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The Christian martyrs of the 1622 Great Genna Martyrdom; 17th-century Japanese painting

A martyr (Greek: μάρτυς, mártys, 'witness' stem μαρτυρ-, martyr-) is someone who suffers persecution and death for advocating, renouncing, or refusing to renounce or advocate, a religious belief or other cause as demanded by an external party. In colloquial usage, the term can also refer to any person who suffers a significant consequence in protest or support of a cause.

In the martyrdom narrative of the remembering community, this refusal to comply with the presented demands results in the punishment or execution of an individual by an oppressor. Accordingly, the status of the 'martyr' can be considered a posthumous title as a reward for those who are considered worthy of the concept of martyrdom by the living, regardless of any attempts by the deceased to control how they will be remembered in advance.[1] Insofar, the martyr is a relational figure of a society's boundary work that is produced by collective memory.[2] Originally applied only to those who suffered for their religious beliefs, the term has come to be used in connection with people killed for a political cause.

Most martyrs are considered holy or are respected by their followers, becoming symbols of exceptional leadership and heroism in the face of difficult circumstances. Martyrs play significant roles in religions. Similarly, martyrs have had notable effects in secular life, including such figures as Socrates, among other political and cultural examples.


In its original meaning, the word martyr, meaning witness, was used in the secular sphere as well as in the New Testament of the Bible.[3] The process of bearing witness was not intended to lead to the death of the witness, although it is known from ancient writers (e.g., Josephus) and from the New Testament that witnesses often died for their testimonies.

During the early Christian centuries, the term acquired the extended meaning of believers who are called to witness for their religious belief, and on account of this witness, endure suffering or death. The term, in this later sense, entered the English language as a loanword. The death of a martyr or the value attributed to it is called martyrdom.

The early Christians who first began to use the term martyr in its new sense saw Jesus as the first and greatest martyr, on account of his crucifixion.[4][5][6] The early Christians appear to have seen Jesus as the archetypal martyr.[7]

The word martyr is used in English to describe a wide variety of people. However, the following table presents a general outline of common features present in stereotypical martyrdoms.

Common features of stereotypical martyrdoms[8]
1. A hero A person of some renown who is devoted to a cause believed to be admirable.
2. Opposition People who oppose that cause.
3. Foreseeable risk The hero foresees action by opponents to harm him or her, because of his or her commitment to the cause.
4. Courage and commitment The hero continues, despite knowing the risk, out of commitment to the cause.
5. Death The opponents kill the hero because of his or her commitment to the cause.
6. Audience response The hero's death is commemorated. People may label the hero explicitly as a martyr. Other people may in turn be inspired to pursue the same cause.

Martyrdom in the Middle East[edit]

In contemporary Middle Eastern cultures, the term for 'martyr’ (Arabic shahid) has more uses than the English word ‘martyr’.[9]

While the term can be narrowly used for a person who is killed because of their religion, it is more generally used to mean a person who died a violent death. Thus it can arguably mean a general ‘victim’.[10]

A person is a martyr if they were killed because of their identity, because of natural disasters like earthquakes,[11] or while performing relief or health care work. For example, İbrahim Bilgen was killed by Israel in the 2010 Gaza flotilla raid. Because he died as a humantiarian activist, he is called a martyr by Al-Jazeera.[12]

Martyrdom is also tied with nationalism, because a martyr can be a person who died in the context of national struggle.[13] For example, in Beirut, Martyrs' Square is a public square that's dedicated to Lebanese nationalists who were executed by the Ottomans.

In Palestine, the word ‘martyr’ is traditionally used to mean a person killed by Israeli forces, regardless of religion.[14][15] For example, Shireen Abu Akleh was a Palestinian Christian journalist who was killed by Israeli forces, and Arabic media calls her a ‘martyr’.[16] This reflects a communal belief that every Palestinian death is part of a resistance against Israeli occupation.[17] Children are likewise called martyrs, such as the late children of journalist Wael Al-Dahdouh who were killed in an Israeli airstrike.[18]

The label of martyrdom is used as a form of memoralizing the dead within some narrative, such as how the victims of the 2020 Beirut explosion were called ‘martyrs of corruption’ as a form of protest against the government.[19]

The wide usage of ‘martyr’ is not restricted to Arabic. Armenian culture likewise uses the term for the victims of the Armenian genocide, who are called Holy Martyrs.[20] April 24 is Armenian Genocide Memorial Day, and also called "Armenian Martyrs Day".[21]

Religious meanings[edit]

Eastern religions[edit]

Chinese culture[edit]

Martyrdom was extensively promoted by the Tongmenghui and the Kuomintang party in modern China. Revolutionaries who died fighting against the Qing dynasty in the Xinhai Revolution and throughout the Republic of China period, furthering the cause of the revolution, were recognized as martyrs.[citation needed]


Despite the promotion of ahimsa (non-violence) within Sanatana Dharma, and there being no concept of martyrdom,[22] there is the belief of righteous duty (dharma), where violence is used as a last resort to resolution after all other means have failed. Examples of this are found in the Mahabharata. Upon completion of their exile, the Pandavas were refused the return of their portion of the kingdom by their cousin Duruyodhana; and following which all means of peace talks by Krishna, Vidura and Sanjaya failed. During the great war which commenced, even Arjuna was brought down with doubts, e.g., attachment, sorrow, fear. This is where Krishna instructs Arjuna how to carry out his duty as a righteous warrior and fight.


Sculpture at Mehdiana Sahib of the execution of Banda Singh Bahadur by Mughals in 1716

Martyrdom (called shahadat in Punjabi) is a fundamental concept in Sikhism and represents an important institution of the faith. Sikhs believe in Ibaadat se Shahadat (from love to martyrdom). Some famous Sikh martyrs include:[23]

  • Guru Arjan, the fifth leader of Sikhism. Guru ji was brutally tortured for almost 5 days before he attained shaheedi, or martyrdom.
  • Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth guru of Sikhism, martyred on 11 November 1675. He is also known as Dharam Di Chadar (i.e. "the shield of Religion"), suggesting that to save Hinduism, the guru gave his life.
  • Bhai Dayala is one of the Sikhs who was martyred at Chandni Chowk at Delhi in November 1675 due to his refusal to accept Islam.
  • Bhai Mati Das is considered by some one of the greatest martyrs in Sikh history, martyred at Chandni Chowk at Delhi in November 1675 to save Hindu Brahmins.
  • Bhai Sati Das is also considered by some one of the greatest martyrs in Sikh history, martyred along with Guru Teg Bahadur at Chandni Chowk at Delhi in November 1675 to save kashmiri pandits.
  • Sahibzada Ajit Singh, Sahibzada Jujhar Singh, Sahibzada Zorawar Singh and Sahibzada Fateh Singh – the four sons of Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th Sikh guru.
  • Bhai Mani Singh, who came from a family of over 20 different martyrs

Abrahamic religions[edit]


Martyrdom of the seven Hebrew brothers, Attavante degli Attavanti, Vatican Library

Martyrdom in Judaism is one of the main examples of Kiddush Hashem, meaning "sanctification of God's name" through public dedication to Jewish practice. Religious martyrdom is considered one of the more significant contributions of Hellenistic Judaism to Western Civilization. 1 Maccabees and 2 Maccabees recount numerous martyrdoms suffered by Jews resisting Hellenizing (adoption of Greek ideas or customs of a Hellenistic civilization) by their Seleucid overlords, being executed for such crimes as observing the Sabbath, circumcising their boys or refusing to eat pork or meat sacrificed to foreign gods. However, the notion of martyrdom in the Jewish and Christian traditions differ considerably.[24]


From the gallery of 20th century martyrs at Westminster Abbey—l. to r. Mother Elizabeth of Russia, Rev. Martin Luther King Jr., Archbishop Óscar Romero and Pastor Dietrich Bonhoeffer

In Christianity, a martyr, in accordance with the meaning of the original Greek term martys in the New Testament, is one who brings a testimony, usually written or verbal. In particular, the testimony is that of the Christian Gospel, or more generally, the Word of God. A Christian witness is a biblical witness whether or not death follows.[25]

Illustration of Christian martyrs burned at the stake by the order of Ranavalona I in Madagascar

The concept of Jesus as a martyr has recently received greater attention. Analyses of the Passion narratives in the Gospels have led many scholars to conclude that they are martyrdom accounts in terms of genre and style.[26][27][28] Several scholars have also concluded that Paul the Apostle understood Jesus' death as a martyrdom.[29][30][31][32][33][34] In light of such conclusions, some have argued that the early Christians of the first three centuries would have interpreted the crucifixion of Jesus as a martyrdom.[7][35]

In the context of church history, from the time of the persecution of early Christians in the Roman Empire under the Julio-Claudian dynasty, it developed that a martyr was one who was killed for maintaining a religious belief, knowing that this will almost certainly result in imminent death (though without intentionally seeking death). This definition of martyr is not specifically restricted to the Christian faith. Christianity recognizes certain Old Testament Jewish figures, like Abel and the Maccabees, as holy, and the New Testament mentions the imprisonment and beheading of John the Baptist, Jesus's possible cousin and his prophet and forerunner. The first Christian witness, after the establishment of the Christian faith at Pentecost, to be killed for his testimony was Saint Stephen (whose name means "crown"), and those who suffer martyrdom are said to have been "crowned". From the time of the Roman Emperor Constantine, Christianity was decriminalized, and then, under Theodosius I, became the state religion, which greatly diminished persecution (although not for non-Nicene Christians). As some wondered how then they could most closely follow Christ there was a development of desert spirituality characterized by a eremitic lifestyle, renunciation, self-mortification, and separation from the world, practiced by several desert monks and Christian ascetics in late antiquity (such as Paul the Hermit and Anthony the Great). This was a kind of white martyrdom, dying to oneself every day, as opposed to a red martyrdom, the giving of one's life in a violent death.[36]

Jan Luyken's drawing of the Anabaptist Anna Utenhoven being buried alive at Vilvoorde (present-day Belgium) in 1597. In the engraving, her head is still above the ground and the Catholic priest is exhorting her to recant her faith, while the executioner stands ready to completely cover her up upon her refusal. This engraving was part of a major Protestant outrage praising Utenhoven as a martyr.

In the history of Christianity, death due to sectarian persecutions by other Christians has been regarded as martyrdom as well. There were martyrs recognized on both sides of the schism between the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England after 1534. Two hundred and eighty-eight Christians were martyred for their faith by public burning between 1553 and 1558 by the Roman Catholic Queen Mary I in England leading to the reversion to the Church of England under Queen Elizabeth I in 1559. "From hundreds to thousands" of Waldensians were martyred in the Massacre of Mérindol in 1545. Three-hundred Roman Catholics were said to have been martyred by the Church authorities in England in the 16th and 17th centuries.[37]

Even more modern day accounts of martyrdom for Christ exist, depicted in books such as Jesus Freaks, though the numbers are disputed. The claim that 100,000 Christians are killed for their faith annually is greatly exaggerated according to the BBC, with many of those deaths due to war,[38] but the fact of ongoing Christian martyrdoms remains undisputed.[39][40][41][42]


A painting commemorating the martyrdom of the 3rd Shia Imam Husayn ibn Ali at the Battle of Karbala in 680 AD

Shahid is an Arabic term in Islam meaning "witness", and is also used to denote a martyr; a female martyr is named shahidka. The term Shahid occurs frequently in the Quran in the generic sense "witness", but only once in the sense "martyr, one who dies for his faith"; this latter sense acquires wider use in the ḥadīth literature. Islam views a martyr as a man or woman who dies while conducting jihad, whether on or off the battlefield (see greater jihad and lesser jihad).[43]

The concept of martyrdom in Islam became prominent during the Islamic Revolution in Iran (1979) and the subsequent Iran–Iraq War (1980–1988), so that the cult of the martyr had a lasting impact on the course of revolution and war.[44] Since the early 2000s, it has been primarily associated with Islamic extremism and jihadism.[45]

Baháʼí Faith[edit]

In the Baháʼí Faith, martyrs are those who sacrifice their lives serving humanity in the name of God.[46] However, Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Baháʼí Faith, discouraged the literal meaning of sacrificing one's life. Instead, he explained that martyrdom is devoting oneself to service to humanity.[46]

Notable people entitled as religious martyrs[edit]

Interior of the Coliseum at the National Shrine of the North American Martyrs, Auriesville, New York, showing the sanctuary and high altar.

Political meanings[edit]

In politics, a martyr is someone who suffers persecution and/or death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, and/or refusing to advocate a political belief or cause.


The Manchester Martyrs were three Irishmen executed after being condemned for association with the killing of a policeman in Manchester, England in 1867. The day after the executions, Frederick Engels wrote to Karl Marx: "Yesterday morning the Tories, by the hand of Mr Calcraft, accomplished the final act of separation between England and Ireland. The only thing that the Fenians still lacked were martyrs. ... To my knowledge, the only time that anybody has been executed for a similar matter in a civilised country was the case of John Brown at Harpers Ferry. The Fenians could not have wished for a better precedent."[48] Ten Irish Republican Army members died during a 1981 hunger strike, including Bobby Sands.

The Belfiore martyrs (in Italian, Martiri di Belfiore) were a group of Italian pro-independence fighters condemned to death by hanging in 1853 during the Italian Risorgimento. They included Tito Speri and the priest Enrico Tazzoli and are named after the site where the sentence was carried out, in the valley of Belfiore at the south entrance to Mantua.


The Tolpuddle Martyrs were a group of 19th century agricultural labourers in Dorset, England, who were arrested for and convicted of swearing a secret oath as members of the Friendly Society of Agricultural Labourers. The rules of the society showed it was clearly structured as a friendly society, that is, a mutual association for the purposes of insurance, pensions, savings or cooperative banking; and it operated as a trade-specific benefit society. But at the time, friendly societies had strong elements of what are now considered to be the principal role of trade unions, and wages were at issue. The Tolpuddle Martyrs were sentenced not to death but to transportation to Australia, a harsh form of exile.[49]


In the People's Republic of China, people who died in the cause of the Communist Party—most particularly the many victims of the 1927 Shanghai massacre but also including devoted humanitarians during the Chinese Civil War such as the Canadian physician Tillson Harrison—are honored and commemorated as martyrs. The red scarf worn by the 100+ million Young Pioneers honors their spilt blood. Jiang Zhuyun and Liu Hulan are notable female martyrs who have been commemorated in various media. Notable monuments include the Monument to the People's Heroes at the confluence of Suzhou Creek and the Huangpu River in central Shanghai and the Longhua Martyrs' Memorial.

Many communist activists have died as martyrs in India, due to their allegiance to various communist parties, such as the CPI(M) and the CPI. Most of them hail from mainly leftist states such as Kerala, and Tripura. In Kerala, many are killed in protests by the police, and some are assassinated by activists in other political parties, such as the INC and the RSS. The district of Kannur has reported to have had the most political murders. Here, the RSS are known to have used brutal violence to eliminate CPI(M) workers.

Civil rights movement[edit]

In the United States, the assassinations of Malcolm X in 1965 and Martin Luther King Jr. in 1968 have been linked to their leadership in movements to improve the rights and quality of life of black citizens, black nationalism and the civil rights movement respectively.

Notable people entitled as political martyrs[edit]

A political martyr is someone who suffers persecution or death for advocating, renouncing, refusing to renounce, or refusing to advocate a political belief or cause.

  • 1793 – Jean-Paul Marat, a French Jacobin assassinated by Charlotte Corday.
  • 1835 – King Hintsa kaKhawuta, a Xhosa monarch who was shot and killed while attempting to escape captivity during Sixth Frontier War, also known as the Hintsa War.
  • 1859 – John Brown, a militant abolitionist who was executed after his raid on Harper's Ferry. Many abolitionists of the time extolled him as a martyr.
  • 1865 – Abraham Lincoln, 16th U.S. President. Assassinated by a Confederate sympathizer John Wilkes Booth after the end of the American Civil War.
  • 1881 – James A. Garfield, 20th U.S. President. Shot and killed by an office seeker. Considered one of the people who died for corruption to end.
  • 1940 – Leon Trotsky murdered on the Orders of Soviet General Secretary Joseph Stalin by NKVD agent Ramón Mercader in Mexico City, Trotsky is considered a Marytr by Trotskyist Internationals
  • 1967 – Che Guevara, an influential Marxist–Leninist revolutionary in Cuba, the Congo, and Bolivia who was executed in Bolivia by counter-revolutionary forces. He has since become a figure of political protests and revolutions worldwide.
  • 2024 – Alexei Navalny a Russian opposition leader, lawyer, anti-corruption activist, and political prisoner died while serving a 19-year prison sentence in the corrective colony FKU IK-3

Revolutionary martyr[edit]

The term "revolutionary martyr" usually relates to those dying in revolutionary struggle.[50][51] During the 20th century, the concept was developed in particular in the culture and propaganda of communist or socialist revolutions, although it was and is also used in relation to nationalist revolutions.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Gölz, Olmo "Martyrdom and the Struggle for Power. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Martyrdom in the Modern Middle East.", Behemoth 12, no. 1 (2019): 2–13, 5.
  2. ^ Gölz, Olmo "The Imaginary Field of the Heroic: On the Contention between Heroes, Martyrs, Victims and Villains in Collective Memory." Archived 2020-01-03 at the Wayback Machine In helden.heroes.héros, Special Issue 5: Analyzing Processes of Heroization. Theories, Methods, Histories. Ed. by N Falkenhayner, S Meurer and T Schlechtriemen (2019): 27–38, 27.
  3. ^ See e.g. Alison A. Trites, The New Testament Concept of Witness, ISBN 978-0-521-60934-0.
  4. ^ Frances M. Young, The Use of Sacrificial Ideas in Greek Christian Writers from the New Testament to John Chrysostom (Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2004), pp. 107.
  5. ^ Eusebius wrote of the early Christians: "They were so eager to imitate Christ ... they gladly yielded the title of martyr to Christ, the true Martyr and Firstborn from the dead." Eusebius, Church History 5.1.2.
  6. ^ Scholars believe that Revelation was written during the period when the word for witness was gaining its meaning of martyr. Revelation describes several Christian reh with the term martyr (Rev 17:6, 12:11, 2:10–13), and describes Jesus in the same way ("Jesus Christ, the faithful witness/martyr" in Rev 1:5, and see also Rev 3:14).
  7. ^ a b A. J. Wallace and R. D. Rusk, Moral Transformation: The Original Christian Paradigm of Salvation (New Zealand: Bridgehead, 2011), pp. 217–229.
  8. ^ From A. J. Wallace and R. D. Rusk, Moral Transformation: The Original Christian Paradigm of Salvation (New Zealand: Bridgehead, 2011), pp. 218.
  9. ^ Fierke (2012). "Martyrdom in the contemporary Middle East and north Africa". Political Self-Sacrifice: Agency, Body and Emotion in International Relations: 198. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139248853.011. ISBN 9781139248853.
  10. ^ Whitaker, Brian (October 12, 2000). "Martyrs, never victims". The Guardian.
  11. ^ Akasoy, Anna (2006). "Islamic Attitudes to Disasters in the Middle Ages: A Comparison of Earthquakes and Plagues". The Medieval History Journal. 10 (1–2): 398. doi:10.1177/097194580701000214.
  12. ^ Keddie, Patrick (21 Jul 2016). "Remembering the Mavi Marmara victims". Al Jazeera.
  13. ^ Buckner, Elizabeth and Khatib, Lina (2014). "The Martyrs' Revolutions: The Role of Martyrs in the Arab Spring". British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies. 41 (4): 370. doi:10.1080/13530194.2014.918802.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  14. ^ "The Culture of Palestinian Shaheeds" (PDF). The Meir Amit Intelligence and Terrorism Information Center. January 4, 2018. Retrieved 9 December 2023.
  15. ^ Fierke (2012). "Martyrdom in the contemporary Middle East and north Africa". Political Self-Sacrifice: Agency, Body and Emotion in International Relations: 216. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139248853.011. ISBN 9781139248853.
  16. ^ Alamuddin, Baria (May 16, 2022). "Shireen Abu Akleh: A martyr to the truth of Israeli inhumanity". Arab News.
  17. ^ Raja Abdulrahim and Hiba Yazbek (December 31, 2022). "For Palestinians, a Rush to Claim 'Martyrs' Killed by Israel". The New York Times.
  18. ^ Abu Mazen, Saddam (October 28, 2023). "كتاب وأدباء عرب: صلابة وائل الدحدوح نموذج للجسارة الفلسطينية [Arab writers and writers: Wael Al-Dahdouh's toughness is a model of Palestinian courage]". Al Jazeera.
  19. ^ ICSR Team (10 May 2023). "Martyrdom in Lebanon: An Evolution of Memory-Making". International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation.
  20. ^ "Holy Martyrs of the Armenian Genocide". The Armenian Church, Eastern Diocese of America. Retrieved 28 October 2023.
  21. ^ The Genocide Education Project. "President Biden formally recognizes the Armenian Genocide".
  22. ^ Stephen Knapp (2006) The Power of the Dharma: An Introduction to Hinduism and Vedic Culture [1]
  23. ^ Sandeep Singh Bajwa (2000-02-11). "Biographies of Great Sikh Martyrs". Sikh-history.com. Archived from the original on 2019-04-03. Retrieved 2014-08-22.
  24. ^ See Philippe Bobichon, « Martyre talmudique et martyre chrétien », Kentron : Revue du Monde Antique et de Psychologie Historique 11, 2 (1995) and 12, 1 (1996), pp. 109–129
  25. ^ See Davis, R."Martyr, or Witness?" Archived 2011-05-11 at the Wayback Machine, New Matthew Bible Project
  26. ^ J. W. van Henten, "Jewish Martyrdom and Jesus' Death" in Jörg Frey & Jens Schröter (eds.), Deutungen des Todes Jesu im Neuen Testament (Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2005) pp. 157–168.
  27. ^ Donald W. Riddle, "The Martyr Motif in the Gospel According to Mark." The Journal of Religion, IV.4 (1924), pp. 397–410.
  28. ^ M. E. Vines, M. E. Vines, "The 'Trial Scene' Chronotype in Mark and the Jewish Novel", in G. van Oyen and T. Shepherd (eds.), The Trial and Death of Jesus: Essays on the Passion Narrative in Mark (Leuven: Peeters, 2006), pp. 189–203.
  29. ^ Stephen Finlan, The Background and Content of Paul's Cultic Atonement Metaphors (Atlanta, GA: SBL, 2004), pp. 193–210
  30. ^ Sam K. Williams, Death as Saving Event: The Background and Origin of a Concept (Missoula, MT: Scholars Press for Harvard Theological Review, 1975), pp. 38–41.
  31. ^ David Seeley, The Noble Death (Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1990), pp. 83–112.
  32. ^ Stanley Stowers, A Rereading of Romans: Justice, Jews, and Gentiles (Ann Arbor: Yale University Press, 1997), pp. 212ff.
  33. ^ Jarvis J. Williams, Maccabean Martyr Traditions in Paul's Theology of Atonement (Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock, 2010)
  34. ^ S. A. Cummins, Paul and the Crucified Christ in Antioch (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).
  35. ^ Stephen J. Patterson, Beyond the Passion: Rethinking the Death and Life of Jesus (Minneapolis, MN: Fortress, 2004).
  36. ^ Arena, Saints, directed by Paul Tickell, 2006
  37. ^ "Forty Martyrs of England and Wales | Description, History, Canonization, & Facts | Britannica". www.britannica.com. Retrieved 2022-09-13.
  38. ^ Alexander, Ruth (2013-11-12). "Are there really 100,000 new Christian martyrs every year?". BBC News. Retrieved 2014-08-22.
  39. ^ "IS 'beheads Christian hostages' in Nigeria". BBC News. 2019-12-27. Retrieved 2020-02-17.
  40. ^ Chiaramonte, Perry (2016-04-21). "Martyr killed by bulldozer becomes symbol of growing persecution of Christians in China". Fox News. Retrieved 2020-02-17.
  41. ^ "Christian evangelist murdered in southeast Turkey". The Jerusalem Post | JPost.com. 22 November 2019. Retrieved 2020-02-17.
  42. ^ "Christianity's Modern-Day Martyrs: Victims of Radical Islam". ABC News. Retrieved 2020-02-17.
  43. ^ A. Ezzati (1986). The Concept Of Martyrdom In Islam. Tehran University.
  44. ^ Gölz, "Martyrdom and Masculinity in Warring Iran. The Karbala Paradigm, the Heroic, and the Personal Dimensions of War.", Behemoth 12, no. 1 (2019): 35–51, 35.
  45. ^ Karimi, Nima (December 2023). "The Punishment of the Grave: A Neglected Motivation for Jihad and Martyrdom" (PDF). Perspectives on Terrorism. 17 (4). International Centre for Counter-Terrorism: 127–151. ISSN 2334-3745. JSTOR 27274061. LCCN 2014200073. OCLC 1061231390. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 May 2024. Retrieved 3 May 2024.
  46. ^ a b Winters, Jonah (1997-09-19). "Conclusion". Dying for God: Martyrdom in the Shi'i and Babi Religions. M.A. Thesis. Archived from the original on 2020-02-18. Retrieved 2007-01-23.
  47. ^ "Biography of Hazrat Abdullah bin az-Zubayr (رضئ اللہ تعالی عنہ)". Aal-e-Qutub. 2018-06-03. Retrieved 2023-09-05.
  48. ^ Marx and Engels in Ireland (1971) Progress Publishers, Moscow. Letter of November 24 1867 Engels to Marx
  49. ^ "The Tolpuddle Martyrs". Historic-uk.com. Retrieved 2014-08-22.
  50. ^ The French Revolution Page 95 Linda Frey, Marsha Frey – 2004 "He was immortalized by the painter David in the famous painting of the death scene that became the icon of the revolution and an emblem of revolutionary propaganda. The revolutionary martyr was commemorated not only in painting and in ..."
  51. ^ Revolutionary Mexico: The Coming and Process of the Mexican ... p. 250 John Mason Hart – 1987 "They popularized Ricardo Flores Magon as a revolutionary martyr who was harassed by the American and Mexican ..."
  52. ^ Vietnam At War Mark Philip Bradley – 2009 "As the concept of 'sacrifice' (hi sinh) came to embody the state's narrative of sacred war (chien tranh than thanh), the ultimate sacrifice was considered to be death in battle as a 'revolutionary martyr' (liet si)."
  53. ^ Staff, The New Arab (2021-10-04). "Algeria says 5.6 million died under French colonialism". www.newarab.com/. Retrieved 2023-08-18.


  • "Martyrs", Catholic Encyclopedia
  • Foster, Claude R. Jr. (1995). Paul Schneider, the Buchenwald apostle: a Christian martyr in Nazi Germany: A Sourcebook on the German Church Struggle. Westchester, PA: SSI Bookstore, West Chester University. ISBN 978-1-887732-01-7
  • History.com Editors. "Abolitionist John Brown Is Hanged". History.com, 4 Mar. 2010, www.history.com/this-day-in-history/john-brown-hanged.

Further reading[edit]

  • Bélanger, Jocelyn J., et al. "The Psychology of Martyrdom: Making the Ultimate Sacrifice in the Name of a Cause." Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 107.3 (2014): 494–515. Print.
  • Kateb, George. "Morality and Self-Sacrifice, Martyrdom and Self-Denial." Social Research 75.2 (2008): 353–394. Print.
  • Olivola, Christopher Y. and Eldar Shafir. "The Martyrdom Effect: When Pain and Effort Increase Prosocial Contributions." Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 26, no. 1 (2013): 91–105.
  • PBS. "Plato and the Legacy of Socrates." PBS. https://www.pbs.org/empires/thegreeks/background/41a.html (accessed October 21, 2014).
  • Reeve, C. D. C.. A Plato Reader: Eight Essential Dialogues. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Pub. Co., 2012. [ISBN missing]

External links[edit]