Roman Catholic Diocese of Bergamo

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Diocese of Bergamo
Dioecesis Bergomensis
669BergamoDuomo.jpg
Bergamo Cathedral
Location
Country Italy
Ecclesiastical province Milan
Statistics
Area 4,243 km2 (1,638 sq mi)
Population
- Total
- Catholics
(as of 2015)
995,323
930,000 (est.) (96.3%)
Parishes 371
Information
Denomination Roman Catholic
Rite Latin Rite
Established 4th Century
Cathedral Basilica Cattedrale di S. Alessandro in Colonna
Patron saint St. John XXIII
Secular priests 727 (diocesan)
193 (Religious Orders)
10 Permanent Deacons
Current leadership
Pope Francis
Bishop Francesco Beschi
Map
Roman Catholic Diocese of Bergamo in Italy.svg
Website
diocesi.bergamo.it

The Diocese of Bergamo (Latin: Dioecesis Bergomensis) is a see of the Catholic Church in Italy, and is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Milan.[1][2] Geographically, Bergamo stood between the mainland interests of the Republic of Venice, and the territory of the Duchy of Milan. The duchy was regularly contested by the French and the Holy Roman Empire, which brought about repeated military operations. Internally, from the 12th to the 15th century, there was the usual party strife between the Guelphs, who generally supported the political and religious policies of the Papacy; and the Ghibellines, who generally supported the Emperors. As Kings of Italy, the emperors were feudal overlords of Lombardy.

The diocese was founded in the fourth century AD. Its first bishop was Narno, who was succeeded by Viator.

History[edit]

August 26 is the feast day of Bergamo's patron, Saint Alexander, who is believed to have been a Roman centurion of the Theban legion imprisoned for his Christian beliefs. According to the fictional narrative, he escaped, was recaptured, and was executed as a martyr around 297 AD. There is a church, San Alessandro da Bergamo, currently administered by Benedictine priests.[contradictory]

On 25 March 901, the Emperor Louis III issued a charter in which he confirmed Bishop Adelbertus and his successors in all their rights and possessions as bishops of Bergamo. The diploma specially mentions the church of S. Alessandro in Fara, which Bishop John converted from the Arian heresy to the Catholic faith.[3] On 23 June 904 King Berengar I of Italy ordered Bishop Adelbertus and the citizens of Bergamo to rebuild the walls which had been destroyed during the incursion of the Hungarians. In return for this service, the King confirmed and strengthened the Bishop's civil control over the city and area, even against his officials and feudal vassals.[4]

In 974, the Emperor Otto II granted the Bishops of Bergamo civil jurisdiction over not only the city of Bergamo, and the suburbs to a distance of three miles, but also the Valle Seriate and other lands.[5]

Bishop Arnulfus[edit]

Arnulfus, the successor of Bishop Atto, was the son of Vido (Guido) of the area called Landriano, in the territory of Milan. He was elected Bishop of Bergamo at some point between 19 October and 30 December 1077.[6] His election was apparently quiet and canonical, since Pope Gregory VII refers to him in a letter of 21 June 1079 as having been reported to be receptive to papal counsel and obedient to his teaching: Arnulfum Berganebsus Ecclesiae electum, nostro libenter et consilio credere et praecepto oboedire. The Pope had been the recipient of several complaints against Bishop-elect Arnulfus, from several sources. He had apparently dispossessed a knight from his fief, and had sold the Archdiaconate of Bergamo for 50 pounds. Gregory ordered the Bishop of Como to look into the charges, and, if necessary, to apply the appropriate canonical penalties.[7] Arnulfus appears to have escaped censure, though he still had not been consecrated by the end of the year 1079.[8]

In 1098 Bishop Arnulfus again found himself in difficulties. He had chosen to support the schism of Archbishop Wibert of Ravenna, instigated by the Emperor Henry IV, and some German and north Italian bishops.[9] On 8 April 1098, he was arraigned before the Council of Milan, presided over by Archbishop Anselm with the participation of bishops and archbishops from both southern France and Lombardy. It confirmed the sentence of anathema which had been leveled by Pope Urban II against Wibert (Guibertus), Obertus of Brescia, Arnulfus of Bergamo, Gregory of Vercelli, and Anselm of Novara.[10] Arnulfus was deposed, and is said to have died in the same year.[11] Quite the contrary, Arnulfus was able to maintain his seat, with the support of the Emperor Henry and his Antipope Celestine, all three of them schismatics. The situation inside the diocese became contentious. In 1101, the Canons of the Cathedral, led by the Archpriest Albertus de Zurlasco (Sorlasco)[12] (there being no Archdeacon in office), appealed to the new pope Paschal II, for protection.[13]

In a bull of 15 May 1101,[14] countersigned by five cardinals, Pope Paschal replied positively to the Archdeacon Albertus and his brothers of the Bergamasque Church of S. Vincenzo living canonically, granting the request of the college of Canons and through them the Church of S. Vincenzo. For the present, the Pope announced, he decided that whatever they possessed from Catholic bishops and religious kings they should continue to hold, and so long as they remained in canonical discipline no one might disturb them in their possessions. No bishop or archpriest might have the faculty to redirect their property into another benefice or otherwise redirect their income, respecting (of course) the canonical rights of a Catholic bishop of Bergamo. The double reference to Catholic bishops highlights the fact that the incumbent was schismatic and intrusive, and had no canonical rights.[15]

On 2 February 1106, another bull was received from Pope Paschal II, excommunicating Bishop Arnulfus and all the usurpers of the property of the Church of Bergamo. The decree was read from the pulpit of the Cathedral by the Archpriest Albertus.[16]

Arnulf was succeeded by the monk Ambrosius de Mosso (Muzo),[17] who was elected between November 1110 and before January 1112, when he signs himself Ambrosius Pergamensus electus. He was a Canon of the Cathedral Chapter, and was residing in Paris at the time of his election. It was said that he was elected by the Archpriest Albertus, with no other electors participating.[18] Ambrosius' successor, Bishop Gregorius, was chosen by a compromise committee, composed of electors from the Cathedral Chapter of S. Alessandro, from the Cathedral Chapter of S. Vincenzo, and from city and suburban parish priests.[19]

Election of 1309–1310[edit]

Bishop Joannes Scanzo (1295–1309) died on 2 November 1309.[20] The Chapter met and appointed two Vicars Capitular instead of the customary one: Alessandro de' Clementi and Cipriano degli Alessandri. The meeting to elect a new bishop was held on 21 November, and four scrutators were appointed: the Provost Alessandro de' Clementi, the Archpriest Lanfranco de' Colleoni, Canon Cipriano degli Alessandri, and Canon Manfredo de' Longhi. Canon Guglielmo de' Longhi was elected "by inspiration", and was proclaimed by the Provost in the Church of S. Vincenzo. Canon Guglielmo was not present, however, but on duty at Avignon. Four Canons were sent to Avignon to present the election certificate to the Electus, and to obtain his confirmation, investiture, and consecration.[21]

The delegation presented the electoral certificate to Canon Guglielmo in Avignon on 30 December 1309, who requested time to examine the situation and to consult with God. On 17 January 1310, the delegates repeated their visitation, but were put off again. Finally, on 25 January 1310, Canon Guglielmo announced his decision to refuse the election.[22] Since the refusal took place at the Papal Court, Canon Law would seem to place the right to elect a new bishop in the hands of Pope Clement V, and that is exactly what the Bergamasque historians argue. They make the next bishop, Canon Cipriano degli Alessandri, a papal appointment. Giuseppe Ronchetti, however, argues that signatures of Bishop-elect Cipriani, which read, Venerab. vir D. Ciprianus Pergomensis electus et confirmatus (29 July 1310), point to a second election by the Cathedral Chapter and then papal confirmation. Ciprianus was still Bishop-elect on 31 December 1310.[23]

On 11 February 1347, Bishop Bernardus Trigardi consecrated the new Church of S. Agostino for the Order of Hermits of Saint Augustine.[24]

In 1400 the plague struck the territory of Bergamo, killing an estimated 20,000 people.[25]

The Case of Bishop Soranzo[edit]

Bishop Pietro Lippomano was transferred to the diocese of Verona on 18 February 1544. In his place Pope Paul III appointed Cardinal Pietro Bembo.[26] Bembo, however, was only in priestly orders, having been ordained only four years earlier, at the age of 69. He was not in episcopal orders, and did not intend to reside in the diocese of Bergamo; he never resided in any of the dioceses to which he was appointed. To address this problem, on 18 July 1544 Pope Paul appointed Bishop Vincenzo Sorzano to be Bembo's Coadjutor Bishop in the diocese of Bergamo. Soranzo was created titular Bishop of Nicea (Turkey) to qualify him for the episcopal post.[27] Sorzano was a long-standing friend of Bembo, ever since their days when Sorzano was a student in Padua and Bembo was resident there. When Bembo died in Rome on 19 January 1547, Sorzano succeeded to the bishopric.[28]

In Rome Sorzano was acquainted not only with Cardinal Bembo, but also with Cardinal Reginald Pole and Vittoria Colonna, members of the circle of spirituali at Viterbo. All of these people were suspected of heresy and were being watched by the Roman Inquisition, whose head was Cardinal Gian Pietro Carafa.[29] In the 1540s, the Inquisitor of Como and Bergamo was Fra Michele Ghislieri, O.P., whose attention was drawn to Sorzano by complaints from both civil and religious authorities. He was accused of possessing heretical literature. Though Ghislieri conducted an investigation, no charges were lodged.[30] To the contrary, one of the members of the Roman Inquisition, Cardinal Marcello Cervini, employed Sorzano in 1550 for monastic visitations.[31]

Impressed with Ghislieri's bravery and determination, Cardinal Carafa had him brought to Rome in 1551, and made him Comissary of the Holy Office of the Inquisition. In 1552 he was sent to Bergamo with orders to prepare a case against Bishop Sorzano. Based on his work, Sorzano was brought to Rome and lodged in the Castel Sant'Angelo.[32] On 22 June 1552, Pope Julius III suspended Bishop Sorzano from office, and appointed Niccolò Duranti as Administrator of the diocese of Bergamo. Sorzano was not restored until 24 May 1554.[33] But while Julius III lived, Sorzano was protected by the Pope's hostility to the Inquisition and by the interest of the Republic of Venice.[34]

After the election of the Grand Inquisitor, Gian Pietro Carafa, as Pope Paul IV on 23 May 1555, the situation of Sorzano changed once again. His case was reopened by the Holy Office of the Inquisition, he was convicted, and, on 20 April 1558, he was deposed from the Bishopric of Bergamo by the Pope. All of his episcopal acts were declared null and void.[35] He fled to Venice, where he died on 9 May 1558.

Cathedral and Chapter[edit]

The cathedral of Bergamo was dedicated to S. Alessandro of Bergamo, which lay outside the walls of the town. It was destroyed at the beginning of the 10th century, during the incursions of the Hungarians, and the remains of S. Alessandro were rescued and transferred to the church of S. Vincenzo, inside the city. The church of S. Alessandro was eventually rebuilt (and destroyed again in 1561), but the church of S. Vincenzo continued to serve as the cathedral during the 10th, 11th, and 12th centuries. Bergamo therefore had two cathedrals for several centuries, each with its own Chapter of Canons.[36]

In 816, the Emperor Louis I held a council at Aix, at which it was ordered that Canons and Canonesses live together according to a set of rules (canons, regulae). In the Roman synod of Pope Eugene II of November 826, it was ordered that Canons live together in a cloister next to the church. In 876, the Council of Pavia decreed in Canon X that the bishops should enclose the Canons: uti episcopi in civitatibus suis proximum ecclesiae claustrum instituant, in quo ipsi cum clero secundum canonicam regulam Deo militent, et sacerdotes suos ad hoc constringant, ut ecclesiam non relinquant et alibi habitare praesumant.[37] In 897, at the request of the Canons themselves, Bishop Adelbertus organized them into the Chapter of S. Vincenzo.[38]

The Archdeacon is attested as early as 907,[39] the Provost by 908, the Archpriest by 966, and the Primicerius by 929.[40]

On 23 December 1189, an agreement was reached between the Chapter of S. Vincenzo and the Chapter of S. Alessandro to unite as a single body of Canons. The arrangement was approved by Pope Clement III on 21 June 1190. The two Chapters had been quarelling for more than a half century, despite the examination of their case by three cardinals, and demands from Pope Lucius III, Pope Urban III, and Pope Gregory VIII that they settle their differences.[41]

In 1691, the Chapter of the Cathedral was composed of four dignities and forty-four Canons.[42] In 1855, there were four dignities (Archpriest, Theologus, Penitentiary, and Primicerius) and eleven other Canons.[43]

Synods[edit]

A diocesan synod was an irregular but important meeting of the bishop of a diocese and his clergy. Its purpose was (1) to proclaim generally the various decrees already issued by the bishop; (2) to discuss and ratify measures on which the bishop chose to consult with his clergy; (3) to publish statutes and decrees of the diocesan synod, of the provincial synod, and of the Holy See.

A diocesan synod is known to have taken place as early as 897 under Bishop Adelbertus.[44] Other early synods took place in 1000, 1081, 1143 (or 1144), 1187, 1285, 1295, and 1297.[45]

A diocesan synod was held in Bergamo in 1304 by Bishop Giovanni da Scanzo.[46] The tenth synod took place in 1451, the eleventh in 1453, and the twelfth in 1454.

Bishop Federico Cornaro (1561–1577) and his Metropolitan, Archbishop Carlo Borromeo of Milan, both attended the last sessions of the Council of Trent. On his return, Archbishop Borromeo held a provincial synod in Milan in August 1564, which Bishop Cornaro attended, where the decrees of the Council were discussed and adopted as statutes of the ecclesiastical province of Milan.[47] Immediately on his return to Bergamo, Cornaro held his own diocesan synod, on 4–5 September,[48] and announced the imposition of the tax authorized by the Council in its 23rd session (chapter 18), for the purpose of building a seminary for the diocese.[49] Bishop Cornaro held another synod in May 1568,[50] a third on 15 September 1574,[51] and another on 30 April–2 May 1579.[52]

As Apostolic Visitor of the diocese of Cremona, Bishop Gerolamo Ragazzoni of Bergamo (1577–1592) held a joint synod of the two dioceses in 1583, and issued a set of Constitutions.[53]

Bishop Giambattista Milani (1592–1611) presided at three diocesan synods, his third on 4 September 1603.[54] In 1613 Bishop Giovanni Emo (1611–1622) held his first diocesan synod, at which he promulgated a number of decrees.[55] On 4 May 1628, Bishop Agostino Priuli (1627–1632) presided at a diocesan synod, and issued a set of constitutions and decrees, to which were added a number of papal bulls and decrees of Vatican congregations.[56] Bishop Luigi Grimani (1633–1656) held his first diocesan synod on 4 June 1636. His second took place on 15 June 1648.[57]

On 1 May 1653, Bishop Luigi Grimani (1633–1656) held a diocesan synod.[58] On 1 September 1660, Bishop Gregorio Barbarigo (1657–1664) presided at a diocesan synod.[59] On 15 May 1668, Bishop Daniele Giustiniani (1664–1697) issued a twenty-two page set of Monita synodalia to the clergy of the diocese of Bergamo. To the document were annexed two sets of Opiniones damnatae in Congregatione generali Sancti Inquisitionis coram SS. D. N. P. Alexandro VII, forty-five in number. One condemned proposition was that a gentleman had the right to accept a challenge to a duel. Another was the notion that it was acceptable to kill a false accusor, false witnesses, and even a judge, to save an innocent person from being condemned to death.[60]

The thirtieth diocesan synod took place on 5 June 1679. The thirty-first was held on 28 April 1687. The thirty-second synod took place on 4 September 1724.

Bishop Giacomo Maria Radini-Tedeschi (1905–1914) held a diocesan synod in 1910, the thirty-third in Roncalli's list.[61] Bishop Luigi Maria Marelli (1915–1936) held the thirty-fourth diocesan synod on 20–22 August 1923.[62]

In 2007, the diocese opened its 37th Diocesan Synod, a gathering dedicated to addressing problems and opportunities confronting parishes in the 21st century.

Seminary[edit]

The Council of Trent, in its 23rd Session, meeting on 15 July 1563, issued a decree, the 18th chapter of which required that every diocese have a seminary for the training of clergy.[63]

In the diocesan synod of 4–5 September,[64] Bishop Fernando Cornaro announced the imposition of the tax authorized by the Council for the purpose of building a seminary for the diocese. The bishop chose a location for the new seminary, at the Collegiate Church of San Matteo, which was administered by a Chapter composed of a Provost and four Canons. Houses were bought in the immediate vicinity, including two belonging to the Canons, to be used to house the seminarians. Archbishop Carlo Borromeo visited the seminary, and provided it with a set of statutes. In the time of Cornaro's successor, Gerolamo Ragazzoni, the number of students had increased to 25.[65] In 1590 there were 22 clerics. There were two teachers, and the curriculum was extremely limited, grammar, catechism, Bible, patristic homilies, and works to develop the conscience.[66] Bishop Grimani consolidated the buildings around a new courtyard in 1623, and Bishop Giustiniani became a successful fundraiser to support the seminary.[67]

By the end of the 18th century, the number of students had outstripped the space available, and some of them had to be lodged in the former monastery of the Celestines. In 1821, with a legacy of Canon Marco Celio Passi, it was possible to acquire several buildings near S. Maria in Monte Santo, which made possible the reunification of the entire student body in one residence. The seminary buildings were so deteriorated by the end of the 1950s, however, that Bishop Giuseppe Piazzi was compelled to rebuild the seminary, for which he had the support of Pope John XXIII, who had taught at the seminary, and Cardinal Gustavo Testa, a native of Bergamo. The project was finally completed in 1967.

In 1934, while he was still Coadjutor Bishop of Bergamo (1932–1936), Bishop Adriano Bernareggi established a new minor seminary (middle and high school) in the town of Clusone, in the mountains north of Bergamo.[68]

Parishes[edit]

The 390 parishes all fall within the Lombardy region. 375 are within the civil Province of Bergamo, 14 in the civil Province of Lecco, and one in the civil Province of Brescia.[69] In the diocese of Bergamo in 2015 there was one priest for every 1,010 Catholics.

For historical reasons a number of the parishes in the diocese celebrate the liturgy but according to the Ambrosian Rite, rather than according to the Roman Rite. They are the vicariate of Calolzio-Caprino (Calolziocorte, Caprino Bergamasco, Carenno, Cisano Bergamasco, Erve, Monte Marenzo, Torre de' Busi and Vercurago) and the parishes of Averara, Brumano, Cassiglio, Cusio, Ornica, Santa Brigida, Taleggio, Valtorta and Vedeseta.

Missionary activities[edit]

The diocese maintains strong relations with the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cochabamba in Bolivia. Priests of the diocese work in parishes in Cuba and Côte d'Ivoire.[citation needed]

Bishops[edit]

to 1200[edit]

...
  • Dominator[74]
  • Stephanus
  • Claudianus
  • Simplicianus
  • Babianus[75]
  • Quintianus
...
  • Praestantius (attested 451)[76]
...
  • Laurentius (attested 501)[77]
...
  • Joannes (d. 556)
...
  • Joannes (668–690)[78]
  • Antoninus (acceded c. 691 ?)[79]
  • Antonius[80]
  • Aginus (c. 758 – c. 797)[81]
  • Tachipaldus (c. 797 – c. 814)[82]
  • Grasmond (attested 829)[83]
  • Hagano (Aganone) (c. 840 – c. 863)[84]
  • Garibaldus (c. 867 – c. 888)[85]
  • Adelbertus (attested 894–929)[86]
  • Recho (attested 938–953)[87]
  • Odelricus (attested 954–968)[88]
  • Ambrosius (c. 970–973)[89]
  • Giselbertus (attested 975– after 982)[90]
  • Azo (attested 987–996)[91]
  • Reginfredus (attested 996–1013)
  • Alcherius (attested 1013–1022)
  • Ambrosius (attested 1023–1057)
  • Atto (1058 – c. 1075/1077)[92]
  • Arnulfus (1077-1098)[93]
Arnulfus (1098–1106) Schismatic[94]
  • Ambrosius (1111 ? – 1133)[95]
  • Gregorius (1133–1146)[96]
  • Girardus (1146–1167)[97]
  • Guala (1167–1186)[98]
  • Lanfrancus (1186 – after June 1211)[99]

1200 to 1500[edit]

  • Giovanni Tornielli (1211–1231)[100]
  • Atto (1231–1240)[101]
  • Henricus de Sessa (1241-1242)[102]
  • Alberto da Terzo (1242–1251)[103]
  • Algisio da Rosciate, O.P. (1251–1259)
  • Erbordo, O.P. (1260–1272)
  • Guiscardo Suardi (8 Jul 1272 – 22 Feb 1282 Died)
Sede vacante (1282–1289)[104]
  • Robertus Benghi (1289–1291)[105]
Sede vacante (1291–1295)
  • Joannes Scanzo (1295–1309)[106]
  • Cyprianus Alessandri (1310–1341)
  • Nicolaus Canali (1342)[107]
  • Bernardus Trigardi, O.Cist. (1342–1349)[108]
  • Lanfrancus Salvetti, O.Min. (1349–1381)
  • Matteo de Agaciis, O.Min. (1381– ) Avignon Obedience
  • Branchinus Besoccio (1381–1399) Roman Obedience
  • Ludovico Bonito (1399–1401) Roman Obedience
  • Francesco Lante, O.Min. (1401–1403) Roman Obedience
  • Francesco de Regatiis, O.Min. (1403–1427)[109]
  • Polidoro Foscari (1437–1449)
  • Giovanni Barozzi (1449–1465)[110]
  • Ludovico Donato (Donà) (1465–1484)[111]
  • Lorenzo Gabriel (1484–1512)[112]

1500 to 1800[edit]

Pietro Bembo, O.S.Io.Hieros. (1544–1547) Administrator[115]
Cardinal Luigi Cornaro (1560–1561) Administrator[118]

Since 1821[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ "Diocese of Bergamo" Catholic-Hierarchy.org. David M. Cheney. retrieved March 24, 2016
  2. ^ "Diocese of Bergamo" GCatholic.org. Gabriel Chow. Retrieved March 24, 2016
  3. ^ Lupi, Codex Diplomaticus II, pp. 7-10. ecclesia S. Alexanddri sita in Fara, quam quondam Joannes ejusdem Ecclesiae venerabilis Episcopus ab Ariana heresi ad fidem catholicam convertit.... Lupi notes dating problems in the document, which leads some to suggest the document is interpolated or falsified. There are two possibilities with Bishop Joannes: one died in 556, the other served between 668 and 690.
  4. ^ Lupi, II, pp. 23-34. The invasions of the pagan Hungarians took place in 901, 902, and 903, according to Sigonius, De regno Italiae.
  5. ^ Ronchetti, II, pp. 69-70.
  6. ^ Lupi, Codex diplomaticus II, pp. 701-702.
  7. ^ Gregory VII, Epistolae VI, no. 39. Kehr, p. 358.
  8. ^ His Metropolitan, Archbishop Theodaldus of Milan, had been anathematized by the Fourth Roman Synod of Pope Gregory VII on 3 March 1078. P. Jaffé and S. Lowenfeld, Regesta pontificum Romanorum I, editio secunda (Leipzig: G. Veit 1885), p. 625.
  9. ^ Kehr, p. 358 no. 3. Ronchetti, II, pp. 198-199, places his adherence to the schism perhaps as early as 1080.
  10. ^ Ronchetti, II, pp. 236-237.
  11. ^ Ronchetti, II, pp. 235-236.
  12. ^ Albertus seems to have been functioning as a sort of Vicar Capitular, with the consent of the Chapter and Clergy. Lupi, II, p. 832, 834.
  13. ^ Lupi, Codex diplomaticus II, pp. 829-836.
  14. ^ Kehr makes the date 15 March 1101: Kehr, p. 365 no.1.
  15. ^ Lupi, p. 829-832.
  16. ^ Ronchetti, III, p. 10.
  17. ^ Ambrosius is said to have ruled for 30 years, 6 months, and 14 days, dying on 21 October 1128. This is a mere calculation, based on a supposed death date, which happens to be incorrect. Lupi, Codex diplomaticus II, p. 809-812. Cf. Ronchetti, II, pp. 236-237, who argues the rejection of the report.
  18. ^ Lupi, II, p. 876-878. Lupi concludes that either the electors were not summoned, or that they refused their consent.
  19. ^ Lupi, Codex diplomaticus II, pp. 978-980.
  20. ^ Ronchetti, V, p. 6: per obitum bone memorie Domini Johannis quondam Episcopi Bergamensis qui die dominico secondo presentis mensis Novembris rebus cessit humanis.
  21. ^ Ronchetti, p. 7.
  22. ^ Ronchetti, V, pp. 7-8: considerata juventute sua sibi expedire videbatur adhuc subesse potius quam praeesse. Cappelletti, pp. 504-505.
  23. ^ Ronchetti, p. 8.
  24. ^ Ronchetti, p. 90.
  25. ^ Ronchetti, VI, p. 5.
  26. ^ Eubel, III, p. 132,
  27. ^ Eubel, III, pp. 132 note 7; 257.
  28. ^ Eubel, III, pp. 26 no. 27; 132.
  29. ^ William V. Hudon, "The Papacy in the Age of Reform," in: John W. O'Malley, ed. (2001). Early Modern Catholicism: Essays in Honour of John W. O'Malley, S.J. University of Toronto Press. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-8020-8417-0.
  30. ^ C. Cristellon and S. Menchi, in: Dursteler, Eric R., ed. (2013). "Religious Life". A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797. Brill's Companions to European History, 4. Boston-Leiden: Brill. p. 409. ISBN 978-90-04-25252-3.
  31. ^ Hudon, p. 54.
  32. ^ Girolamo Catena (1587). Vita del gloriosissimo Papa Pio Quinto (in Italian). Mantua: Per F. Osanna. p. 7.
  33. ^ Eubel, III, p. 132 note 8.
  34. ^ C. Cristellon and S. Menchi, p. 409.
  35. ^ Eubel, III, p. 132 note 9: S(ua) S(anctitas) decrevit hodie ecclesiam Berg(omensem) vacare attentis haeresibus per Victorem Superantium Venetum, praetensum ep., confessatis, declarans omnia eius acta esse nulla.
  36. ^ Kehr, p. 364. Kehr (p. 373 no. 41) draws attention to a rescript of Pope Gregory VIII of 10 November 1187, which acknowledges that the Church of S. Vincenzo was indeed a cathedral.
  37. ^ Lupi, I, p. 1064-1065. 'Bishops are to create a cloister next to their church, in which they serve God along with their clergy according to the rule of canons, and they should compel their priests not to leave the church and presume to live elsewhere.'
  38. ^ Lupi, I, pp. 1059-1062. The document is signed by the Archdeacon, the Archpriest and the Primicerius.
  39. ^ Lupi, Codex diplomaticus II, pp. 59-62.
  40. ^ Lupi, II, p. 1461.
  41. ^ Kehr, pp. 382, and 375, no. 46, 383, no. 46. Ughelli, IV, p. 472. Bullarium diplomatum Tomus III (Turin 1858), pp. 72-74.
  42. ^ Ritzler-Sefrin, Hierarchia catholica V, p. 118 note 1.
  43. ^ Statistica della diocesi di Bergamo. Anno IV. 1855. p. 4.
  44. ^ Lupi, I, p. 1059. Lupi himself, however, does not believe that the meeting was a diocesan synod (p. 1063).
  45. ^ J.D. Mansi, ed., Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, editio novissima, Tomus XXXVIter (Arnheim-Leipzig 1924), p. 367. A full list of synods was drawn up by Angelo Roncalli and published as an appendix to Bergomensis Ecclesiae Synodus XXXIII. a Reverendissimo Domino Jacobo Maria Radini Tedeschi Episcopo habita, Bergamo: Typis Secomandi 1910, pp. cix-cx.
  46. ^ Finazzi, Giovanni (1853). Sinodo diocesano tenuto in Bergamo l'anno 1304 sotto il vescovo Giovanni da Scanzo tratto da un codice pergameno (in Italian and Latin). Milan: E. Besozzi.
  47. ^ Acta Ecclesiae Mediolanensis a S. Carolo Card: Archiep. condita iussu Federici Cardin. Borroomaei. jussu collecta (in Latin). Tomus primus (second ed.). Milan: Paolo Pagnonio. 1843. p. 11.
  48. ^ Acta Synodalia Bergomensis Ecclesiae ... Cornelio, Milano, Emo, Priulo, Grimano Episcopis condita, In vnum volumen ex antiquis codicibus redacta ad commodiorem vsum Ecclesiasticorum (in Latin). Bergamo: Filii M. Ant. Rubei. 1661. pp. 18–35.
  49. ^ J.D. Mansi, ed., Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, editio novissima, Tomus XXXVIA (Paris 1911), p. 67. Jacobo Carlo Vlietti (1831). Notizie storiche intorno al seminario di Bergamo (in Italian). Bergamo: Coi Tipi Di Luigi Sonzogni. Angelo Roncalli, "Gli inizi del Seminario di Bergamo e S. Carlo Borromeo," Humilitas: Miscellanea storica dei Seminari Milanesi 25 (1938) 988-1014.
  50. ^ J.D. Mansi, p. 111. Acta Synodalia Bergomensis Ecclesiae (in Latin). 1661. pp. 37–63.
  51. ^ J.D. Mansi, p. 141. Acta Synodalia Bergomensis Ecclesiae (in Latin). 1661. pp. 65–105.
  52. ^ Federico Cornaro (1580). Constitutiones et decreta ... Federici Cornelii Patavii episcopi in diœcesana Synodo promulgatae die XXX Aprilis, prima et secunda Mai, MDLXXIX: Adjectis in fine, quae a confessariis et concionatoribus urbis et diœcesis maxime sunt animadvertenda (in Latin). Padua.
  53. ^ Mansi, Tomus XXXVIbis, p. 265.
  54. ^ Acta Synodalia Bergomensis Ecclesiae (in Latin). 1661. pp. 123–142.
  55. ^ Mansi, Tomus XXVIter, p. 25. Acta Synodalia Bergomensis Ecclesiae (in Latin). 1661. pp. 143–170.
  56. ^ Mansi, Tomus XXVIter, p. 139. Acta Synodalia Bergomensis Ecclesiae (in Latin). 1661. pp. 171–279.
  57. ^ Mansi, Tomus XXVIter, pp. 219, 299. Acta Synodalia Bergomensis Ecclesiae (in Latin). 1661. pp. 281–316, 317–325.
  58. ^ Mansi, Tomus XXVIter, pp. 325, 367.
  59. ^ Mansi, Tomus XXVIter, p. 367.
  60. ^ Mansi, Tomus XXVIter, p. 405. Acta Synodalia Bergomensis Ecclesiae (in Latin). 1661. pp. 337 ff.
  61. ^ Bergomensis Ecclesiae Synodus XXXIII. a Reverendissimo Domino Jacobo Maria Radini Tedeschi Episcopo habita, Bergamo: 1910.
  62. ^ Bergomensis Ecclesiae. Synodus XXXIV quam habuit Aloysius Maria Marelli, Bergamo: Tipografia Secomandi 1923.
  63. ^ Gaetano Moroni (ed.), Dizionario di erudizione storico-ecclesiastica, Volume LXXIX (Venezia: Tipografia Emiliana 1856), pp. 340-341.
  64. ^ Acta Synodalia Bergomensis Ecclesiae ... Cornelio, Milano, Emo, Priulo, Grimano Episcopis condita, In vnum volumen ex antiquis codicibus redacta ad commodiorem vsum Ecclesiasticorum (in Latin). Bergamo: Filii M. Ant. Rubei. 1661. pp. 18–35.
  65. ^ Diocesi di Bergamo, Seminario; retrieved: 27-08-2018. (in Italian)
  66. ^ Vlietti, pp. 14 note 1; 22.
  67. ^ Vlietti, pp. 11-13.
  68. ^ Diocesi di Bergamo, Seminario; retrieved: 27-08-2018. (in Italian)
  69. ^ Source for parishes: http://www.diocesibg.it/home_page/banche_dati/00000061_Parrocchie.html retrieved: 27 August 2018. A detailed list of the parishes of the diocese, with relevant details, is published in: Statistica della diocesi di Bergamo. pp. 10–94.
  70. ^ Narnus is said to have been the first (or third) bishop of Bergamo. The title of "saint" (or "holy", as in "Holy Father") was not applied to him until the 10th century, though before the days of formal canonization. Ughelli, IV, pp. 410-411. Lanzoni, p. 972 no. 1.
  71. ^ The purported bodies of Narnus and Viator were found in the suburban basilica of S. Andrea in 1401. Ughelli, p. 411. Lanzoni, p. 972 no. 2. Lanzoni, p. 975, reports that the body of the martyr Bishop Joannes of Bergamo was found in the Church of S. Alessandro in Bergamo in 1291, though Joannes was neither a bishop of Bergamo or anywhere else, nor a martyr, as claimed.
  72. ^ The third bishop of Bergamo. Lanzoni, pp. 972-973, no. 3.
  73. ^ The fourth bishop of Bergamo. Lanzoni, p. 973, no. 4.
  74. ^ Ronchetti, I, p. 23: Ci attestano tuttavia testimonj irrefragabili, perchè di vista, che nel coro dell' antico sontuoso tempio di S. Alessandro scorgevansi a loro giorni le immagini di sei nostri Vescovi con sotto il loro nome in tal ordine disposti, cioè Dominatore, Stefano, Claudiano, Simpliciano, Babiano, e Quinziano, però non v'ha luogo a dubitare, che questi sei personaggi non abbiano retta la Chiesa di Bergamo, e quantunque altro non ne sappiamo, che i nomi, sembra, che a questi tempi s'abbiano a riferire, e che esse riempissero il vano tra Lorenzo or ora rammentato e S. Giovanni di cui scriveremo a suo luogo, senza che tra essi alcun altro debba intromettersi.... There is no proof that these images constituted an unbroken series. Lanzoni, p. 973, no. 5. Lanzoni suggests that Dominator and Stefano were the names of the anonymous third and fourth bishops. Ughelli, p. 412-413, divides the list into two groups, one in the 5th century, the rest in the 6th century, after Laurentius and Joannes.
  75. ^ Gams, p. 777, calls him Fabianus.
  76. ^ Bishop Praestantius was present at the provincial synod held in Milan by Archbishop Eusebius in 451. Ughelli, p. 412 no. 6 (wrongly naming him Projectitius). J. D. Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, editio novissima, Tomus sextus (6) (Florence 1761), p. 528. Lanzoni, p. 974 no. 11.
  77. ^ Bishop Laurentius was present at the Roman synod of Pope Symmachus in 501. Ughelli, p. 412. Lanzoni, p. 974 no. 12.
  78. ^ Joannes: Ughelli, IV, pp. 413-414. Lupi, I, pp. 244-247; 335-363. Gams, p. 777.
  79. ^ Antoninus: Ughelli, IV, p. 414, states that he was bishop for 67 years. He does not recognize an 'Antonius'. Ronchetti, I, pp. 87-88; 93-95; 100-103.
  80. ^ Ronchetti, I, pp. 103-104.
  81. ^ Aginus is said to have served for 40 years (Gams, p. 778), or for 52 years (Ughelli, p. 414).
  82. ^ Tachipaldus: Ughelli, IV, p. 415 (giving the dates 811–837). Gams, p. 778, column 1.
  83. ^ Grasmond: Gams, p. 778, column 1.
  84. ^ Hagano: Ughelli, IV, p. 415.
  85. ^ Garibaldus: Ughelli, IV, pp. 415-420.
  86. ^ Ughelli, IV, pp. 420-435. Lupi, Codex diplomaticus II, p. 1461. Gams, p. 778, puts the dates for Adelbertus at 891 to 935, listing his death on 3 November 935. So too Ronchetti, II, p. 91, quoting the book of anniversaries of S. Vincenzo, Anno DCCCCXXXV obiit D. Adelbertus Episcopus qui dedit huic Ecclesiae duo mercata et solidos duos pro ora pro Canonico et denarios XVI pro Minore et ordinavit unam lampadam ad honorem Sanctae Trinitatis.
  87. ^ Recho was already bishop in a document dated 8 July 938. Recho was still bishop in November 953, but he was dead before May 954. Ughelli, IV, pp. 435-436. Lupi, II, pp. 197-199; 223-226. Ronchetti, II, p. 38.
  88. ^ Odelricus was the son of Arioaldus, who lived according to Lombard law in a village called Beluscum, on the edge of Bergamasque territory to the west. Odelricus had a brother and a nephew. He was already Bishop of Bergamo on 4 May 954. On 2 January 968, Odelricus subscribed the bull of Pope John XIII which established the diocese of Misenum. J. D. Mansi, Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, editio novissima, Tomus XVIII (Venice: A. Zatta 1773), p. 534. Lupi, II, pp. 227-230.
  89. ^ Ambrosius was still serving as Chancellor of the Emperors Otto I and Otto II on 21 January 969. He is mentioned as a bishop in the Life of Theoderic of Metz by Sigibert in 970. His earliest document is dated 4 April 971. On 5 July 972 he entered into a rental agreement with the Patriarch of Rodaldus of Aquileia. On 6 May 973 he made a grant to the teachers of grammar and music in the Church of Bergamo, and signed the text. Lupi, II, pp. 294, 297-298, 299-300, 301-302, 309-312.
  90. ^ Bishop Giselbert is first attested in a document of 8 April 975. On 5 December 980, Bishop Giselbert is found with the Emperor Otto II at the siege of Salerno. The Emperor returned northward, and was present at the Roman synod of Pope Benedict VII in March 981; Ronchetti conjectures that Bishop Giselbert was with the Emperor. On 14 August 981 he was certainly with the Emperor on campaign in the territory of the Marsi. He is last mentioned in a document of 13 August 982, and Ronchetti conjectures that he did not return from his expedition with the Emperor. Lupi, II, pp. 319-322; 357-362. Ronchetti, II, pp. 70-72; 79-80.
  91. ^ No documents concerning the bishops of Bergamo between 982 and 987 survive. Lupi, II, p. 362-363.
  92. ^ Bishop Atto's latest known document dates from April 1075. It is not the date of his death. The Necrology of S. Vincenco states that he died on a 13 July. Ronchetti, II, p. 190-191.
  93. ^ Arnulfus was already Bishop-elect on 31 December 1077, and was in his fourth year as bishop on 19 October 1181: Ronchetti, II, p. 191. On 21 June 1079, Pope Gregory VII calls him Pergamen. ecclesiae electo: Kehr, p. 358, no. 2. He was deposed and excommunicated by the Synod of Milan on 8 April 1198. Lupi, Codex diplomaticus II, pp. 807-811, 1461. Cappelletti, p. 482. Gams, p. 778. Kehr, pp. 358, no. 3; 401 no. 9.
  94. ^ It is said that Arnulfus was succeeded by another schismatic bishop, named Archinzolus. Lupi, II, p. 877.
  95. ^ Ambrosius was still in office on 13 October 1129, when Cardinals John and Peter demanded a settlement in the controversy between Bishop Ambrosius and the Canons of S. Alessandro. He was still bishop in March 1333, and died on 21 October. Lupi, II, pp. 958; 976-978. Kehr, p. 359 no. 6.
  96. ^ Gregorius was probably elected in 1133, after the death of Bishop Ambrosius on 19 October. He performed an investiture in June 1134. On 5 May 1145 (or 1144—there is a chronological discrepancy), Bishop Gregorius was a party to a judicial compromise. On 4 July 1145, the new Pope Eugene III wrote to Bishop Gregory about the decade long dispute between the two cathedral Chapters. Gregory is last mentioned in a document of 1 May 1146, and it is said that he was murdered with a sword. The Necrology states that he died on 19 June 1146. Lupi, II, pp. 981, 985-986; 1057-1062; 1065-1070.
  97. ^ Girardus was elected bishop around the Feast of S. Peter (29 June) 1146 by six electors, three from each Chapter. He had previously been Archdeacon of the Church of Bergamo. Girardus was deposed from office in 1167, because he had supported the schism of Antipope Victor IV (1159–1164) and Antipope Paschal III (1164–1168), creatures of the Emperor Frederick Barbarossa, against the legitimate Pope Alexander III. Lupi, II, p. 1170. Ronchetti, III, pp. 133-135.
  98. ^ The deposition of a bishop was such a serious matter that Archbishop Galdinus, who was also the Apostolic Legate, travelled down from Milan personally to preside at the election of a successor. He first held a meeting of the clergy and people in S. Vincenzo, where he ordered the election of a new Catholic bishop. In December 1167, Guala, a Canon of S. Alessandro, was elected. Bishop Guala died on 30 October 1186. Lupi, II, pp. 1238-1246; 1369-1370. Ronchetti, III, pp. 135-136.
  99. ^ The election began on 3 November 1186, on which day Oberto the Provost of S. Alessandro lodged an appeal to the pope, objecting to the selection of two electors for S. Alessandro by Archdeacon Adelardus of S. Vincenzo. On 6 December 1186, Oberto appealed to the pope against the Consuls of Bergamo, over the possession of the diocese by Lanfrancus. Lanfrancus had been a Canon of the Cathedral of S. Vincenzo. He was finally elected bishop in February 1187 (the second day of Septuagesimo, Lent), though Pope Clement III had been obliged to send Cardinal Adelardus of S. Marcello to settle the differences between the two Chapters. Lupi, Codex diplomaticus II, pp. 1371-1378; 1461. Ronchetti, III, pp. 184-185. Gams, p. 778.
  100. ^ A native of Novara, Tornielli was elected bishop in August 1211. He died on 7 March 1230. Ronchetti, III, p. 229. Eubel, I, p. 395. Ronchetti, IV, p. 45-47, refers to a document of 12 September 1230, in which Bishop Giovanni agrees to the grant of the church of Santa Maria della Carità to the Franciscans; he argues that the old date of 7 March is erroneous. And yet, Ronchetti (IV, p. 72) cites the two documents which indicate that he died on a 7 March. This would have to be 1231 then.
  101. ^ Atto died on 13 July 1240. Eubel, I, pp. 395-396. Atto left no documentary record, as far as Ronchetti knew, and he doubted the existence of Atto. Ronchetti, IV (1817), pp. 47, 72.
  102. ^ A native of Bergamo, Enrico di Sessa was the Archdeacon of the Cathedral of S. Vincenzo. His election was opposed by Canon Ubertino da Corte Nuova, who appealed to Pope Gregory IX. On 13 April 1241, after a local investigation and another in Rome headed by the Cardinal Bishop of Sabina, the Pope approved Henricus' election. Enrico died on 1 or 2 September 1242. Ronchetti, IV (1817), pp. 73-74, 77. Eubel, I, p. 396.
  103. ^ Alberto was elected on 26 September 1242. Ronchetti, IV (1817), p. 77.
  104. ^ Gams, p. 778 column 2. There was a contested election. One side elected the Archdeacon Robert, the other elected the Provost Joannes. The matter was referred to the Pope. Before a ruling was made, John died and Robert resigned his electoral claim. Pope Nicholas IV then decided to appoint Robert. Ernest Langlois, Les registres de Nicolaus IV Tome I (Paris: Fontemoing 1905), p. 294, no. 1528.
  105. ^ Robertus was appointed on 7 October 1289 by Pope Nicholas IV. He consecrated the Franciscan church in Bergamo on 27 August 1292. He died before 22 December 1291. Eubel, I, p. 396.
  106. ^ Bishop Giovanni had been a Canon of the Cathedral Chapter of Bergamo. He was appointed bishop by Pope Boniface VIII on 31 July 1295. He held a synod in the Cathedral of S. Alessandro in 1304, and another in the Episcopal Palace in 1306. On 21 February 1309 he authorized a set of Statutes for the Canons. One of his last acts was a journey to Milan, where he successfully negotiated the release from prison of Archbishop Cassone on 29 October. He died on 2 November 1309. Ughelli-Coleti, pp. 477-478. Ronchetti, Memorie istoriche V (Bergamo 1818), p. 5. Cappelletti, XI, pp. 502-504. Eubel, I, p. 396.
  107. ^ A native of Venice, Canali was appointed Bishop of Brescia by Pope Innocent VI on 18 July 1342. On 25 September 1342, he was named Archbishop of Ravenna. Ronchetti, V, pp. 84-85. Eubel, I, pp. 396, 415.
  108. ^ A native of Agde in southern France, Bernard Tricardo was a member of the Cistercian Order. He was appointed Bishop of Bergamo by Pope Innocent VI on 7 October 1342 (Eubel). He was transferred to the diocese of Brescia on 23 October 1349. He died on 15 March 1358. Ronchetti, V, pp. 85. Eubel, I, pp. 147, 396.
  109. ^ Bishop Francesco de Regatiis was appointed by Pope Boniface IX on 31 January 1403. He died on 6 August 1437. Eubel, I, p. 396; II, p. 214.
  110. ^ A Venetian, Barozzi was a nephew of Cardinal Pietro Barbo (Pope Paul II), and a papal subdeacon. He was appointed Bishop of Bergamo by Pope Nicholas V on 31 October 1449. He presided over three diocesan synods. He was appointed Patriarch of Venice on 7 January 1465 by Pope Paul II, and died in 1466. Cappelletti, p. 513. Eubel, II, pp. 214; 264.
  111. ^ A native of Venice, Donatus had previously been Bishop of Belluno (1462–1465). He was appointed Bishop of Bergamo by Pope Paul II on 9 January 1465. He held three diocesan synods. He died on 20 July 1484. Ughelli-Coleti, IV, pp. 484-485. Cappelletti, XI, p. 513. Eubel, II, pp. 103, 214.
  112. ^ A Venetian noble, Gabrieli was a Doctor in utroque iure, and had been a Canon of the Cathedral Chapter of Padua. He was appointed Bishop of Bergamo by Pope Innocent VIII on 15 October 1484. On 26 March 1487 he laid the foundation stone of the new fortress. He restored the cathedral. When the French army arrived in 1509, he fled to Padua, leaving the diocese in the hands of the Provost of S. Alessandro, the Archdeacon, and one of the Canons. He died in Padua on 6 July 1512, and was buried in Ss. Giovanni e Paolo in Venice. Ughelli-Coleti, p. 485. Eubel, II, p. 214; III, p. 132.
  113. ^ Lippomano was prevented from taking possession of his diocese due to the presence of both French and Spanish troops, who were at war over the Duchy of Milan. He attended the Fifth Lateran Council, and signed the decrees of Sessions IV through IX. He resigned in favor of his nephew of 4 July 1516, and died in Rome shortly thereafter. Cappelletti, p. 514. Eubel, Hierarchia catholica III, p. 132.
  114. ^ Pietro Lippomano, nephew of Niccolò Lippomano, was Archpriest of Padua and a Canon of the Cathedral Chapter of Bergamo. He required a dispensation because he was below the canonical age for consecration as a bishop, and did not take possession of the diocese until 6 January 1520. Due to a dispute with the Canons, he placed the city of Bergamo under the interdict, which lasted from April to December 1520. He was not actually consecrated a bishop until 29 June 1530. He was appointed Bishop of Verona by Pope Paul III on 18 February 1544. Cappelletti, pp. 514-517. Eubel, Hierarchia catholica III, p. 132.
  115. ^ Bembo was never consecrated a bishop, and thus was never bishop of Bergamo, only "Administrator" of the diocese. Eubel, Hierarchia catholica III, p. 132.
  116. ^ Sorzano had been Coadjutor bishop for Cardinal Bembo. On 22 June 1552, Sorzano had been suspended by Pope Julius III and an Administrator, Niccolò Durante of Camerino, had been appointed. Sorzano was restored in 1554. On 20 April 1558, in a public Consistory in Rome, the See of Bergamo was declared vacant by Pope Paul IV, on the grounds of heresy, and all of Sorzano's acts were declared invalid. He died in exile in Venice on 15 May 1558. Ughelli-Coleti, IV, pp. 492-496. Cappelletti, XI, p. 517. Eubel, Hierarchia catholica III, p. 132, with notes 8 and 9.
  117. ^ When Sorzano was deposed, the people of Bergamo petitioned the authorities in Venice to have Bishop Luigi Lippomano, the nephew of the late Bishop Pietro Lippomano, transferred from Verona to Bergamo. Luigi, who had been Coadjutor Bishop of his uncle in Verona, was appointed to Bergamo on 20 July 1558, but was summoned to Rome to discuss the diocese, while Pope Paul IV appointed his nephew Agostino Lippomano (titular bishop of Maiora in Palestine, and Coadjutor Bishop of Verona) as Administrator. Luigi Lippomano died while still in Rome, on 15 August 1559, at the age of 63. Agostino Lippomano died on 16 July 1560. Cappelletti, p. 517. Eubel, III, pp. 132 with note 10; 233, 331.
  118. ^ Cardinal Alvise Cornaro was never consecrated a bishop, and thus was only Administrator of the diocese of Bergamo. He was appointed on 13 March 1560, and resigned the administratorship ten months later on 15 January 1561 on the appointment of his nephew as the next bishop. Cappelletti, p. 518. Eubel, III, pp. 33 no. 15; 132.
  119. ^ Cornaro was the nephew of Cardinal Luigi Cornaro, and succeeded him on his resignation, by agreement approved by Pope Pius IV on 15 January 1561. He was transferred to the diocese of Padua on 19 July 1577 by Pope Gregory XIII. Eubel, III, pp. 133, 267.
  120. ^ Ragazzoni was approved in Consistory by Pope Gregory XIII on 19 July 1577. He died on 5 March 1592. Eubel, III, p. 133.
  121. ^ Milani: Gauchat, Hierarchia catholica IV, p. 113 with note 2.
  122. ^ Emo: Gauchat, IV, p. 113 with note 3.
  123. ^ Cornaro was appointed Bishop of Vicenza. Gauchat, IV, p. 113 with note 4.
  124. ^ Priuli: Gauchat, IV, p. 113 with note 5.
  125. ^ Grimani: Gauchat, IV, p. 113 with note 6.
  126. ^ Barbarogo was appointed Bishop of Padua on 24 March 1664. Tommaso Agostino Ricchini (1762). Vita del beato Gregorio Barbarigo cardinale della S(anta) R(omana) C(hiesa) (in Italian). Bergani: dalle stampe di Francesco Locatelli. pp. 11 ff. Gauchat, IV, p. 113 with note 7.
  127. ^ Giustiniani: Gauchat, IV, p. 113 with note 8.
  128. ^ Ruzini: Ritzler-Sefrin, Hierarchia catholica V, p. 118 with note 3.
  129. ^ Priuli was named a cardinal by Pope Clement XI on 17 May 1706. Ritzler-Sefrin, V, pp. 25 no. 17; 118 with note 3.
  130. ^ Porzia: Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 118 with note 3.
  131. ^ Ritzler-Sefrin, Hierarchia catholica VI, p. 121 with note 2.
  132. ^ Molin: Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, p. 121 with note 3.
  133. ^ Dolfin: Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, p. 121 with note 4.
  134. ^ Mola: Ritzler-Sefrin, Hierarchia catholica VII, p. 110.
  135. ^ Morlacchi: Cappelletti, p. 537. Ritzler-Sefrin, VII, p. 110.
  136. ^ Speranza: Ritzler-Sefrin, Hierarchia catholica VIII, p. 147.
  137. ^ Guindani had previously been Bishop of Borgo San Donnino (1872-1879): Ritzler-Sefrin, Hierarchia catholica VIII, pp. 147. 163.
  138. ^ Radini-Tedeschi was consecrated a bishop by Pope Pius X in the Sistine Chapel on 29 January 1905. Angelo Roncalli was present. Meriol Trevor (2000). Pope John. Blessed John XXIII (reprint of London: Macmilln 1967 ed.). London: Gracewing Publishing. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-85244-480-1. Peter Hebblethwaite (2010). "Chapter 4: Into the Whirlwind of Modernism". John XXIII: Pope of the Century. London-New York: Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 27–37. ISBN 978-1-4411-8413-9.
  139. ^ Diocesi di Bergamo, Biografia S.E. Mons. Francesco Beschi; retrieved: 09-04-2018. (in Italian)

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