Development as Freedom
The American edition of the book was published by Alfred A. Knopf.
- political freedoms and transparency in relations between people
- freedom of opportunity, including freedom to access credit; and
- economic protection from abject poverty, including through income supplements and unemployment relief.
Poverty is characterized by lack of at least one freedom (Sen uses the term unfreedom for lack of freedom), including a de facto lack of political rights and choice, vulnerability to coercive relations, and exclusion from economic choices and protections.
Based on these ethical considerations, Sen argues that development cannot be reduced to simply increasing basic incomes, nor to rising average per capita incomes. Rather, it requires a package of overlapping mechanisms that progressively enable the exercise of a growing range of freedoms. A central idea of the book is that freedom is both the end and a means to development.
Canadian social scientist Lars Osberg wrote about the book: "Although Development as Freedom covers immense territory, it is subtle and nuanced and its careful scholarship is manifest at every turn." Kenneth Arrow concluded "In this book, Amartya Sen develops elegantly, compactly, and yet broadly the concept that economic development is in its nature an increase in freedom."
- "The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel 1998". Nobel Foundation. Retrieved April 28, 2019.
- Osberg, Lars. "Development as Freedom" (PDF). Comptes Rendus.
- Sen, Amartya (1999). Development as freedom (1st ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780198297581.
- Sen, Amartya (2001). Development as freedom (2nd ed.). Oxford New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780192893307.
- Tungodden, Bertil (2001). A balanced view of development as freedom. Bergen, Norway: Chr. Michelsen Institute (Working Paper Series). ISBN 978-8290584998. Pdf version.
- Sandbrook, Richard (December 2000). "Globalization and the limits of neoliberal development doctrine". Third World Quarterly. 21 (6): 1071–1080. doi:10.1080/01436590020012052. S2CID 153368350.