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A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state (termed controlling state in this article) in international relations. Types of client states include: satellite state, associated state, puppet state, puppet monarch, dominion, self-governing colony, neo-colony, protectorate, vassal state, and tributary state.
Controlling states in history
Persia, Greece, and Rome
Ancient states such as Persia and Parthia, Greek city-states, and Ancient Rome sometimes created client states by making the leaders of that state subservient, having to provide tribute and soldiers. Classical Athens, for example, forced weaker states into the Delian League and in some cases imposed democratic government on them. Later, Philip II of Macedon similarly imposed the League of Corinth. One of the most prolific users of client states was Republican Rome which, instead of conquering and then absorbing into an empire, chose to make client states out of those it defeated (e.g. Demetrius of Pharos), a policy which was continued up until the 1st century BCE when it became the Roman Empire. Sometimes the client was not a former enemy but a pretender whom Rome helped, Herod the Great being a well-known example. The use of client states continued through the Middle Ages as the feudal system began to take hold.
Under the Mongols and the Yuan dynasty
In the 13th century, Goryeo dynasty of Korea was overrun by the Mongols who founded the powerful Mongol Empire. After the peace treaty in 1260 and the Sambyeolcho Rebellion in 1270, Goryeo became a semi-autonomous client state of the Yuan dynasty for about 80 years.
19th and 20th centuries
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Russia and Serbia
The Austro-Hungarian Empire tried to make Serbia a client state in order to form a Christian opposition to the Ottoman Empire. That changed after a revolution in Serbia in 1900. Serbia now came under Russian protection, which was forming a pan-Orthodox opposition to the Latin Christianity represented by the Austro-Hungarian empire. In 1914, Russia repeatedly warned the Austro-Hungarian Empire against attacking Serbia. When it did attack, Russia mobilized its army. Russia also wanted Bulgaria and Montenegro as client states.
Great Britain and Austria both considered Serbia as a client state controlled by Russia. Most historians call Serbia a client state but historian Christopher Clark disagrees. He says the Russians made a mistake in thinking Serbia was a client state. In an unpublished commentary Clark argues:
It was a risk enhancing initiative [of Russian Foreign Minister Serge Sazanov]
to allow Serbia to becometo see Serbia as a kind of client; ... Serbia, to my knowledge, has never been a client of anyone. [...] This is a mistake, when Great Powers think they can secure the services of "client states"; ThatThose "clients" are never in fact "clients"! That's a mistake that is presumably going to continue being made by our political leaderships, though one hopes one day it will stop.
During the Revolutionary and Napoleonic eras (1789–1815), France conquered most of western Europe and established several client states. At first, during the French revolutionary wars these states were erected as republics (the so-called "Républiques soeurs", or "sister republics"). They were established in Italy (Cisalpine Republic in Northern Italy, Parthenopean Republic in Southern Italy), Greece (Septinsular Republic), Switzerland (Helvetic Republic and Rhodanic Republic), Belgium and the Netherlands (Batavian Republic).
During the First French Empire, while Napoleon and the French army conquered Europe, such states changed, and several new states were formed. The Italian republics were transformed into the Kingdom of Italy under Napoleon's direct rule in the north, and the Kingdom of Naples in the south, first under Joseph Bonaparte's rule and later under Marshal Joachim Murat. A third state was created in the Italian Peninsula, the Kingdom of Etruria. The Batavian Republic was replaced by the Kingdom of Holland, ruled by Napoleon's third brother, Louis Bonaparte.
A total of 35 German states, all of them allies of France, seceded from the Holy Roman Empire to create the Confederation of the Rhine, a client state created to provide a buffer between France and its two largest enemies to the east, Prussia and Austria. Two of those states were Napoleonic creations: the huge Kingdom of Westphalia, which was controlled by Jerome Bonaparte, the Emperor's youngest brother; and the Grand Duchy of Würzburg.
In the 20th century, France started to apply the concept of Françafrique, its name for its former African colonies, sometimes extended to the former Belgian colonies. At present the term is used on some occasions to criticise the allegedly neocolonial relationship France has with its former colonies in Africa.
The countries involved provide oil and minerals important to the French economy. In addition, French companies have commercial interests in several countries of the continent.
In the British Empire the Indian Princely States were technically independent and were technically given their separate independence in 1947 (although the Nizam of Hyderabad indeed opted for independence but could not retain his independence from India). Egyptian Independence in 1922 technically ended a British protectorate in Egypt. Sudan continued to be governed as Anglo-Egyptian Sudan until Sudanese independence in 1956; Britain also had an interest in Egypt until the Suez Crisis was over. Iraq was made a kingdom in 1932. In each case the economic and military reality did not amount to full independence, but a status where the local rulers were British clients. Similarly in Africa (e.g. Northern Nigeria under Lord Lugard), and Malaya with the Federated Malay States and Unfederated Malay States; the policy of indirect rule.
After France was defeated in the Battle of France, Vichy France was established as a client state of Nazi Germany, which remained as such until 1942 when it was reduced to a puppet government until its liberation in 1944. Germany also established, in its newly conquered Eastern territories, client states including the Slovak Republic, the Croatian State and the Albanian Kingdom.
The term applied to authoritarian regimes with close ties to the United States during the Cold War, more appropriately referred to as U.S. proxy states, such as South Vietnam, Indonesia (1966–1998) under the Suharto Regime, Iran until 1979, Cambodia under the regime of Lon Nol from 1970 to 1975, the Philippines under Ferdinand Marcos from 1965 to 1986, and Saudi Arabia. U.S. - Iran relations under the Shah (reigned 1941 to 1979) have been cited[by whom?] as a modern political-science case-study.
- Chile (1973–1990)
- China (1945–1979, on the island of Taiwan from 1949)
- Cuba (1902–1959)
- Khmer Republic (1970–1975)
- South Vietnam (1955–1975)
The term might also arguably be used for those states extremely economically dependent on a more powerful nation. The three Pacific Ocean countries associated with the United States under the Compact of Free Association (the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands and Palau) may fall somewhat[quantify] in this category.
In the late 19th century, the Japanese Empire gradually reduced Joseon Korea's status to that of a client state. In the early 20th century, this was converted to direct rule. Manchukuo, in contrast, remained a puppet state throughout World War II.
Soviet proxy or "client" states included much of the Warsaw Pact nations whose policies were heavily influenced by Soviet military power and economic aid. Other third world nations with Marxist-Leninist governments were routinely criticized as being Soviet proxies as well, among them Cuba following the Cuban Revolution, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, the People's Republic of Angola, the People's Republic of Mozambique, the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, and the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). Within the Soviet Union itself, the Ukrainian SSR and the Byelorussian SSR, had seats at the United Nations, but were actually proper Soviet territory.
- Warsaw Pact and Comecon states:
- People's Republic of China (until the Sino-Soviet split)
- North Korea
- Yugoslavia (until the Tito-Stalin split)
After the Argentine monetary crisis, this relationship may no longer be true.
- Nauru has been regarded as a client state of Australia by some sources, as it is heavily dependent on economic support from Australia, uses Australia's currency and processes and houses unauthorised asylum seeker arrivals to Australia under the Pacific Solution. In The Guardian, Ben Doherty wrote that "Nauru is a client state in every sense, kept functioning, just, by its wealthy neighbour. But its dependence on Australian largesse makes its government entirely beholden to its benefactor’s interests, even at the expense of its own people" and described Nauru as a "tiny, impoverished client state in the middle of the Pacific". Refugee advocate David Manne labelled a plan by Nauru to sign the 1951 Refugee Convention as a "cynical marketing tool" by a "client state of Australia".
- Papua New Guinea, also involved in the Pacific Solution, has been called to a lesser extent, a client state of Australia.
- Solomon Islands
People's Republic of China
- Cambodia has sometimes been considered a client state of China.
- Laos has also been considered a Chinese client state, although this is disputed.
- Myanmar has been described as "a near-client state of China".
- Nepal has been described as a client state of China by Huffpost.
- North Korea has sometimes been seen as a client state of the People's Republic of China since the Dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, although this sometimes disputed.
- Zimbabwe has sometimes been referred to as a client state.
- Cameroon has been described as a client state of France.
- Djibouti has been described as a client state of France.
- Gabon has been described as a client state of France.
- Ivory Coast has been described as a client state of France.
- Bangladesh has sometimes been referred to as a client state.
- Bhutan is sometimes referred to as an Indian client state.
These countries have to varying degrees been called client states of Iran.
- Belarus - Financial Times has said that Russia "has long treated Belarus as a client state".
- Iran: see Iran–Russia relations
- Kyrgyzstan has been referred to as a Russian client state.
- Armenia is sometimes referred to as a Russian client state.
- Syria has sometimes been called a client state of Russia.
- Venezuela is sometimes referred to as a Russian client state.
- Bahrain - According to The Atlantic, "Bahrain has long positioned itself as a client state to Saudi Arabia as well as the U.S."
- Yemen (Cabinet of Yemen) - during the civil war in Yemen.
- Azerbaijan is sometimes referred to as a Turkish client state.
- Northern Cyprus is often referred to as a Turkish client state.
United States of America
There are three Pacific Island states that are under the Compact of Free Association:
- Federated States of Micronesia
- Marshall Islands
- Puerto Rico Is officially a commonwealth of the United States, that is, it has a pact of association for the common good with the United States. It is an associated state, but unlike the other three it is not entirely independent.
- Saudi Arabia
- South Korea
- Yemen (Cabinet of Yemen)
While the term has also been used to describe:
- United Kingdom
- Indirect rule
- Vassal state
- Tributary (political)
- Puppet state
- Banana republic
- Satellite state
- Michael Graham Fry, Erik Goldstein, Richard Langhorne. Guide to International Relations and Diplomacy. London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Continuum International Publishing, 2002. Pp. 9.
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- Collected studies: Alexander and his successors in Macedonia, by Nicholas Geoffrey Lemprière Hammond,1994,page 257,"to Demetrius of Pharos, whom she set up as a client king
- Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Sazonov warned Austria in 1914 that Russia "Would respond militarily to any action against the client state." Christopher Clark, The Sleepwalkers: How Europe Went to War in 1914 (2012) p 481.
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The dependency school, dominant in the 1960s and early 1970s, argued that Canada is an economic colony with a client state. [...] while it might have been possible a decade ago to use a Latin American dependency model when describing Canada, because of its excessive degree of foreign ownership and 'American client state' status, both Canadian capitalists and the Canadian state have now 'come of age.'
- Mizokami, Kyle (8 January 2016). "Why North Korea is betting big on nuclear weapons". The Week.
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- "Chris Kenny visits Nauru as borders open up to allies". The Saturday Paper.
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- Ben Doherty. "This is Abyan's story, and it is Australia's story". the Guardian.
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- "Nauru's former chief justice predicts legal break down". News.
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- Ciorciari, John D. "China and Cambodia: Patron and Client?". SSRN Electronic Journal. ISSN 1556-5068.
- Jennings, Ralph. "Impoverished Laos Shows Resistance To Becoming A Client State Of China". Forbes. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
- "China's Myanmar Problem". thediplomat.com. Retrieved 2020-01-23.
- Novick, Rebecca; ContributorWriter; Optimist, Eternal (2010-10-05). "Is Nepal China's Client State?". HuffPost. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
- Standard, The. "(Commentary) North Korea is not a client state that China can control". The Standard. Retrieved 2019-08-02.
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- "Editorial | African solution: Threatened countries must fight off Boko Haram". therecord.com. October 20, 2015.
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- "Bangladesh Just Became a Vassal State". The Diplomat. 4 October 2016.
- "Not Only in Ladakh, India Losing Ground in Bangladesh Too". South Asia Journal. 18 June 2020.
- "India treating Bhutan as 'protectorate', says Chinese commentary". The Hindu. 5 August 2013.
- "What Were China's Objectives in the Doklam Dispute?". RAND Corporation. 8 September 2017.
- "Iraq is a Client State of Iran". International Policy Digest. 2017-11-09. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
- Schanzer, Tony Badran and Jonathan (2019-09-18). "Opinion | Lebanon, Hezbollah and Iran's Emerging Client State". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
- www.idf.il https://www.idf.il/en/minisites/iran/iran-in-syria/the-future-of-irans-presence-in-syria/. Retrieved 2020-01-22. Missing or empty
- Barfi, Barak (2016-01-24). "The Real Reason Why Iran Backs Syria". The National Interest. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
- "Saudi airstrikes in Yemen may have stopped, but the conflict rages on". Middle East Monitor. April 24, 2015.
- "Belarus and Russia ease tensions over oil supplies". www.ft.com. Retrieved 2020-01-16.
- "Cooley: Kyrgyzstan is entering a new era as a Russian client state". www.ponarseurasia.org. 2014-09-19. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
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Ladwig, Walter C. (2017). The Forgotten Front: Patron-Client Relationships in Counter Insurgency. Cambridge University Press. p. 302. ISBN 9781107170773. Retrieved 2018-05-15.
As with their Cold War counterparts, it was erroneous for American policymakers to believe that the governments of contemporary client states, such as Iraq, Afghanistan, and Pakistan, necessarily shared their desire to defeat radical Islamic insurgents by adhering to the prescriptions of U.S. counterinsurgency doctrine.
- Fisher, Max (2011-09-27). "The Decline of American Client States". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2020-01-21.
- Jegic, Denijal. "Trump's Kosovo-Serbia normalisation deal is all about Israel". www.aljazeera.com. Retrieved 2021-04-05.
- Mason, Mark (2018-01-15). "'Pakistan Is a Fractured Client State of the US Empire, Afghanistan a US Colony'". TheCitizen.in. Retrieved 2020-11-27.
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- "Denmark Becomes 51st State Every Fourth of July". Los Angeles Times. 1989-07-02. Retrieved 2021-04-18.
- Lieven, Anatol (2007-11-14). "A Tale of Two Client States". The National Interest. Retrieved 2020-01-21.
- "Deutschland, Kolonie der USA – Die Weichen wurden in der unmittelbaren Nachkriegszeit gestellt". Westend Verlag GmbH (in German). 2018-04-12. Retrieved 2021-03-15.
- Bustos, Loren; Cabacungan, Vanessa. "TIMELINE: Efforts to make the Philippines a US state". Rappler. Retrieved 2021-04-20.
- "Dominica: The Push for Annexation with the United States". www.thedominican.net. Retrieved 2021-04-18.
- Kilian, Crawford (2017-06-07). "Can Canada Become a 'Hard Power'?". The Tyee. Retrieved 2021-04-21.
- Gittings, John (2007-09-12). "Contradictions of a client state". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2020-01-22.
- C., Johnathan (April 11, 1996). "U.S. COPTERS FERRY HUNDREDS OUT OF CHAOTIC LIBERIA". The New York Times.
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