Emirate of Harar

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Emirate of Harar

1647–1887
CapitalHarar
Common languagesArabic, Harari, Somali, Oromo
GovernmentMonarchy
Emir 
• early 17th century
`Ali ibn Da`ud
• 19th century
Abdullahi II
History 
• Established
1647
• Disestablished
1887
CurrencyMahlak
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Adal Sultanate
Ethiopian Empire

The Emirate of Harar was founded in 1647 when the Harari people refused to accept Imām ʿUmardīn Ādan as their ruler and broke away from the Imamate of Aussa to form their own state under `Ali ibn Da`ud. The Harar kingdom made up the area between the rivers Awash and Shebelle while the Ogaden was a tributary state.[1] Like all Muslim states in the area, the Emirate of Harar was technically under the protection of the Ottoman Empire. Egypt annexed the Emirate of Harar in 1875. The British Empire defeated the Khedivate and occupied its territories in 1882 including Harar, but the British agreed to evacuate Harar and essentially cede the city to the Ethiopian Empire's sphere of influence in exchange for assistance against Mahdist forces in Sudan. As per the terms of their agreement (the Hewett Treaty), the British withdrew from Harar in 1884, leaving the city to the son of the former Emir of Harar with a few hundred rifles, some cannon and a handful of British trained officers. The Emirate would be finally destroyed and annexed by the armies of Negus Sahle Maryam of Showa (the future Emperor Menelik II) in 1887 following the Emirate's defeat at the Battle of Chelenqo.

Emirs of Harar (Ali Dynasty)[edit]

Name Reign Note
1 Emīr ʿAli ibn Dā'ūd 1647–1662 Founder of the Emirate of Harar
2 Emīr Hāshim ibn ʿAli 1662–1671 Son of Emīr ʿAli
3 Emīr ʿAbdullah ibn ʿAli 1671–1700 Son of Emīr ʿAli
4 Emīr Ṭalḥa ibn ʿAbdullah 1700–1721 Son of Emīr ʿAbdullah
5 Emīr Abūbakar ibn ʿAbdullah 1721–1732 Son of Emīr ʿAbdullah
6 Emīr Khalaf ibn Abūbakar 1732–1733 Son of Emīr Abūbakar
7 Emīr Ḥāmid ibn Abūbakar 1733–1747 Son of Emīr Abūbakar
8 Emīr Yūsuf ibn Abūbakar 1747–1755 Son of Emīr Abūbakar
9 Emīr Aḥmed ibn Abūbakar 1755–1782 Son of Emīr Abūbakar
10 Emīr Maḥamed ibn Yūsuf 1782–1783 Son of Emīr Yūsuf
11 Emīr ʿAbdalshakūr ibn Yūsuf 1783–1794 Son of Emīr Yūsuf
12 Emīr Aḥmed ibn Maḥamed 1794–1821 Son of Emīr Maḥamed
13 Emīr ʿAbdalraḥmān ibn Maḥamed 1821–1825 Son of Emīr Maḥamed
14 Emīr ʿAbdulkarīm ibn Maḥamed 1825–1834 Son of Emīr Maḥamed
15 Emīr Abūbakar ibn ʿAbdalmanān 1834–1852 Grandson of Emīr Maḥamed
16 Emīr Aḥmed ibn Abūbakar 1852–1866 Son of Emīr Abūbakar
17 Emīr Maḥamed ibn ʿAbdalshakūr 1866–1875 Son of Emīr ʿAbdalshakūr, deposed by the Khedivate of Egypt
-- Khedivate of Egypt 1875–1884 Egypt annexed Harar in 1875, withdrawing in 1884 due to the British takeover of Egypt and subsequent British-Abyssinian agreements
18 Emīr ʿAbdullah ibn Maḥamed 1884–1887 Son of Emīr Maḥamed (17), his rule and Harar's briefly renewed independence were both ended by the invasion of Harar by the Shewa kingdom in 1887.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ethiopia: land of slavery & brutality (PDF). League of Nations. 1935. p. 2.

Further reading[edit]

  • Avishai Ben-Dror (2018): "Emirate, Egyptian, Ethiopian: Colonial Experiences in Late Nineteenth-Century Harar"