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e-participation (also written eParticipation and e-Participation) is the term referring to "ICT-supported participation in processes involved in government and governance". Processes may concern administration, service delivery, decision making and policy making. E-participation is hence closely related to e-government and e-governance participation. The need for the term has emerged as citizen interests have received less attention than those of the service providers in e-government development. It also emerged as the need to distinguish between the roles of citizen and customer has become more pressing.
A more detailed definition sees e-participation as "the use of information and communication technologies to broaden and deepen political participation by enabling citizens to connect with one another and with their elected representatives". This definition includes all stakeholders in democratic decision-making processes and not only citizen related top-down government initiatives. So e-participation can be seen as part of e-democracy, the use of ICT by governments in general used by elected officials, media, political parties and interest groups, civil society organizations, international governmental organizations, or citizens/voters within any of the political processes of states/regions, nations, and local and global communities.
The complexity of e-participation processes results from the large number of different participation areas, involved stakeholders, levels of engagement, and stages in policy making. (Fraser 2006, p. chapter 2).
- 1 History
- 2 On the definition
- 3 Models and tools
- 4 European eParticipation actions
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The term emanated in the early 2000s and draws generally on three developments.
- The general development in CSCW (Computer Supported Cooperative Work) and groupware directed towards collaborative environments to support human ICT-mediated interaction, both work-related and social.
- Developments in e-democracy since the late 1990s, where interest rapidly evolved from e-voting to several forms of ICT supported and enabled interaction between governments and citizens, including not only direct ones such as consultations, lobbying, petitioning and polling but also ones pursued outside of government itself, including electioneering, campaigning, and community informatics. To a large extent, the institutional framework conditions of the chosen democratic model define at which part of the democratic processes participation is permitted (such as direct or representative democracy, or any intermediate forms).
- The development in e-government towards increasingly complex service delivery. Complex services require considerable interaction including searching, selecting options based on multiple criteria, calculating outcomes, notifications, inquiries, complaints, and many other activities. There are several ICT tools for such tasks, ranging from FAQs to call centres, but there is a need to coordinate all these into user-friendly but powerful toolsets for client-organization encounters. Because interaction in such contexts is complex, and because goals have to be reached, the arenas where it takes places becomes social arenas for ICT-supported participation.
On the definition
The term 'participation' means taking part in joint activities for the purpose of reaching a common goal. This encompasses both trivial situations in which participation mainly has a technical meaning, ”doing things together”. For example, a football team needs 11 players, and dancing often requires two or more people acting in a coordinated manner. But participation, even in trivial situations, also has a goal-oriented aspect which means decision making and control are involved. Participation in political science and theory of management refers to direct public participation in political, economical or management decisions. The two are not completely separated but belong on a spectrum of complexity and context. When participation becomes complicated, decision making becomes necessary. Hence, any participatory process is potentially important for the rule system governing the activities. In terms of points 2 and 3 above, this means that when service processes become complex, the implementation of them will not be in all details based on political decisions but also on what is found to be practical.
Instead of taking in and accepting knowledge as is disseminated by the media and government, by participating, one becomes an active citizen and further contributes to a democratic society. When such practical doings become implemented in government (e)service systems, they will affect decision making, as many changes will later be hard to make simply because existing procedures are implemented in ICT systems and government agencies’ procedures. There are many theories dealing with institutionalization, for example structuration theory, institutional theory, and actor-network theory. These theories all, in different ways, deal with how "ways of doing things" become established or rejected, and how those that become established increasingly affect the ways we "normally" do things.
Models and tools
A number of tools and models have emerged as part of Web 2.0 that can be used or inspire the design of architecture for e-participation. In particular, "the emergence of online communities oriented toward the creation of useful products suggests that it may be possible to design socially mediating technology that support public-government collaborations" (Kriplean et al.).
- Electronic voting
- Reputation systems
- Internet petitions
- Transparency tools (social translucence mechanisms)
- Tracking and analysis
To demonstrate e-participation at work, one can turn to one of its types - crowdsourcing. This is generally defined as the enlisting of a group of humans to solve problems via the World Wide Web. The idea is that this platform is able to collect human resources from the most unlikely and remotest places, contributing to the general store of intellectual capital. Crowdsourcing can be applied in different stages of the policy-making process and these could transpire on the information, consultation, and active participation levels. At the information level, there is a one-way relationship, wherein the participants receive information from the government. The consultation process entails a two-way interaction where citizens already provide their inputs, feedback, and reactions. Finally, active participation can refer to the deeper participatory involvement where citizens directly contribute in the formulation of policy content. This level of e-participation is increasingly being practiced through tools such as online petition, e-referendum, e-panels, citizen e-juries, and participatory GIS, among others.
European eParticipation actions
European eParticipation Preparatory Action
eParticipation is the Preparatory Action[clarification needed] lasts[clarification needed] for three years (2006–2008). The EU is taking the lead in using online tools to improve the legislative process for its citizens. eParticipation which launched on January 1, 2007 will run as a series of linked projects which each contribute to a greater awareness and involvement by citizens in the legislation process from initial drafting to implementation at a regional and local level.
The individual projects will concentrate on ensuring that the legislative language and process is more transparent, understandable and accessible to citizens. In addition the projects emphasis on the communication of legislation will be used to enhance and grow citizens' involvement and contribution in the process of creating and implementing the legislation.
So far, 21 projects have been funded. The European Parliament, national parliaments and local and regional authorities are actively involved. State-of-the-art ICT tools are being tested to facilitate the writing of legal texts, including translation into different languages, and the drafting of amendments as well as making the texts easier for non-specialists to find and understand. New digital technologies are also being used to give citizens easier access to information and more opportunity to influence decisions that affect their lives. A report (Charalabidis, Koussouris & Kipenis 2009), which was published as a MOMENTUM white paper, highlights the major facts and figures of those projects while providing some initial policy recommendations for future use.
European eParticipation Actions
The European Commission has now launched a number of actions aiming at further advancing the work of supporting eParticipation.
- FP7 : ICT Challenge 7 : Objective ICT-2009.7.3 ICT for Governance and Policy Modelling. The European Commission has launched some call in this area to finance researches. Currently the Integrated Program Future Policy Modelling (FUPOL) is the largest project in this domain. FUPOL
- CIP ICT Policy Support Programme (or ICT PSP). The European project has open a call in the programme CIP (Competitiveness and Innovation Framework) on the Theme 3: ICT for government and governance
- Collaborative e-democracy
- Direct democracy
- Electronic civil disobedience
- Emergent democracy
- Internet activism
- Online consultation
- Online deliberation
- Online participation
- Open politics
- Open source governance
- Parliamentary informatics
- Participatory democracy
- Radical transparency
- Second Superpower
- Smart mob
- Spatial Citizenship
- Social translucence
- Virtual volunteering
- Clift, Steven (2003), Exploiting the Knowledge Economy: Issues, Applications, Case Studies, retrieved 2009-03-17
- Fraser, C.; et al. (2006), DEMO_net: Demo_net Deliverable 5.1: Report on current ICTs to enable participation
- Kriplean, T.; Beschastnikh, I.; Borning, A.; McDonald, D. W.; Zachry, M. (2009), "Designing Mediating Spaces Between Citizens and Government" (PDF), Socially Mediating Technologies Workshop at the ACM 2009 SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI'09)
- Macintosh, A. (2004), "Characterizing E-Participation in Policy-Making", In the Proceedings of the Thirty-Seventh Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS-37), January 5 – 8, 2004, Big Island, Hawaii., CiteSeerX 10.1.1.98.6150
- Charalabidis, Y.; Koussouris, S.; Kipenis, L. (2009), Report on the Objectives, Structure and Status of eParticipation Initiative Projects in the European Union
- H. Jafarkarimi; A.T.H. Sim; R. Saadatdoost and J.M. Hee (2014). The Impact of ICT on Reinforcing Citizens’ Role in Government Decision Making, International Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, Vol.4 (1)
- Macintosh, Ann (2004). "Characterizing E-Participation in Policy-Making". In the Proceedings of the Thirty-Seventh Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences.
- Clift, Steven (2003). "E-Democracy, E-Governance and Public Net-Work".
- Hilbert, Martin (2007). "Digital Processes and Democratic Theory: Dynamics, risks and opportunities that arise when democratic institutions meet digital information and communication technologies." open-access online book.
- "Attention, and Other 21st-Century Social Media Literacies". er.educause.edu. Retrieved 2015-12-16.
- Scholl, H.J.; Glassey, O.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A. (2016). Electronic Government and Electronic Participation: Joint Proceedings of Ongoing Research, PhD Papers, Posters and Workshops of IFIP EGOV and EPart 2016. Amsterdam: IOS Press. p. 218. ISBN 9781614996699.
- Howe, Jeff (2008). Crowdsourcing: Why the Power of the Crowd Is Driving the Future of Business. New York: Crown Publishing Group. p. 16. ISBN 9780307396204.
- Silva, Carlos (2013). Citizen E-Participation in Urban Governance: Crowdsourcing and Collaborative Creativity. Hershey, PA: IGI Global. p. 6. ISBN 9781466641709.
- "eGovernment & Digital Public Services". Retrieved 1 August 2018.
- European eParticipation web
- "Archives - CORDIS - European Commission". cordis.europa.eu. Retrieved 1 August 2018.
- World e-Gov Forum
- Detailed list of participatory governance projects
- E-participation Country Index -Provides an index on E-participation
- ICEGOV - International Conference on Electronic Governance
- Internet Society Organization home for the groups responsible for Internet infrastructure standards, including the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the Internet Architecture Board (IAB).
- International Teledemocracy Centre, Napier University, Edinburgh
- FUPOL: Future Policy Modelling project
- MOMENTUM: The European Commission Support Action in eParticipation
- PEP-NET: Pan European eParticipation Network
- European eParticipation Portal
- TID+: the software suite developed for the Estonian public participation portal, also used by the Slovenian government