Harris in 1972
|Born||October 20, 1934|
Chicago, Illinois, U.S.
|Died||November 5, 1996 (aged 62)|
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
|Genres||Soul jazz, jazz-funk, hard bop|
|Instruments||Saxophone, piano, organ|
Eddie Harris (October 20, 1934 – November 5, 1996) was an American jazz musician, best known for playing tenor saxophone and for introducing the electrically amplified saxophone. He was also fluent on the electric piano and organ. His best-known compositions are "Freedom Jazz Dance", recorded and popularized by Miles Davis in 1966, and "Listen Here."
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Harris was born and grew up in Chicago. His father was originally from Cuba, and his mother from Mississippi. He studied music under Walter Dyett at DuSable High School, as had many other successful Chicago musicians (such as Nat King Cole, Dinah Washington, Clifford Jordan, Johnny Griffin, Gene Ammons, Julian Priester, and Bo Diddley and others). He later studied music at Roosevelt University, by which time he was proficient on piano, vibraphone, and tenor saxophone. While in college, he performed professionally with Gene Ammons.
Leaving military service, he worked in New York City before returning to Chicago where he signed a contract with Vee Jay Records. His first album for Vee Jay, Exodus to Jazz, included his own jazz arrangement of Ernest Gold's theme from the movie Exodus. A shortened version of this track, which featured his masterful playing in the upper register of the tenor saxophone, was heavily played on radio and became the first jazz record ever to be certified gold.
The single, Exodus climbed into the US Billboard Hot 100 and reached No. 16 in the U.S. R&B chart. He moved to Columbia Records in 1964 and then to Atlantic Records the following year where he re-established himself. In 1965, Atlantic released The In Sound, a bop album that won back many of his detractors.
Over the next few years, he began to perform on electric piano and the electric Varitone saxophone, and to perform a mixture of jazz and funk that sold well in both the jazz and rhythm and blues markets. In 1967, his album, The Electrifying Eddie Harris reached second place on the R&B charts. The album's lead track, "Listen Here", was issued as a single, climbing to No. 11 R&B and No. 45 on the Hot 100. Harris released several different versions of his composition over the years, including both studio and live concert recordings. The first appeared on an early Atlantic album, Mean Greens, featuring him on electric piano. He was to re-work the track two years later, stretching it out to over seven minutes in length, for his iconic sax solo version. The whole track appeared on both sides of the Atlantic hit single, edited into two parts. For the 11th Annual Grammy Awards in 1968, Eddie was nominated for the Best Instrumental Jazz Performance for Small Group or Soloist with Small Group for the Album – The Electrifying Eddie Harris.
In 1969, he performed with pianist and vocalist Les McCann at the Montreux Jazz Festival. Although the musicians had been unable to rehearse, their session was so impressive that a recording of it was released by Atlantic as Swiss Movement. This became one of the best-selling jazz albums ever and was nominated during the 13th Annual Grammy Awards (1970) for the Best Jazz Performance – Small Group or Soloist with Small Group for the Album- Swiss Movement
Harris also came up with the idea of the reed trumpet, playing one for the first time at the Newport Jazz Festival. Eddie moved from Chicago to Los Angeles in the 1970s. From 1970 to 1975, he experimented with new instruments of his own invention (the reed trumpet was a trumpet with a saxophone mouthpiece, the saxobone was a saxophone with a trombone mouthpiece, and the guitorgan was a combination of guitar and organ), with singing the blues, with jazz-rock (he recorded an album with Steve Winwood, Jeff Beck, Albert Lee, Ric Grech, Zoot Money, Ian Paice and other rockers). He also started singing comic R&B/blues songs, such as "That is Why You're Overweight" and "Eddie Who?".
In 1975, however, he alienated some of his audience with his album The Reason Why I'm Talking S--t, which consisted mainly of comedy. After recording for Atlantic for over 12 years, Eddie left the record company after completing his final album for the label in 1977. He then signed with RCA Records and recorded two albums.
In the 1980s and 1990s, Eddie recorded with over 10 independent labels, internationally, where he enjoyed a loyal following.
Harris died of congestive heart failure in Los Angeles on November 5, 1996, at the age of 62.
- 1961: Exodus to Jazz (Vee-Jay)
- 1961: Mighty Like a Rose (Vee-Jay)
- 1961: Jazz for "Breakfast at Tiffany's" (Vee-Jay)
- 1962: A Study in Jazz (Vee-Jay)
- 1962: Eddie Harris Goes to the Movies (Vee-Jay)
- 1963: Bossa Nova (Vee-Jay)
- 1963: Half and Half (Vee-Jay)
- 1964: For Bird and Bags (Exodus) – also released as Sculpture (Buddah)
- 1964: Cool Sax, Warm Heart (Columbia)
- 1964: Here Comes the Judge (Columbia)
- 1965: Cool Sax from Hollywood to Broadway (Columbia)
- 1965: The In Sound (Atlantic)
- 1966: Mean Greens (Atlantic)
- 1967: The Tender Storm (Atlantic)
- 1968: The Electrifying Eddie Harris (Atlantic)
- 1968: Plug Me In (Atlantic)
- 1968: Pourquoi L'Amérique – soundtrack (AZ)
- 1968: Silver Cycles (Atlantic)
- 1969: High Voltage (Atlantic)
- 1969: Swiss Movement (Atlantic) – with Les McCann
- 1969: Free Speech (Atlantic)
- 1970: Come on Down! (Atlantic)
- 1970: Live at Newport (Atlantic)
- 1970: Smokin' (Janus, 1970)
- 1971: Second Movement (Atlantic) with Les McCann
- 1971: Instant Death (Atlantic)
- 1972: Eddie Harris Sings the Blues (Atlantic)
- 1973: Excursions (Atlantic)
- 1974: E.H. in the U.K. (Atlantic)
- 1974: Is It In (Atlantic)
- 1974: I Need Some Money (Atlantic)
- 1975: Bad Luck Is All I Have (Atlantic)
- 1975: That Is Why You're Overweight (Atlantic)
- 1975: The Reason Why I'm Talking S--t 1976 (Atlantic)
- 1976: How Can You Live Like That? (Atlantic)
- 1978: I'm Tired of Driving (RCA)
- 1979: Playin' with Myself (RCA)
- 1981: Sounds Incredible (Angeleco)
- 1981: Steps Up (SteepleChase)
- 1982: The Real Electrifying Eddie Harris (Mutt & Jeff)
- 1983: Exploration (Chiaroscuro)
- 1986: Eddie Who? (Timeless)
- 1987: People Get Funny (Timeless)
- 1989: Live in Berlin (Timeless)
- 1990: Live at the Moonwalker Moonwalker (Suisa)
- 1991: A Tale of Two Cities Virgin Japan
- 1991: There Was a Time – Echo of Harlem (Enja)
- 1993: For You, For Me, For Evermore (SteepleChase)
- 1993: Yeah You Right (Lakeside)
- 1993: Listen Here (Enja)
- 1994: Freedom Jazz Dance (Musicmasters); w/ Jacky Terrasson, George Mraz and Billy Hart
- 1994: Vexatious Progressions (Flying Heart)
- 1994: The Battle of the Tenors with Wendell Harrison
- 1995: Dancing by a Rainbow (Enja)
- 1996: All The Way-Live (recorded 1981) Milestone with Jimmy Smith
- 1997: The Last Concert; with WDR Big Band
- 2005: Exodus: The Best of the Vee-Jay Years Charly
- 2017: Live: Las Vegas 1985 (Hi-Hat Records)
With Buddy Montgomery
- Ties of Love (Landmark, 1987)
With Bernard Purdie
- Bernard Purdie's Soul to Jazz (ACT, 1996)
With Cedar Walton
With Ellis Marsalis, Jr.
- Homecoming (Spindletop, 1985)
With Horace Parlan
- Glad I Found You (Steeplechase, 1986)
With Horace Silver
With John Scofield
- Hand Jive (Blue Note Records, 1994)
- Feather, Leonard; Gitler, Ira (2007). The Biographical Encyclopedia of Jazz. Oxford University Press. p. 297. ISBN 978-0195320008.
- "Eddie Harris His Tenor Saxophone & Orchestra". Elusive Disc, Inc. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
- Unterberger, Richie. "Review of Swiss Movement". AllMusic. All Media Guide. Retrieved February 22, 2017.
- Tesser, Neil (1999). "Eddie Harris 1936–1996". Chicago Reader. ISSN 1096-6919.
- "Cedar Walton Catalog", JazzDisco.org.
- Ginell, Richard S., "Dancing by a Rainbow", AllMusic review.
- Nastos, Michael G., "Homecoming", AllMusic review.