Euastacus

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Euastacus
Euastacus spinifer.jpg
Euastacus spinifer
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Crustacea
Class: Malacostraca
Order: Decapoda
Infraorder: Astacidea
Superfamily: Parastacoidea
Family: Parastacidae
Genus: Euastacus
Clark, 1936
Type species
Euastacus elongatus Clark, 1941
Euastacus distribution.svg

Euastacus is a genus of freshwater crayfish known as "spiny crayfish". They are found in the south-east of the Australian mainland, along with another genus of crayfish, Cherax. Both genera are members of the Parastacidae family, a family of freshwater crayfish restricted to the Southern Hemisphere.

Euastacus crayfish are distinguished from the smooth-shelled Cherax species by the short robust spikes on their claws and carapace, and frequently, their larger size. Many Euastacus species grow to a relatively large size, with the Murray River crayfish (Euastacus armatus) being the second largest freshwater crayfish species in the world. (The largest freshwater crayfish in the world is Tasmanian giant freshwater crayfish (Astacopsis gouldi), found on the Australian island of Tasmania, and the Astacopsis genus is now known to be a very closely related sister genus to Euastacus.)

The genera Cherax and Euastacus continue a trend present in many Australian native freshwater fish genera of speciation into generalist lowland and specialist upland species. Generally, Cherax species inhabit lowland rivers at low to medium altitudes and swamps and ephemeral waters in inland areas of Australia including the Murray-Darling Basin. Conversely, Euastacus species are only found in permanent waters and generally inhabit upland rivers at medium to high altitudes in the Murray-Darling Basin as well as many easterly and southerly flowing coastal river systems. The partial exceptions to this are:

  • the Murray River crayfish which was originally found along the entire length of the Murray River in addition to many upland habitats, and is still found in the middle reaches of the Murray River
  • the Glenelg Spiny Crayfish (Eustacus bispinosus), found (or formerly found) in lowland areas of the Glenelg River system and Eight Mile Creek/Ewen Ponds system [1]
  • the Gippsland Crayfish (Euastacus kershawi), found in lowland areas of some streams in the Gippsland area.

Even when found in lowland habitats, these several more adaptable Euastacus crayfish are still highly dependent on reliable flows and good water quality, with good dissolved oxygen levels and low salinity. In contrast to Cherax (yabby) species, Euastacus species are unable to survive drying of their habitats.

The genus Cherax has a far wider distribution than the Euastacus genus, and is found in many parts of Australia including south-western Australia. The Euastacus genus is restricted to the south-east of the Australian mainland. There is a high degree of endemism in Euastacus species in coastal river systems, with many species restricted to single river or creek catchment. Euastacus species occur in several upland reservoirs.

Euastacus sp.

Species[edit]

Of the 50 species in the genus Euastacus,[2][3] 17 are on the IUCN Red List as critically endangered (CR), 17 are endangered (EN), 5 vulnerable (VU), 1 near threatened (NT), 8 least concern (LC) and 1 is data deficient (DD):

References[edit]

  1. ^ Australian Government Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water (2011). "Listing Advice for Euastacus bispinosus" (PDF). Retrieved 20 April 2011. 
  2. ^ James W. Fetzner Jr. (14 January 2008). "Euastacus". Crayfish Taxon Browser. Carnegie Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 10 March 2010. 
  3. ^ Jason Coughran; Robert B. McCormack (2011). "Euastacus morgani sp. n., a new spiny crayfish (Crustacea, Decapoda, Parastacidae) from the highland rainforests of eastern New South Wales, Australia". ZooKeys. 85: 17–26. doi:10.3897/zookeys.85.1237. PMC 3082992Freely accessible. PMID 21594095. 
  4. ^ N. Alves; J. Coughran; J. Furse & S. Lawler (2010). "Euastacus armatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  5. ^ J. Furse & J. Cochran (2010). "Euastacus australasiensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  6. ^ J. Furse & J. Cochran (2010). "Euastacus balanesis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  7. ^ J. Furse; J. Cochran & S. Lawler (2010). "Euastacus bidawalis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  8. ^ J. Furse & J. Cochran (2010). "Euastacus bindal". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  9. ^ J. Furse & J. Cochran (2010). "Euastacus bispinosus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  10. ^ J. Furse & J. Cochran (2010). "Euastacus brachythorax". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  11. ^ J. Furse & J. Cochran (2010). "Euastacus clarkae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  12. ^ J. Furse & J. Cochran (2010). "Euastacus claytoni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  13. ^ J. Furse; J. Cochran & S. Lawler (2010). "Euastacus crassus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  14. ^ J. Furse & J. Cochran (2010). "Euastacus dalagarbe". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  15. ^ J. Furse & J. Cochran (2010). "Euastacus dangadi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  16. ^ J. Furse & J. Cochran (2010). "Euastacus dharawalus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  17. ^ J. Furse; J. Cochran & S. Lawler (2010). "Euastacus diversus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  18. ^ J. Furse & J. Cochran (2010). "Euastacus eungella". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  19. ^ J. Furse & J. Cochran (2010). "Euastacus fleckeri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  20. ^ J. Furse & J. Cochran (2010). "Euastacus gamilaroi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  21. ^ J. Furse & J. Cochran (2010). "Euastacus girurmulayn". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  22. ^ J. Furse & J. Cochran (2010). "Euastacus gumar". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  23. ^ J. Furse & J. Cochran (2010). "Euastacus guruhgi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  24. ^ J. Furse & J. Cochran (2010). "Euastacus guwinus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  25. ^ "Euastacus hirsutus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. 2010. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  26. ^ J. Furse & J. Cochran (2010). "Euastacus hystricosus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  27. ^ J. Furse & J. Cochran (2010). "Euastacus jagabar". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  28. ^ J. Cochran & J. Furse (2010). "Euastacus jagara". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  29. ^ J. Cochran; J. Furse & S. Lawler (2010). "Euastacus kershawi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  30. ^ J. Cochran & J. Furse (2010). "Euastacus maccai". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  31. ^ J. Cochran & J. Furse (2010). "Euastacus maidae". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  32. ^ J. Cochran & J. Furse (2010). "Euastacus mirangudjin". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  33. ^ J. Cochran & J. Furse (2010). "Euastacus monteithorum". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  34. ^ J. Cochran & J. Furse (2010). "Euastacus neodiversus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  35. ^ J. Cochran & J. Furse (2010). "Euastacus neohirsutus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  36. ^ J. Cochran & J. Furse (2010). "Euastacus pilosus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  37. ^ J. Cochran & J. Furse (2010). "Euastacus polysetosus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  38. ^ J. Cochran & J. Furse (2010). "Euastacus reductus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  39. ^ J. Cochran; J. Furse & S. Lawler (2010). "Euastacus rieki". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  40. ^ J. Cochran & J. Furse (2010). "Euastacus robertsi". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  41. ^ J. Cochran & J. Furse (2010). "Euastacus setosus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  42. ^ J. Cochran & J. Furse (2010). "Euastacus simplex". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  43. ^ J. Cochran & J. Furse (2010). "Euastacus spinichelatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  44. ^ J. Cochran & J. Furse (2010). "Euastacus spinifer". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  45. ^ J. Furse & J. Cochran (2010). "Euastacus sulcatus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  46. ^ J. Cochran & J. Furse (2010). "Euastacus suttoni". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  47. ^ J. Cochran & J. Furse (2010). "Euastacus urospinosus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  48. ^ J. Cochran & J. Furse (2010). "Euastacus valentulus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  49. ^ J. Cochran; J. Furse & S. Lawler (2010). "Euastacus wiowuru". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  50. ^ J. Cochran & J. Furse (2010). "Euastacus yanga". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  51. ^ J. Cochran & J. Furse (2010). "Euastacus yarreansis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 
  52. ^ J. Cochran & J. Furse (2010). "Euastacus yigara". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 25 August 2011. 

External links[edit]