ENAER T-35 Pillán
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|An ENAER T-35 Pillán of the Panamanian Air Force|
|First flight||6 March 1981|
|Primary users||Chilean Air Force|
Spanish Air Force
National Air and Naval Service of Panama
Paraguayan Air Force
|Produced||28 December 1984 - 1991|
ENAER T-35 Pillán (mapudungún, Spanish pronunciation: [piˈʎan], volcano or ancestral spirit) is a Chilean propeller-driven basic trainer aircraft. The student and the instructor sit in tandem. Production ceased in 1991 after 7 years but restarted briefly in 1998.
Design and development
Prior to the eighties Chile possessed a decrepit fleet of military trainers obtained under the Mutual Defense Assistance Act. However, these trainers had become exceedingly difficult to repair following passage of a US arms embargo in 1976. The PA-28R-300 Pillán was developed by Piper Aircraft in the United States as a two-seat military trainer for assembly in Chile, based on a PA-32R fuselage with a new center-section and wing stressed for aerobatics. The first prototype designated XBT first flew at Lakeland on 6 March 1981 and was followed by a second prototype, designated YBT. The second prototype first flew on 31 August 1981 and was then delivered to Chile. The prototype XBT was delivered to Chile in January 1982 but was written off on 10 March 1982. Production of kits at Vero Beach Municipal Airport commenced with three pre-production kits which were delivered for assembly in Chile in 1982, Vero Beach then produced 120 kits for assembly in Chile for the Chilean and Spanish Air Force. The first production aircraft was delivered by ENAER to the Chilean Air Force Air Academy in August 1985. The Spanish aircraft were assembled in Spain by CASA.
Apart from a few turbine powered aircraft, all Pilláns were powered by a 300 hp (224 kW) Textron Lycoming AEIO-540-K1K5 six cylinder horizontally opposed piston engine.
In 1985 a turboprop variant was developed by ENAER as the T-35A Aucan. In early 1986 one of the piston-engined pre-production aircraft was sent to Soloy in the United States and was fitted with a 420 shp Allison 250B-17D engine.
- Piper PA-28R-300 Pillan
- Two Piper built prototypes.
- Two-seat primary training aircraft for the Chilean Air Force. 60 delivered by 1990.
- Two-seat instrument training aircraft for the Chilean Air Force. 20 delivered by 1990.
- Two-seat primary training aircraft for the Spanish Air Force, known as the E.26 Tamiz. 41 delivered by 1987.
- Two-seat primary and instrument training aircraft for Panama and Paraguay.
- Turboprop powered version, powered by a 420-ehp (313-kW) Allison 250-B17D turboprop engine. Original designation T-35XT.
- Single-seat aerobatic aircraft.
- T-35T Aucan
- Improved turboprop powered version.
- Pillan 2000
- Proposed (1998) updated version of the T-35 Pillan with new wing.
Data from Air International April 1985
- Crew: 2: student, instructor
- Length: 7.97 m (26 ft 11⁄4 in)
- Wingspan: 8.81 m (28 ft 103⁄4 in)
- Height: 2.34 m (7 ft 83⁄8 in)
- Wing area: 13.64 m2 (146.8 sq ft)
- Empty weight: 833 kg (1,836 lb)
- Max. takeoff weight: 1,315 kg (2,900 lb)
- Powerplant: 1 × Avco Lycoming AEIO-540-K1K5 air-cooled flat-six, 224 kW (300 hp)
- Maximum speed: 311 km/h (168 knots, 193 mph) at sea level
- Cruise speed: 266 km/h (144 knots, 165 mph) at 4,630 m (15,190 ft) (55% power)
- Stall speed: 115 km/h (62 knots, 71 mph) (flaps & gear down)
- Range: 1,204 km (650 nmi, 748 mi)
- Service ceiling: 5,820 m (19,100 ft)
- Rate of climb: 7.75 m/s (1,525 ft/min)
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Green 1988, pp. 98–9
- Endres, Gunther; Gething, Mike (2002). Jane's Aircraft Recognition Guide. Glasgow, UK: HarperCollinsPublishers. p. 392. ISBN 0-00-713721-4.
- John R. Bawden,“Cutting Off the Dictator: the United States Arms Embargo of the Pinochet Regime, 1974-1988,” Journal of Latin American Studies, 45:3 (August 2013): 513-43.
- Peperell 1987, p. 159
- Lambert 1990, p. 30
- Jackson 2003, p. 71
- Jackson 2003, p. 72
- Hoyle 2017, p. 36
- Hoyle 2017, p. 38
- Hoyle 2017, p. 41
- Hoyle 2017, p. 48
- Hoyle 2017, p. 51
- Air International April 1985, p. 174
- "Hecho En Chile...An Innocuous Devil". Air International. Vol. 28 no. 4. April 1985. pp. 170–175, 208–209.
- Hoyle, Craig (5–11 December 2017). "World Air Force Directory". Flight International. Vol. 192 no. 5615. pp. 26–57. ISSN 0015-3710.
- Jackson, Paul, ed. (2003). Jane's All the World's Aircraft 2003–2004. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-7106-2537-5.
- Lambert, Mark, ed. (1990). Jane's All the World's Aircraft 1990–91. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Defence Data. ISBN 0-7106-0908-6.
- Peperell, Roger W; Smith, Colin M (1987). Piper Aircraft and their forerunners. Tonbridge, Kent, England: Air-Britain. ISBN 0-85130-149-5.
- Green, William (1988). Observer's book of aircraft (1988 ed.). London: Frederick Warne & Co. Ltd.
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