edit]

  • "The Parthian Shot", The Smart Set, October 1922
  • "Immortality", 10 Story Book, November 1922
  • "The Barber and His Wife", Brief Stories, December 1922
  • "The Road Home", Black Mask December 1922
  • "The Sardonic Star of Tom Doody", Brief Stories, February 1923
  • "The Vicious Circle", Black Mask June 1923
  • "The Joke on Eoloise Morey", Brief Stories, June 1923
  • "Holiday", New Pearsons, July 1923
  • "The Crusader", The Smart Set, August 1923
  • "The Green Elephant", The Smart Set, October 1923
  • "The Dimple", Saucy Stories, October 1923
  • "The Second-Story Angel", Black Mask, November 1923
  • "Laughing Masks", Action Stories, November 1923
  • "The Man Who Killed Dan Odams", Black Mask, January 1924
  • "Itchy", Brief Stories, January 1924
  • "Night Shots", Black Mask, February 1924
  • "The New Racket", Black Mask, February 1924
  • "Esther Entertains", Brief Stories, February 1924
  • "Afraid of a Gun", Black Mask, March 1924
  • "Who Killed Bob Teal?", True Detective Mysteries, November 1924
  • "Nightmare Town", Argosy All-Story Weekly, December 1924
  • "Another Perfect Crime", Experience, January 1925
  • "Ber-Bulu", Sunset Magazine, March 1925
  • "Ruffian's Wife", Sunset Magazine, October 1925
  • "The Assistant Murderer", Black Mask, February 1926
  • "The Advertising Man Writes a Love Letter", Judge, February 1927
  • "The Diamond Wager", Detective Fiction Weekly, October 1929
  • "On the Way", Harper's Bazaar, March 1932
  • "Woman in the Dark", Liberty April, 8, 15 and 22, 1933
  • "Night Shade", Mystery League Magazine, October 1933
  • "Albert Pastor at Home", Esquire, Autumn 1933
  • "Two Sharp Knives", Collier's, January 1934
  • "His Brother's Keeper", Collier's, February 1934
  • "This Little Pig", Collier's, March 1934
  • "A Man Named Thin", Ellery Queen's Mystery Magazine, March 1961
  • "An Inch and a Half of Glory", posthumously published in The New Yorker, June 2013

Novels[edit]

Collections[edit]

Short fiction[edit]

  • $106,000 Blood Money. Bestseller Mystery, 1943. A digest-sized paperback collection of two connected Continental Op stories, "The Big Knockover" and "$106,000 Blood Money".
  • Blood Money. Tower, 1943. Hardcover edition of the 1943 Bestseller Mystery title.
  • The Adventures of Sam Spade. Bestseller Mystery, 1944. Digest paperback collection of three Spade stories and four others. This and the following eight digest collections were compiled and edited by Frederic Dannay (one half of the writing partnership using the pseudonym Ellery Queen) with Hammett's permission. All of them were reprinted as Dell map-back paperbacks.
  • "A Man Called Spade and Other Stories". Dell, 1944. Digest paperback collection containing 3 Sam Spade stories and 2 other short stories.
  • The Continental Op. Bestseller Mystery, 1945. Digest paperback collection of four Continental Op stories.
  • The Adventures of Sam Spade. Tower, 1945. Hardcover edition of the digest paperback of the same title. The last of the digests to be reprinted in hardcover.
  • The Return of the Continental Op. Jonathan Press, 1945. Digest paperback collection of five further Continental Op stories.
  • Hammett Homicides. Bestseller Mysteries, 1946. Digest paperback collection of six stories, four of which feature the Continental Op.
  • Dead Yellow Women. Jonathan Press, 1947. Digest paperback collection of six stories, four of which feature the Continental Op.
  • Nightmare Town. American Mercury, 1948. Digest paperback collection of four stories, two of which feature the Continental Op.
  • The Creeping Siamese. American Mercury, 1950. Digest paperback collection of six stories, three of which feature the Continental Op.
  • A Man Named Thin. Mercury Mystery, 1962. The last digest paperback, a collection of eight stories, one of which features the Continental Op.
  • The Big Knockover. Random House, 1966. An important collection, edited by Lillian Hellman, which helped revive Hammett's literary reputation, including the unfinished novel Tulip.
  • The Continental Op. Random House, 1974. Edited and with an introduction by Steven Marcus. Comprises 7 stories. ISBN 978-0-394487-04-5
  • Woman in the Dark. Knopf, 1988. Hardcover collection of the three parts of the title novelette, with an introduction by Robert B. Parker. ISBN 978-0-394572-69-7
  • Nightmare Town. Knopf, 1999. Hardcover collection, with contents different from the digest of the same title.ISBN 978-0-375401-11-4
  • Crime Stories and Other Writings (Steven Marcus, ed.) (Library of America, 2001); ISBN 978-1-931082-00-6.
  • Lost Stories. Vince Emery Productions, 2005. Collection of 21 stories not been previously published in hardcover, including some previously unpublished stories, with several long commentaries on Hammett's career providing context for the stories. Introduction by Joe Gores. ISBN 978-0-972589-81-9
  • Vintage Hammett. New York : Vintage Books, 2005. Collection nine stories of Sam Spade, Nick and Nora Charles, and The Continental Op. ISBN 978-1-400079-62-9
  • The Hunter and Other Stories. Mysterious Press, 2014. Collection of previously unpublished or uncollected stories and screenplays, including a fragment of a second Sam Spade novel. Edited by Richard Layman and Julie M. Rivett. ISBN 978-0-802121-58-5
  • Sam Spade: Volumes One and Two. Cedar Cove : Radio Spirits 2015. Electronic audio file by OverDrive, Inc. - Distributor
  • The Big Book of the Continental Op. New York : Vintage Crime/Black Lizard, Vintage Books, a division of Penguin Random House LLC, [2017]. Collects all twenty-eight stories and two serialized novels starring Continental Op, plus the previously unpublished fragment "Three Dimes." ISBN 978-0-525432-95-1

Novels[edit]

Film[edit]

Screenplay[edit]

Original Story[edit]

Film based on novel or short story[edit]

Articles[edit]

  • "The Great Lovers", The Smart Set, November 1922
  • "The Master Mind", 'The Smart Set, January 1923
  • "From the Memoirs of a Private Detective", The Smart Set, March 1923
  • "In Defence of the Sex Story", The Writer's Digest, June 1924
  • "Vamping Sampson", The Editor, May 1925

On Advertising[edit]

  • "The Advertisement IS Literature". Western Advertising. 9 (3): 35–36. October 1926.
  • "Advertising Art isn't Art". Western Advertising. 11 (5): 47–48. December 1927.
  • "Have You Tried Meosis?". Western Advertising. 11 (6): 60–61. January 1928.
  • "The Literature of Advertising in 1927". Western Advertising. 12 (1): 154–156. February 1928.
  • "The Editor Knows His Audience". Western Advertising. 12 (2): 45–46. March 1928.

Examples of Hammett's advertising copy for the Albert S. Samuels Company, a San Francisco jewelers, are given in:

  • Carne, Hugh (October 1927). "Making Retail Advertising Stand Out". Western Advertising. 11 (3): 58–61, 82.

Other publications[edit]

  • Creeps by Night; Chills and Thrills. John Day, 1931. Anthology edited by Hammett.[50]
  • Secret Agent X-9 Book 1. David McKay, 1934. Collection of the comic strip written by Hammett and illustrated by Alex Raymond.
  • Secret Agent X-9 Book 2. David McKay, 1934. A second collection of the comic strip.
  • The Battle of the Aleutians. Field Force Headquarters, Adak, Alaska, 1944. Text by Hammett and Robert Colodny. Illustrations by Harry Fletcher.
  • Watch on the Rhine. Screenplay of Hellman's play (in Best Film Plays 1943–44, Crown, 1945).
  • Selected Letters of Dashiell Hammett: 1921–1960. Counterpoint Press, 2001. ISBN 978-1-582432-10-6. Edited by Richard Layman and Julie M. Rivett.
  • Return of the Thin Man. Mysterious Press, 2012. ISBN 978-0-802120-50-2. Screen treatments of After the Thin Man and Another Thin Man, edited by Richard Layman and Julie M. Rivett.
  • Secret Agent X-9. IDW Publishing, 2015. ISBN 978-1-631402-11-1. Collection of the comic strip written by Hammett and Leslie Charteris and illustrated by Alex Raymond.

Unpublished stories[edit]

In 2011, magazine editor Andrew Gulli found fifteen previously unknown short stories by Dashiell Hammett in the archives of the Harry Ransom Center at the University of Texas in Austin.[51]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Profile, nytimes.com; accessed March 1, 2016.
  2. ^ "Hammett". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
  3. ^ Layman, Richard (1981). Shadow Man: The Life of Dashiell Hammett. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. p. 239. ISBN 0-15-181459-7.
  4. ^ Layman, Richard; Bruccoli, Matthew J. (2002). Hardboiled Mystery Writers: A Literary Reference. Carroll & Graf. p. 225. ISBN 0-7867-1029-2.
  5. ^ Grossman, Lev; Lacayo, Richard (January 6, 2010). "TIME'S List of the 100 Best Novels". Time. Retrieved August 9, 2020.
  6. ^ Shoemaker, Sandy. "Tobacco to Tomcats: St. Mary's County since the Revolution". StreamLine Enterprises, Leonardtown, Maryland: 160. Archived from the original on 2008-12-10. Retrieved 2008-01-01. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  7. ^ 1910 United States Federal Census
  8. ^ Hammett, Dashiell and Vince Emery. Lost Stories. San Francisco: Vince Emery Productions, 2005, p. 197.
  9. ^ Ward, Nathan. The Lost Detective, Bloomsbury USA, 2015.
  10. ^ Heise, Thomas, "'Going Blood-Simple Like the Natives': Contagious Urban Spaces and Modern Power in Dashiell Hammett's Red Harvest" (paid access only), Modern Fiction Studies 51, no. 3 (Fall 2005), p. 506. The Project MUSE access provides a no-charge excerpt but the excerpt does not cover the cited information.
  11. ^ "California, San Francisco County Records, 1824-1997," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/3:1:33S7-95D7-WQ6?cc=1402856&wc=319K-BZ7%3A20726701%2C22490901 : 20 May 2014), Marriages > image 84 of 233; San Francisco Public Library.
  12. ^ Layman, Richard with Rivett, Julie M. (2001). "Review" of Selected Letters of Dashiell Hammett 1921-1960; retrieved June 2, 2009.
  13. ^ Gores in Emery, editor, pp. 240 and 336.
  14. ^ Coggins, Mark. "891 Post Street". Retrieved January 21, 2018.
  15. ^ Athitakis, Mark (April 11, 2001). "The Ghosts in 401". San Francisco Weekly. Retrieved January 21, 2018.
  16. ^ "Dashiell Hammett – About Dashiell Hammett". PBS. December 30, 2003. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
  17. ^ a b Gores in Emery, ed., pp. 18–24.
  18. ^ Harrington, Joseph (28 January 1934). "Hammett Solves Big Crime; Finds Ferris Wheel". New York Evening Journal.
  19. ^ Hammett, Dashiell (1930). The Maltese Falcon. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 126.
  20. ^ Locke, John (December 21, 2019). "Hammett Takes on the Writing Racket." Up and Down these Mean Streets
  21. ^ Hammett, Dashiell (2017). The Big Book of the Continental Op. New York: Vintage Crime/Black Lizard. ISBN 978-0-525432-95-1.
  22. ^ The Crown Crime Companion. The Top 100 Mystery Novels of All Time Selected by the Mystery Writers of America, annotated by Otto Penzler and compiled by Mickey Friedman (New York, 1995) (ISBN 0-517-88115-2).
  23. ^ Hammett, Dashiell (1965). The Novels of Dashiell Hammett. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. pp. Foreword.
  24. ^ U.S., World War II Draft Registration Cards, 1942
  25. ^ "FAQ". Cpusa.org. Archived from the original on October 26, 2012. Retrieved July 19, 2012.
  26. ^ Page, Myra; Baker, Christina Looper (1996). In a Generous Spirit: A First-Person Biography of Myra Page. University of Illinois Press. p. 145. Retrieved 4 August 2018.
  27. ^ Folsom, Franklin (1994). Days of Anger, Days of Hope. University Press of Colorado. ISBN 0-87081-332-3.
  28. ^ Nolan, William F. 1978 2nd printing. Dashiell Hammett A Casebook, with an introduction by Philip Durham. 1969. Santa Barbara, McNally&Loftin, p. 6.
  29. ^ Layman, Richard (ed.) 2001. With Rivett, Julie M., Introduction by Josephine Hammett Marshall. Selected Letters of Dashiell Hammett 1921 - 1960 ISBN 1-58243-081-0, p. 142f
  30. ^ Johnson, D. (1983) Dashiell Hammett: A Life
  31. ^ Spitzer, E. (1974-01-04). "With Corporal Hammett on Adak". Nation. pp. 6–9.
  32. ^ Layman, Richard (1981). Shadow Man: The Life of Dashiell Hammett. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich. p. 206. ISBN 0-15-181459-7.
  33. ^ a b c d e Shadow Man: The Life of Dashiell Hammett, pp. 219–223.
  34. ^ Nemy, Enid (February 7, 2000). "Frederick Vanderbilt Field, Wealthy Leftist, Dies at 94". New York Times. Retrieved November 27, 2007.
  35. ^ Metress, Christopher (1994). The Critical Response to Dashiell Hammett. Greenwood Press.
  36. ^ Johnson, Diane (1983). Dashiell Hammett, a Life. Random House.
  37. ^ Liukkonen, Petri. "Dashiell Hammett profile". kirjasto.sci.fi. Finland: Kuusankoski Public Library. Archived from the original on July 16, 2006.
  38. ^ Hellman, Lilian (1962). Introduction to Dashiell Hammett, The Big Knockover: Selected Stories and Short Novels. Houghton Mifflin. (Published posthumously; Hammett had turned down offers to republish his stories, and Hellman published them only after his death, as a tribute.) pp. vii–viii,
  39. ^ Hellman, Lilian. Introduction to The Big Knockover. pp. xi–xii. Hellman wrote that there began an "irritating farce" that Hammett told her he was cleaning bathrooms "better than [she] had ever done" and "learned to take pride in the work", which she called his form of boasting, or humor, "to make fun of trouble or pain."
  40. ^ Johnson, Diane (1987). Dashiell Hammett: A Life. Fawcett Columbine. Cited in King Laurie R. (2010). Afterword. Locked Rooms. Random House. p. 403.
  41. ^ Hammett, Dashiell (1999). Marcus, Steven (ed.). Complete Novels. Library of America. pp. 957–958. ISBN 978-1-883011-67-3.
  42. ^ Introduction to The Big Knockover, pp. xi, xii.
  43. ^ Introduction to The Big Knockover, p. xx.
  44. ^ Hellman's introduction to The Big Knockover, p. viii (Hellman speculated that Hammett turned down republishing offers because he hoped for a fresh start and "didn't want the old work to get in the way.")
  45. ^ Introduction to The Big Knockover, p. xxvi.
  46. ^ Wilson, Scott (2016). Resting Places: The Burial Sites of More Than 14,000 Famous Persons (3 ed.). Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland. p. 312. ISBN 9781476625997.
  47. ^ "Dashiell Hammett:An Inventory of His Papers at the Harry Ransom Center". norman.hrc.utexas.edu. Retrieved 2020-10-24.
  48. ^ "Dashiell Hammett family papers". archives.library.sc.edu. Retrieved 2020-10-24.
  49. ^ "Current Affairs: The Case of Dashiell Hammett". www.peabodyawards.com.
  50. ^ Bleiler, Everett (1948). The Checklist of Fantastic Literature. Chicago: Shasta Publishers. p. 140.
  51. ^ Harris, Paul (February 4, 2011). "Dashiell Hammett's lost works found in Texas". The Guardian. London.

Further reading[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Mundell, E. H. (1968). A List of the Original Appearances of Dashiell Hammett's Magazine Work. Kent State University.
  • Layman, Richard. (1979). Dashiell Hammett: A Descriptive Bibliography. Pittsburgh Series in Bibliography, University of Pittsburgh Press.
  • Lovisi, Gary (1994). Dashiell Hammett and Raymond Chandler: A Checklist and Bibliography of Their Paperback Appearances. Gryphon Books.

Biography and criticism[edit]

  • Beunat, Natalie (1997). Dashiell Hammett: Parcours d'une oeuvre. Amiens: Encrage Edition.
  • Braun, Martin (1977). Prototypen der amerikanischen Kriminalerzählung: Die Romane und Kurzgeschichten Carroll John Daly und Dashiell Hammett. Frankfurt: Lang.
  • Duggan, Eddie (2000) "Dashiell Hammett: Detective, Writer". Crimetime (3.2): 101–114 – via Academia.edu.
  • Fechheimer, David, ed. (1975). City of San Francisco: Dashiell Hammett Issue. 4 November 4, 1975. San Francisco: City Publishing.
  • Gale, Robert L. (2000). A Dashiell Hammett Companion. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
  • Gregory, Sinda (1985). Private Investigations: The Novels of Dashiell Hammett. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
  • Hammett, Jo (2001). Dashiell Hammett: A Daughter Remembers. Carroll and Graf.
  • Hellman, Lillian. An Unfinished Woman. Pentimento. Scoundrel Time. Memoirs containing much material about Hammett.
  • Herron, Don (2009). The Dashiell Hammett Tour: Thirtieth Anniversary Guidebook. San Francisco: Vince Emery Productions.
  • Jaemmrich, Armin (2016). The American Noir - A Rehabilitation, ISBN 978-1523664405
  • Johnson, Diane (1983). Dashiell Hammett: A Life. New York: Random House.
  • Joshi, S. T. (2019). "Dashiell Hammett: Sam Spade and Others" in Varieties of Crime Fiction (Wildside Press) ISBN 978-1-4794-4546-2.
  • Layman, Richard (1981). Shadow Man: The Life of Dashiell Hammett. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
  • Layman, Richard (2000). Literary Masters. Vol. 3, Dashiell Hammett. Detroit: Gale Group.
  • Layman, Richard, ed. (2005). Clues: A Journal of Detection. Theme issue, Dashiell Hammett. Winter 2005. Washington D.C.: Heldref Publications.
  • Locke, John (December 21, 2019). "Hammett Takes on the Writing Racket." Up and Down these Mean Streets.
  • Lopez, Jesus Angel Gonzalez (2004). La Narrativa Popular de Dashiell Hammett: Pulps, Cine, y Comics. Biblioteca Javier Coy d'Estudis Nord-Americans, Universitat de Valencia.
  • Marling, William (1983). Dashiell Hammett. New York: Twayne.
  • Maurin, Maria Jose Alvarez (1994). Claves Para un Enigma: La Poetica del Misterio en la Narrativa de Dashiell Hammett. Universidad de Leon.
  • Mellon, Joan (1996). Hellman and Hammett. New York: Harper Collins.
  • Metress, Christopher, ed. (1994). The Critical Response to Dashiell Hammett. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press.
  • Nolan, William F. (1969). Dashiell Hammett: A Casebook. Santa Barbara: McNally & Lofin.
  • Nolan, William F. (1983). Hammett: A Life at the Edge. New York: Congdon & Weed.
  • Panek, Leroy Lad (2004). Reading Early Hammett: A Critical Study of the Fiction Prior to The Maltese Falcon. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland.
  • Symons, Julian (1985). Dashiell Hammett. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
  • Thompson, George J. "Rhino" (2007). Hammett's Moral Vision. San Francisco: Vince Emery Productions.
  • Ward, Nathan (2015). The Lost Detective: Becoming Dashiell Hammett. New York: Bloomsbury USA.

External links[edit]


Libraries[edit]

Online editions[edit]