FSK standards for use in Caller ID and remote metering

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Frequency-shift keying (FSK) is used over telephone lines for Caller ID (displaying callers' numbers) and remote metering applications. There are several variations of this technology.

European Telecommunications Standards Institute FSK[edit]

In some countries of Europe, the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) standards 200 778-1 and -2 – replacing 300 778-1 & -2 – allow 3 physical transport layers (Telcordia Technologies (formerly Bellcore), British Telecom (BT) and Cable Communications Association (CCA)), combined with 2 data formats Multiple Data Message Format (MDMF) & Single Data Message Format (SDMF), plus the Dual-tone multi-frequency (DTMF) system and a no-ring mode for meter-reading and the like. It's more of a recognition that the different types exist than an attempt to define a single "standard".

Telcordia Technologies FSK[edit]

The Telcordia Technologies (formerly Bellcore) standard is used in the United States, Canada (but see below), Australia, China, Hong Kong and Singapore. It sends the data after the first ring tone and uses the 1200 bits per second Bell 202 tone modulation. The data may be sent in SDMF – which includes the date, time and number – or in MDMF, which adds a NAME field.

British Telecom FSK[edit]

British Telecom (BT) in the United Kingdom developed their own standard, which wakes up the display with a line reversal, then sends the data as CCITT v.23 modem tones in a format similar to MDMF. It is used by BT, wireless networks like the late Ionica, and some cable companies. Details are to be found in BT Supplier Information Notes (SINs) 227 and 242; another useful document is Designing Caller Identification Delivery Using XR-2211 for BT from the EXAR website.

Cable Communications Association FSK[edit]

The Cable Communications Association (CCA) of the United Kingdom developed their own standard which sends the information after a short first ring, as either Bell 202 or V.23 tones. They developed a new standard rather than change some "street boxes" (multiplexors) which couldn't cope with the BT standard. The UK cable industry use a variety of switches: most are Nortel DMS-100; some are System X; System Y; and Nokia DX220. Note that some of these use the BT standard instead of the CCA one. The data format is similar to the BT one, but the transport layer is more like Telcordia Technologies, so North American or European equipment is more likely to detect it.