Engels, Saratov Oblast

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Engels

Энгельс
A monument to the coat of arms of Engels
A monument to the coat of arms of Engels
Flag of Engels
Flag
Coat of arms of Engels
Coat of arms
Location of Engels
Engels is located in Russia
Engels
Engels
Location of Engels
Engels is located in Saratov Oblast
Engels
Engels
Engels (Saratov Oblast)
Coordinates: 51°30′N 46°07′E / 51.500°N 46.117°E / 51.500; 46.117Coordinates: 51°30′N 46°07′E / 51.500°N 46.117°E / 51.500; 46.117
CountryRussia
Federal subjectSaratov Oblast[1]
Founded1747
City status since1914
Government
 • MayorSergei Gorevsky
Area
 • Total121.06 km2 (46.74 sq mi)
Elevation
20 m (70 ft)
Population
 • Total202,419
 • Rank92nd in 2010
 • Density1,700/km2 (4,300/sq mi)
 • Administratively subordinated toEngels City Under Oblast Jurisdiction
 • Administrative center ofEngelssky District[3], Engels City Under Oblast Jurisdiction
 • Municipal districtEngelssky Municipal District[4]
 • Urban settlementEngels Urban Settlement[4]
 • Administrative center ofEngelssky Municipal District[5], Engels Urban Settlement[4]
Time zoneSAMT (UTC+04:00)[6]
Postal code(s)[7]
413100–413102, 413105–413108, 413110–413119, 413121–413125, 413129
Dialing code(s)+7 8453
OKATO ID63450000000
Websitewww.engels.me

Engels (Russian: Энгельс, IPA: [ˈɛnɡʲɪlʲs]), formerly known as Pokrovsk and Kosakenstadt, is a city in Saratov Oblast, Russia. It is a port located on the Volga River across from Saratov, the administrative center of the oblast, and is connected to it with a bridge. It is the second-largest city in Saratov Oblast with a population of 202,419 (2010 Census)[2]. Historically an important center for Volga Germans, the city was known jointly as Pokrovsk in Russian and as Kosakenstadt in German, until it was renamed after Friedrich Engels in 1931. Engels served as the capital of the Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic from 1918 to 1941.

It was previously known as Pokrovskaya sloboda (until 1914), Pokrovsk (until 1931).

History[edit]

Engels was founded as a sloboda named Pokrovskaya Sloboda by Ukrainian Chumak settlers in 1747. During the reign of Catherine the Great, ethnic Germans were encouraged to settle in the Volga region and many moved into the town, making it a major center of the Volga German culture. It was granted official town status and renamed Pokrovsk (Покровск) in 1914.[citation needed]. At that time, the town was commonly known as Kosakenstadt ("Cossacks' Town") in German, alongside its official Russian name. During the Russian Civil War the region came under control of the communist Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and in 1918 it became the capital of the newly established Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic within the RSFSR. Pokrovsk/Kosakenstadt was renamed Engels in 1931, in honour of German communist philosopher Friedrich Engels. The Volga German ASSR was disestablished in 1941 following the German invasion of the Soviet Union, and the city became part of Saratov Oblast. Its German inhabitants suffered persecution as Soviet authorities feared they could be spies for Nazi Germany. All Germans were expelled from Engels, with most being sent to far away in Siberia and the Kazakh SSR. On August 26, 2011, a monument in honor of the Russian-German victims of repression within the Soviet Union was unveiled in the city.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Engels serves as the administrative center of Engelssky District,[3] even though it is not a part of it.[8] As an administrative division, it is, together with four rural localities, incorporated separately as Engels City Under Oblast Jurisdiction[8]—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[citation needed] As a municipal division, Engels City Under Oblast Jurisdiction, together with the work settlement of Privolzhsky and one rural locality (the settlement of Geofizik) in Engelssky District, are incorporated within Engelssky Municipal District as Engels Urban Settlement.[4]

Economy[edit]

Engels is an industrial city. The Trolza factory manufactures trolleybuses for Russia's public transportation networks. The Engelssky factory of transport mechanical engineering produces rolling stock for railways. The Bosch-Saratov plant, previously Autotractor Spark Plugs, produces spark plugs, and the German Henkel company operates a factory producing domestic laundry detergent and chemical products for the auto-industry. The Engelssky pipe factory makes steel electro-welded pipes, steel water pipeline, and profile pipes.

In August 2015 a prototype 1520 mm gauge Bombardier Traxx F120MS locomotive was unveiled at a ceremony to mark the inauguration of First Locomotive Company's factory at Engels.[9]

Military[edit]

Engels-2, a major air force base, is located in the city.

Historical population[edit]

Census year Population Reference
1897 22,000
1959 91,000
1970 130,000
1977 163,000
1989 181,201 [10]
2002 193,984 [11]
2010 202,419 [2]

Sister cities[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Charter of Saratov Oblast
  2. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  3. ^ a b Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 63 250», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 63 250, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
  4. ^ a b c d Law #106-ZSO
  5. ^ Law #78-ZSO
  6. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №368-ФЗ от 11 октября 2018 г. «О внесении изменений в статью 5 Федерального закона "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #368-FZ of October 11, 2018 On Amending Article 5 of the Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  7. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  8. ^ a b Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 63 450», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 63 450, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
  9. ^ "Russian Traxx unveiled at Engels locomotive plant inauguration". railwaygazette.com. 20 August 2015. Retrieved 26 August 2016.
  10. ^ "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  11. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (21 May 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  12. ^ "Interactive City Directory". Sister Cities International.

Sources[edit]

  • Саратовская областная Дума. Закон №46-ЗСО от 2 июня 2005 г. «Устав (Основной Закон) Саратовской области», в ред. Закона №54-ЗСО от 28 апреля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав (Основной Закон) Саратовской области». Вступил в силу после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Неделя области", Спецвыпуск, №38 (156), 4 июня 2005 г. (Saratov Oblast Duma. Law #46-ZSO of June 2, 2005 Charter (Basic Law) of Saratov Oblast, as amended by the Law #54-ZSO of April 28, 2015 On Amending the Charter (Basic Law) of Saratov Oblast. Effective as of after the official publication.).
  • Саратовская областная Дума. Закон №79-ЗСО от 23 декабря 2004 г «О городских округах». Вступил в силу с 1 января 2005 г. Опубликован: "Саратов — столица Поволжья", №264 (1215), 24 декабря 2004 г. (Saratov Oblast Duma. Law #79-ZSO of December 23, 2004 On the Urban Okrugs. Effective as of January 1, 2005.).
  • Саратовская областная Дума. Закон №106-ЗСО от 27 декабря 2004 г. «О муниципальных образованиях, входящих в состав Энгельсского муниципального района», в ред. Закона №71-ЗСО от 16 мая 2013 г. «О преобразовании Коминтерновского и Новопушкинского муниципальных образований Энгельсского муниципального района Саратовской области и о внесении изменений в Закон Саратовской области "О муниципальных образованиях, входящих в состав Энгельсского муниципального района"». Вступил в силу с 1 января 2005 г. Опубликован: "Саратов — столица Поволжья", №7–8 (1230–1231), 18 января 2005 г. (Saratov Oblast Duma. Law #106-ZSO of December 27, 2004 On the Municipal Formations Constituting Engelssky Municipal District, as amended by the Law #71-ZSO of May 16, 2013 On the Transformation of Kominternovskoye and Novopushkinskoye Municipal Formations in Engelssky Municipal District of Saratov Oblast and on Amending the Law of Saratov Oblast "On the Municipal Formations Constituting Engelssky Municipal District". Effective as of January 1, 2005.).