Nokia

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Coordinates: 60°13′32″N 24°45′03″E / 60.2254749°N 24.7508775°E / 60.2254749; 24.7508775

Nokia Corporation
Traded as
Industry
Founded
Founders
Headquarters Espoo, Uusimaa, Finland
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
Products List of Nokia products
Revenue
  • Increase 23.61 billion (2016)
  • Decrease €-1.1 billion (2016)
Profit
  • Decrease €-912 million (2016)
Total assets
  • Increase €44.90 billion (2016)
Total equity
  • Increase €20.975 billion (2016)
Number of employees
  • Decrease 101,787 (2016)
Divisions
Subsidiaries
Website www.nokia.com
Footnotes / references
[1][2]

Nokia (Finnish: Nokia, Finnish pronunciation: [ˈnokiɑ], UK: /ˈnɒkiə/, US: /ˈnkiə/) is a Finnish multinational communications, information technology and consumer electronics company, founded in 1865. Nokia's headquarters are in Espoo, Uusimaa, in the greater Helsinki metropolitan area.[1] In 2016, Nokia employed approximately 101,000 people across over 100 countries, did business in more than 130 countries, and reported annual revenues of around €23.6 billion.[3] Nokia is a public limited company listed on the Helsinki Stock Exchange and New York Stock Exchange.[4] It is the world's 415th-largest company measured by 2016 revenues according to the Fortune Global 500, and is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index.[5][6]

The company has had various industries in its 152-year history. It was founded as a pulp mill, but since the 1990s focuses on large-scale telecommunications infrastructures, technology development and licensing.[7] Nokia is also a major contributor to the mobile telephony industry, having assisted in the development of the GSM, 3G and LTE standards, and is best known for having been the largest worldwide vendor of mobile phones and smartphones for a period. After a partnership with Microsoft and market struggles, its mobile phone business was eventually bought by the former,[8][9] creating Microsoft Mobile as its successor in 2014.[10] After the sale, Nokia began to focus more extensively on its telecommunications infrastructure business, marked by the divestiture of its Here mapping division and the acquisition of French-American telecommunications company Alcatel-Lucent. Nokia also entered virtual reality and digital health (the latter by purchasing Withings),[11][12] and is the owner of scientific research organization Bell Labs.[13] The Nokia brand has since returned to the mobile and smartphone market through a licensing arrangement with HMD Global.[14]

The company is viewed with national pride by Finns, as its successful mobile phone business made it by far the largest worldwide company and brand from Finland.[15] At its peak in 2000, Nokia alone accounted for 4% of the country's GDP, 21% of total exports and 70% of the Helsinki Stock Exchange market capital.[16][17]

History[edit]

1865–1967[edit]

Rolls of toilet paper produced by Nokia in the 1960s, Museum Centre Vapriikki, Tampere

Nokia's history dates back to 1865, when Finnish-Swede mining engineer Fredrik Idestam established a pulp mill near the town of Tampere, Finland (then in the Russian Empire). A second pulp mill was opened in 1868 near the neighboring town of Nokia, offering better hydropower resources. In 1871, Idestam, together with friend Leo Mechelin, formed a shared company from it and called it Nokia Ab (in Swedish, Nokia Company being the English equivalent), after the site of the second pulp mill.

Idestam retired in 1896, making Mechelin the company's chairman. Mechelin expanded into electricity generation by 1902 which Idestam had opposed. In 1904 Suomen Gummitehdas (Finnish Rubber Works), a rubber business founded by Eduard Polón, established a factory near the town of Nokia and used its name.

In 1922, Nokia Ab entered into a partnership with Finnish Rubber Works and Kaapelitehdas (the Cable Factory), all now jointly under the leadership of Polón. Finnish Rubber Works company grew rapidly when it moved to the Nokia region in the 1930s to take advantage of the electrical power supply, and the cable company soon did too.

Nokia at the time also made respirators for both civilian and military use, from the 1930s well into the early 1990s.[18]

1967–1990[edit]

LV 317M military radio in Hämeenlinna artillery museum. Nokia license built PRC-77 (-1177?) with signal amplifier.

In 1967, the three companies - Nokia, Kaapelitehdas and Finnish Rubber Works - merged and created the new Nokia Corporation, a new restructured form divided into four major businesses: forestry, cable, rubber and electronics. In the early 1970s, it entered the networking and radio industry. Nokia also started making military equipment for Finland's defence forces (Puolustusvoimat), such as the Sanomalaite M/90 communicator in 1983, and the M61 gas mask first developed in the 1960s. Nokia was now also making professional mobile radios, telephone switches, capacitors and chemicals.

After Finland's trade agreement with the Soviet Union in the 1960s, Nokia expanded into the Soviet market. It soon widened trade, ranging from automatic telephone exchanges to robotics among others; by the late 1970s the Soviet Union became a major market for Nokia, helping to yield high profits. Nokia also co-operated on scientific technology with the Soviet Union. The U.S. government became increasingly suspicious of that technologic co-operation after the end of the Cold War détente in the early 1980s. Nokia imported many US-made components and used them for the Soviets, and according to U.S. Deputy Minister of Defence, Richard Perle, Nokia had a secret co-operation with The Pentagon that allowed the U.S. to keep track in technologic developments in the Soviet Union through trading with Nokia.[19] However this was a demonstration of Finland trading with both sides, as it was neutral during the Cold War.

In 1977, Kari Kairamo became CEO and he transformed the company's businesses. By this time Finland were becoming what has been called "Nordic Japan". Under his leadership Nokia acquired many companies. In 1984, Nokia acquired television maker Salora, followed by Swedish electronics and computer maker Luxor AB in 1985, and French television maker Oceanic in 1987. This made Nokia the third-largest television manufacturer of Europe (behind Philips and Thomson). The existing brands continued to be used until the end of the television business in 1996.

Nokia Mikko 3 minicomputer, 1978
Mobira Cityman 450, 1985

In 1987, Nokia acquired Schaub-Lorenz, the consumer operations of Germany's Standard Elektrik Lorenz (SEL), which included its "Schaub-Lorenz" and "Graetz" brands. It was originally part of American conglomerate International Telephone & Telegraph (ITT) and after the acquisition products were sold under the "ITT Nokia" brand, despite SEL's sale to Compagnie Générale d'Electricité (CGE), the predecessor of Alcatel, in 1986.[citation needed]

On 1 April 1988 Nokia bought the computer division of Ericsson's Information Systems,[20] which originated as a computer division of Swedish aircraft and car manufacturer Saab called Datasaab. Ericsson Information Systems made Alfaskop terminals, typewriters, minicomputers and Ericsson IBM compatible PCs. The merge with Nokia's existing Information Systems division - which already had a line of personal computers called MikroMikko since 1981 - resulted in the name Nokia Data.

Nokia also acquired Mobira, a mobile telephony company, which was the foundation of its future mobile phones business. In 1981, Mobira launched the Nordic Mobile Telephone (NMT) service, the world's first international cellular network and the first to allow international roaming. In 1982, Mobira launched the Mobira Senator car phone, Nokia's first mobile phone. At that time, the company had no interest in producing mobile phones, which the executive board regarded as akin to James Bond's gadgets - improbably futuristic and niche devices. After all these acquisitions Nokia's revenue base became US$2.7 billion. Tragically CEO Kairamo committed suicide on 11 December 1988.

In 1987, Kaapelitehdas discontinued production of cables at its Helsinki factory after 44 years, effectively shutting down the sub-company.

1990–2010[edit]

Jorma Ollila, who oversaw the rise of Nokia in the mobile phone market as CEO from 1992 to 2006

Following Simo Vuorilehto's appointment as CEO, a major restructuring was planned. With 11 groups within the company, Vuorilehto divested industrial units he deemed as un-strategic. Nokian Tyres (Nokian Renkaat), a tyre producer originally formed as a division of Finnish Rubber Works in 1932, split away from Nokia Corporation in 1988. Two years later, in 1990, Finnish Rubber Works followed suit. In 1991 Nokia sold its computer division, Nokia Data, to UK-based International Computers Limited (ICL), the precursor of Fujitsu Siemens. Investors thought of this as financial trouble and Nokia's stock price sunk as a result. Finland was now also experiencing its worst recession in living memory, and the collapse of the Soviet Union, a major customer, made matters worse.

Vuorilehto quit in early 1992 and was replaced by Jorma Ollila. He saw that despite troubles in the economy, Nokia's cellular business was booming. As a result, he decided to focus on wireless telecommunications and to get rid of non-core assets. This strategy proved to be very successful and the company grew rapidly in the following years.

Nokia's first fully portable mobile phone after the Mobira Senator was the Mobira Cityman 900 in 1987. Nokia assisted in the development of the GSM mobile standard in the 1980s, and developed the first GSM network with Siemens, the predecessor to Nokia Siemens Network. The world's first GSM call was made by Finnish prime minister Harri Holkeri on 1 July 1991, using Nokia equipment on the 900 MHz band network built by Nokia and operated by Radiolinja. In November 1992, the Nokia 1011 launched, making it the first commercially available GSM mobile phone.[21]

Salora Oy as a Nokia subsidiary ended in 1989 when the division was merged into Nokia-Mobira Oy. The brand continued to be used for televisions until 1995.

On 12 June 1996, Nokia announced the sale of its television business to Canada/Hong Kong-based Semi-Tech Corporation.[22] The television manufacturing plant in Germany closed down in September 1996. The sale included a factory in Turku, and the rights to use the Nokia, Finlux, Luxor, Salora, Schaub-Lorenz and Oceanic brands until the end of 1999.[23] Some of these brands were later sold to other companies.

Nokia was the first to launch digital satellite receivers in the UK, announced in March 1997.[24] In August 1997 Nokia introduced the first digital satellite receiver with Common Interface (CI) support.[25] In 1998 Nokia became the chosen supplier to produce the world's first digital terrestrial television set-top boxes by British Digital Broadcasting (BDB), which was eventually launched as ONdigital.[26]

A Nokia Mediamaster set-top box

In October 1998, Nokia overtook Motorola to become the best-selling mobile phone brand,[27] and in December manufactured its 100 millionth mobile phone.[28] Nokia's mobile phones became highly successful in Europe, Africa, Asia and Oceania. They were also one of the pioneers of mobile gaming due to the popularity of Snake, which came pre-loaded on many products. The 3310 is one of the company's most well-known products. Nokia also created the best-selling mobile phone of all time, the Nokia 1100, in 2003.

Nokia claimed in April 1996 its 447Xav and 447K monitors to be the first with stereo speakers and a sub-woofer.[29] In May 1999 Nokia introduced their first wireless LAN products.[30] In January 2000 ViewSonic acquired Nokia Display Products, the division making displays for personal computers.[31] On 26 April 2001 Nokia partnered with Telefonica to supply DSL modems and routers in Spain.[32]

In 1998, Nokia co-founded Symbian Ltd. led by Psion to create a new operating system for PDAs as a successor of EPOC32. In 2001 Nokia created the Series 60 platform on Symbian OS, later introducing it with their first camera phone, the Nokia 7650. Both Nokia and Symbian eventually became the largest smartphone hardware and software maker respectively, and in February 2004 became the largest shareholder of Symbian Ltd.[33] Nokia acquired the entire company in June 2008 and then formed the Symbian Foundation as its successor.[34]

In 1998 alone, the company had sales revenue of $20 billion making $2.6 billion profit. By 2000 Nokia employed over 55,000 people.[35]

A collection of Nokia mobile phones from the 2000s

The Nokia 3600/3650 was the first camera phone on sale in North America in 2003. The company would go on to become a successful and innovative camera phone maker. In April 2005 Nokia partnered with German camera optics maker Carl Zeiss AG.[36] That same month Nokia introduced the Nseries, which would become its flagship line of smart phones for the next six years.[37] The Nokia N95 introduced in September 2006 became highly successful and was also awarded as "best mobile imaging device" in Europe in 2007.[38] Its successor the N82 featured a xenon flash,[39] which helped it win the award of "best mobile imaging" device in Europe in 2008.[40] The N93 in 2006 was known for its specialized camcorder and the twistable design that switches between clamshell and a camcorder-like position.[41] They were also well known for the N8 with a high resolution 12-megapixel sensor in 2010; the 808 PureView in 2012 with a 41-megapixel sensor; and the Lumia 920 flagship in 2012 which implemented advanced PureView technologies.[42]

In 2002, Nokia attempted to break into the handheld gaming market with the N-Gage.[43] Nokia's head of entertainment and media, Ilkka Raiskinen, once quoted "Game Boy is for 10-year-olds",[44] stating that N-Gage is more suited to a mature audience. However, the device was a failure, unable to challenge the dominant market leader Nintendo. Nokia attempted to revive N-Gage as a platform for their S60 smartphones, which eventually launched in 2008.[45]

Nokia launched mobile TV trials in 2005 in Finland with content provided by public broadcaster Yle. The services are based on the DVB-H standard. It could be viewed with the widescreen Nokia 7710 smartphone with a special accessory enabling it to receive DVB-H signals.[46] Nokia partnered with Arqiva and O2 to launch trials in the UK in September 2005.[47]

In 2005 Nokia developed a Linux-based operating system called Maemo, which shipped that year on the Nokia 770 Internet Tablet.

On 1 June 2006, Jorma Ollila became the company's chairman and retired as CEO, replaced by Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo.[48]

A flagship Nokia store in Sao Paulo, Brazil in 2009

In August 2007, Nokia introduced Ovi, an umbrella name for the company's new Internet services which included the N-Gage platform and the Nokia Music Store.[49] The Ovi Store faced stiff competition against Apple's App Store when it was introduced in 2008.[50]

In October 2008 Nokia announced the Nokia 5800 XpressMusic, the first device to ship with the new touch-centric S60 5th Edition, also known as Symbian^1, the first iteration of the platform since the creation of the Symbian Foundation. In November 2008 Nokia announced it would end mobile phone sales in Japan because of low market share.[51]

Nokia briefly returned to the computer market with the Booklet 3G netbook in August 2009.

2010–2014[edit]

A Nokia 9000 Communicator (1996) next to a Nokia E7 Communicator (2011)

In April 2010 Nokia introduced its next flagship mobile device, the Nokia N8, which would be the first to run on Symbian^3.[52] However it was delayed for many months which tarnished the company's image,[53] especially after the failure of its previous flagship N97 and tougher competition from Apple and the rising Google. On 10 September 2010, Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo was fired as CEO and it was announced that Stephen Elop from Microsoft would take Nokia's CEO position, becoming the first non-Finnish director in Nokia's history.[54]

The old Symbian OS became completely open source in February 2010.[55] However, in November 2010 it was announced that the Symbian Foundation was closing and that Nokia would take back control of the Symbian operating system under closed licensing.[56] By now Nokia was the only remaining company using the platform, along with carrier NTT DoCoMo in Japan, after both Samsung and Sony Ericsson moved to Android. Meanwhile, in 2010 for Nokia's Linux ambitions, Nokia collaborated with Intel to form the MeeGo project, after the merger of Nokia's own Maemo and Intel's Moblin.

Nokia's Symbian platform that had been the leading smartphone platform in Europe and Asia for many years was quickly becoming outdated and difficult for developers after the advent of iOS and Android. To counter this, Nokia planned to make their MeeGo Linux operating system the company's flagship on smartphones. However, in February 2011, they scrapped MeeGo and announce a partnership with Microsoft to use Windows Phone as Nokia's primary operating system, relegating Symbian to a lower priority. Although the MeeGo-based N9 was met with a highly positive reception in 2011, Nokia - apparently pressured by Microsoft[citation needed] - had already decided to end development on MeeGo and solely focus on its Microsoft partnership. After the announcement of the Microsoft deal, Nokia's market share deteriorated; this was due to demand for Symbian dropping when consumers realized Nokia's focus and attention would be elsewhere.[57] Nokia's first Windows Phone flagship was the Lumia 800, which arrived in November 2011. Falling sales in 2011, which were not being improved significantly with the Lumia line in 2012, led to consecutive quarters of huge losses. By mid-2012, with the company's stock price falling below $2, Nokia almost became bankrupt.[58][59]

On 11 March 2011 Nokia announced that it had paid Elop a $6 million signing bonus as "compensation for lost income from his prior employer," on top of his $1.4 million annual salary.[60] This was a turning point, since Elop has previously been a Microsoft employee in its Business Division. It later became clear that Microsoft was influential within Nokia, pushing forward its Windows Phone offering.

When the Lumia 920 was announced in September 2012, it was seen by the press as the first high-end Windows Phone that could challenge rivals due to its advanced feature set. The company was also making gains in developing countries with its Asha series, which were selling strongly.[61] Although Nokia's smartphone market share recovered in 2013, it was still not enough to improve the dire financial situation:[62] the company had had huge losses for two years, and in September 2013 announced the sale of its mobile and devices division to Microsoft.[63] The sale was positive for Nokia to stop further disastrous financial figures, as well as for Microsoft's CEO Steve Ballmer, who wanted Microsoft to produce more hardware and turn it into a devices and services company.[64] The sale was completed in April 2014, with Microsoft Mobile becoming the successor to Nokia's mobile devices division.

Former Nokia plant in Bochum, Germany
A Nokia advertising sign in Dublin, Ireland

In July 2013, Nokia bought Siemens' stake in the Nokia Siemens Networks joint venture for $2.2 billion, turning it into a wholly owned subsidiary called Nokia Solutions and Networks,[65] until being rebranded as Nokia Networks soon after.[66] During Nokia's financial struggles, its profitable networking division with Siemens provided much of its income; thus, the purchase proved to be positive, particularly after the sale of its mobile devices unit.[67]

2014–present[edit]

After the sale of its mobile devices division, Nokia focused on network equipment through Nokia Networks.[68]

In October 2014, Nokia and China Mobile signed a US$970 million framework deal for delivery between 2014 and 2015.[69]

On 17 November 2014, Nokia Technologies head Ramzi Haidamus disclosed that the company planned to re-enter the consumer electronics business as an original design manufacturer, licensing in-house hardware designs and technologies to third-party manufacturers. Haidamus stated that the Nokia brand was "valuable" but "is diminishing in value, and that's why it is important that we reverse that trend very quickly, imminently."[70] The next day, Nokia unveiled the N1, an Android tablet manufactured by Foxconn, as its first product following the Microsoft sale.[71] Haidamus emphasized that devices released under these licensing agreements would be held to high standards in production quality, and would "look and feel just like Nokia built it."[7] Nokia CEO Rajeev Suri stated that the company planned to re-enter the mobile phone business in this manner in 2016, following the expiration of its non-compete clause with Microsoft.[72]

According to Robert Morlino, the spokesman of Nokia Technologies, Nokia planned follow the brand-licensing model rather than direct marketing of mobile devices due to the sale of its mobile devices division to Microsoft.[73] The company took aggressive steps to revitalize itself, evident through its hiring of software experts, testing of new products and seeking of sales partners.[74] On 14 July 2015, CEO Rajeev Suri confirmed that the company would make a return to the mobile phones market in 2016.[75]

On 28 July 2015, Nokia announced OZO, a 360-degrees virtual reality camera, with eight 2K optical image sensors. The division behind the product, Nokia Technologies, claimed that OZO would be the most advanced VR film-making platform.[76] Nokia's press release stated that OZO would be "the first in a planned portfolio of digital media solutions," with more technologic products expected in the future.[77] OZO was fully unveiled on 30 November in Los Angeles. The OZO, designed for professional use, was intended for retail for US$60,000;[78] however, its price was decreased by $15,000 prior to release,[79] and is listed on its official website as $40,000.[80]

Nokia office building in North America in 2016 - originally Alcatel-Lucent's office

On 14 April 2015, Nokia confirmed that it was in talks with the French telecommunications equipment company Alcatel-Lucent regarding a potential merger.[81] The next day, Nokia officially announced that it had agreed to purchase Alcatel-Lucent for €15.6 billion in an all-stock deal.[82] CEO Rajeev Suri felt that the purchase would give Nokia a strategic advantage in the development of 5G wireless technologies,[83][84] and the acquisition aimed to create a stronger competitor to the rival firms Ericsson and Huawei, whom Nokia and Alcatel-Lucent had surpassed in terms of total combined revenue in 2014. Nokia shareholders hold 66.5% of the new combined company, while Alcatel-Lucent shareholders hold 33.5%. The Bell Labs division was to be maintained, but the Alcatel-Lucent brand would be replaced by Nokia.[82][85] In October 2015, following approval of the deal by China's Ministry of Commerce, the merger awaited approval by French regulators.[86] Despite the initial intent of selling the submarine cable division separately, Alcatel-Lucent later declared that it would not.[87] The merger closed on 14 January 2016,[88] but was not complete until 3 November 2016. From the acquisition Nokia is now also the owner of the Alcatel mobile phone brand, which continues to be licensed to TCL Corporation.

On 3 August 2015, Nokia announced that it had reached a deal to sell its Here digital maps division to a consortium of BMW, Daimler AG and Volkswagen Group for €2.8 billion.[89] The deal closed on 3 December 2015.[90]

On 26 April 2016, Nokia announced its intent to acquire connected health device maker Withings for US$191 million. The company was integrated into a new Digital Health unit of Nokia Technologies.[91][92]

On 18 May 2016, Microsoft Mobile sold its Nokia-branded feature phone business to HMD Global, a new company founded by former Nokia executive Jean-Francois Baril, and an associated factory in Vietnam to Foxconn's FIH Mobile subsidiary. Nokia subsequently entered into a long-term licensing deal to make HMD the exclusive manufacturer of Nokia-branded phones and tablets outside Japan, operating in conjunction with Foxconn. The deal also granted HMD the right to essential patents and feature phone software. HMD subsequently announced the Android-based Nokia 6 smartphone in January 2017.[93][94] At Mobile World Congress, HMD additionally unveiled the Nokia 3 and Nokia 5 smartphones, as well as a re-imagining of Nokia's classic 3310 feature phone.[95][96] While Nokia has no investment in the company they do have some input in the new devices.

On 28 June 2016 Nokia demonstrated for the first time ever a 5G-ready network.[97] In February 2017 Nokia carried out a 5G connection in Oulu, Finland using the 5GTF standard, backed by Verizon, on Intel architecture-based equipment.[98]

On 5 July 2017, Nokia and Xiaomi announced that they have signed a business collaboration agreement and a multi-year patent agreement, including a cross license to each company's cellular standard essential patents.[99]

Current operations[edit]

Nokia is a public limited-liability company listed on the Helsinki and New York stock exchanges.[4] Nokia has played a very large role in the economy of Finland,[100][101] and it is an important employer in the country, working with multiple local partners and subcontractors.[102] Nokia contributed 1.6% to Finland's GDP and accounted for about 16% of the country's exports in 2006.[103]

Nokia comprises two business groups along with further subsidiaries and affiliated firms.

Nokia Networks[edit]

View of the Nokia Networks office in Munich, Germany

Nokia Networks is Nokia Corporation's largest division. It is a multinational data networking and telecommunications equipment company headquartered in Espoo, Finland, and is the world's fourth-largest telecoms equipment manufacturer, measured by 2016 revenues (after Huawei, Ericsson and Cisco). It has operations in around 150 countries.[104] Nokia Networks provides wireless and fixed network infrastructure, communications and networks service platforms and professional services to operators and service providers.[105] It focuses on GSM, EDGE, 3G/W-CDMA, LTE and WiMAX radio access networks, supporting core networks with increasing IP and multiaccess capabilities and services.

The Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN) brand identity was launched at the 3GSM World Congress in Barcelona in February 2007 as a joint venture between Nokia (50.1%) and Siemens (49.9%),[106] although it is now wholly owned by Nokia. In July 2013, Nokia bought back all shares in Nokia Siemens Networks for a sum of US$2.21 billion and renamed it to Nokia Solutions and Networks, shortly thereafter changed to simply Nokia Networks.[107]

Nokia Technologies[edit]

Nokia Technologies is a division of Nokia that develops and licenses technology and the Nokia brand.[108] Its focuses are imaging, sensing, wireless connectivity, power management and materials, and other areas such as the IP licensing program. It consists of three labs: Radio Systems Lab, in areas of radio access, wireless local connectivity and radio implementation; Media Technologies Lab, in areas of multimedia and interaction; and Sensor and Material Technologies Lab, in areas of advanced sensing solutions, interaction methods, nanotechnologies and quantum technologies. Nokia Technologies also provides public participation in its development through the Invent with Nokia program.[109] It was created in 2014 following a restructuring of Nokia Corporation.

In November 2014, Nokia Technologies launched its first product, the Nokia N1 tablet computer.[110] In July 2015, Nokia Technologies introduced a VR camera called OZO, designed for professional content creators and developed in Tampere, Finland. With its 8 synchronized shutter sensors and 8 microphones, the product can capture stereoscopic 3D video and spatial audio.[111][112] On 31 May 2016, the Digital Health unit was unded. It is led by Cédric Hutchings, former CEO of Withings, which Nokia acquired.[113]

On 31 August 2016, Ramzi Haidamus announced he would be stepping down from his position as president of Nokia Technologies.[114] Brad Rodrigues, previously head of strategy and business development, assumed the role of interim president.[115]

Nokia Bell Labs[edit]

Nokia Bell Labs is a research and scientific development firm that was once the R&D arm of the American Bell System. It became a subsidiary of Nokia Corporation after the takeover of Alcatel-Lucent in 2016.

NGP Capital[edit]

NGP Capital (formerly Nokia Growth Partners) is a global venture capital firm, focusing in investments on growth stage "Internet of things" (IoT) and mobile technology companies.[116] NGP holds investments throughout the U.S., Europe, China and India. Their portfolio consists of companies in mobile technology including the sectors Connected Enterprise, Digital Health, Consumer IoT and Connected Car. Following a $350 million funding for IoT companies in 2016, NGP manages $1 billion worth of assets.[117]

Nokia had previously promoted innovation through venture sponsorships dating back to 1998 with Nokia Venture Partners, which was renamed BlueRun Ventures and spun off in 2005.[118] Nokia Growth Partners (NGP) was founded in 2005 as a growth stage venture fund as a continuation of the early successes of Nokia Venture Partners. In 2017, the company renamed Nokia Growth Partners to NGP Capital.[119]

NGP's largest exits include GanJi, UCWeb, Whistle, Rocket Fuel, Swype, Summit Microelectronics and Netmagic.

Nuage Networks[edit]

Nuage Networks is a venture providing software-defined networking (SDN) solutions. It was formed by Alcatel-Lucent in 2013 to develop a software overlay for automating and orchestrating hybrid clouds.[120] It has been part of Nokia following their acquisition of Alcatel-Lucent in 2016.[121] Throughout 2017 Nuage sealed deals with Vodafone and Telefonica to provide its SD-WAN architecture to their servers.[122][123] BT had already been a client since 2016.[124] A deal with China Mobile in January 2017 also used Nuage's SDN technology for 2,000 public cloud servers at existing data centers in China,[125] and another in October 2017 with China Pacific Insurance Company.[126]

The company is based in Mountain View, California and the CEO is Sunil Khandekar.[127]

Alcatel Mobile[edit]

Alcatel Mobile is a mobile phone brand owned by Nokia since 2016. It has been licensed since 2005 to Chinese company TCL when it was under the ownership of Alcatel (later Alcatel-Lucent) in a contract until 2024.

HMD Global[edit]

HMD Global is a mobile phone vendor based at the same building as Nokia's headquarters in Espoo, Finland. It was set up by former Nokia employees and introduced Nokia-branded Android-based devices to the market in 2017. Nokia has no investment in the company but retains some input in the development of its devices. Nokia has focused on telecommunications networking since selling its mobile phone business to Microsoft in 2014.[128]

Corporate affairs[edit]

Corporate governance[edit]

The control and management of Nokia is divided among the shareholders at a general meeting and the Nokia Leadership Team (left),[129] under the direction of the board of directors (right).[130] The chairman and the rest of the Nokia Leadership Team members are appointed by the board of directors. Only the Chairman of the Nokia Leadership Team can belong to both the board of directors and the Nokia Leadership Team. The board of directors' committees consist of the Audit Committee,[131] the Personnel Committee,[132] and the Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee.[133][134]

The operations of the company are managed within the framework set by the Finnish Companies Act,[135] Nokia's Articles of Association,[136] and Corporate Governance Guidelines,[137] supplemented by the board of directors' adopted charters.

Nokia Leadership Team[129]
Rajeev Suri (Chairman)
President and CEO since 1 May 2014
Joined Nokia in 1995
Kristian Pullola
Chief Financial Officer CFO)
Joined Nokia in 1999
Monika Maurer
Chief Operating Officer (COO)
Joined Nokia in 2016
Basil Alwan
President of IP/Optical Networks
Joined Nokia in 2016
Bhaskar Gorti
President of Applications & Analytics
Joined Nokia in 2016
Federico Guillén
President of Fixed Networks
Joined Nokia in 2016
Gregory Lee
President of Nokia Technologies
Joined Nokia in 2017
Igor Leprince
President of Global Services
Joined Nokia in 2007
Marc Rouanne
President of Mobile Networks
Joined Nokia in 2008
Ashish Chowdhary
Chief Customer Operations Officer (CCOO)
Joined Nokia in 2003
Hans-Jürgen Bill
Chief Human Resources Officer (CHRO)
Joined Nokia in 2007
Kathrin Buvac
Chief Strategy Officer (CSO)
Joined Nokia in 2007
Barry French
Chief Marketing Officer (CMO)
Joined Nokia in 2006
Maria Varsellona
Chief Legal Officer (CLO)
Joined Nokia in 2013
Marcus Weldon
Corporate Chief Technology Officer and President of Nokia Bell Labs
Joined Nokia in 2016
Board of directors[130]
Risto Siilasmaa (Chairman)
Chairman of the Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee
Founder and Chairman of F-Secure Corporation
Board member since 2008, Chairman of the board of directors since 3 May 2012
Oliver Piou (Vice Chair)
Member of the Personnel Committee and the Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee
CEO of Gemalto N.V.

Board member since 2008

Bruce Brown

Chair of the Personnel Committee and member of the Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee
Retired Chief Technology Officer of Procter & Gamble

Board member since 3 May 2012

Jeanette Horan

Member of the Audit Committee
Non-executive director
Board member since 2017

Louis R Hughes

Member of the Audit Committee

Board member since 2016

Edward Kozel

Member of the Audit Committee

Board member since 2017

Jean C Monty

Member of the Personnel Committee

Board member since 2016

Elizabeth Nelson

Chair of the Audit Committee

Board member since 2012

Karla Smits-Nusteling

Member of the Personnel Committee
Non-executive director

Board member since 2016

Kari Stadigh

Member of the Personnel Committee and the Corporate Governance and Nomination Committee
Group CEO and President of Sampo PLC

Board member since 2011

Former corporate officers[edit]

Chief executive officers Chairmen of the board of directors[138]
Name Tenure Name Tenure
Björn Westerlund 1967–1977 Lauri J. Kivekäs 1967–1977
Kari Kairamo 1977–1988 Björn Westerlund 1977–1979
Simo Vuorilehto 1988–1992 Mika Tiivola 1979–1986
Jorma Ollila 1992–2006 Kari Kairamo 1986–1988
Olli-Pekka Kallasvuo 2006–2010 Simo Vuorilehto 1988–1990
Stephen Elop 2010–2014 Mika Tiivola 1990–1992
Casimir Ehrnrooth 1992–1999
Jorma Ollila 1999–2012

Stock[edit]

Nokia is a public limited liability company and is the oldest company listed under the same name on the Helsinki Stock Exchange, beginning in 1915.[139] Nokia has had a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange since 1994.[4][139] Nokia shares were delisted from the London Stock Exchange in 2003, the Paris Stock Exchange in 2004, the Stockholm Stock Exchange in 2007 and the Frankfurt Stock Exchange in 2012.[140] Due to the acquisition of Alcatel-Lucent in 2015, Nokia listed its shares again on the Paris Stock Exchange and was included in the CAC 40 index on 6 January 2016.[141]

In 2007, Nokia had a market capitalization of €110 billion; by 17 July 2012 this had fallen to €6.28 billion, and by 23 February 2015, it increased to €26.07 billion.

Corporate culture[edit]

Nokia's official corporate culture manifesto, The Nokia Way, emphasizes the speed and flexibility of decision-making in a flat, networked organization.[142]

The official business language of Nokia is English. All documentation is written in English, and is used in official intra-company communication.

In May 2007, Nokia redefined its values after initiating a series of discussion across its worldwide branches regarding what the new values of the company should be. Based on the employee suggestions, the new values were defined as: Engaging You, Achieving Together, Passion for Innovation and Very Human.[142]

In August 2014, Nokia redefined its values again after the sale of its Devices business. The new values were defined with the key words respect, achievement, renewal and challenge.

Headquarters[edit]

The Nokia House (now Microsoft Talo) was Nokia's head office up until April 2014. The building is located by the Gulf of Finland in Keilaniemi, Espoo, and was constructed between 1995 and 1997. It was the workplace of more than 1,000 Nokia employees.[139]

The Nokia House was the head office building of Nokia Corporation, located in Keilaniemi, Espoo. The two southernmost parts of the building were built in the early 1990s and the third, northernmost part was built in 2000. Around 5000 employees work in the premises.

In December 2012, Nokia announced that it had sold its head office building to Finland-based Exilion for €170 million and was leasing it back on a long term basis.[143] The building was later sold to Microsoft as part of the sale of the mobile phone business in April 2014 and renamed to Microsoft Talo.[144]

Since the sale, Nokia's headquarters are in Karaportti, Espoo, Finland.[145]

Logos[edit]

Controversies[edit]

NSN's provision of intercept capability to Iran[edit]

In 2008, Nokia Siemens Networks, a joint venture between Nokia and Siemens AG, reportedly provided Iran's monopoly telecom company with technology that allowed it to intercept the Internet communications of its citizens.[151] The technology reportedly allowed Iran to use deep packet inspection to read and change the content of emails, social media, and online phone calls. The technology "enables authorities to not only block communication but to monitor it to gather information about individuals, as well as alter it for disinformation purposes".[152]

During the post-election protests in Iran in June 2009, Iran's Internet access was reported to have slowed to less than a tenth of its normal speeds, which experts suspected was due to use of deep packet inspection.[153]

In July 2009, Nokia began to experience a boycott of their products and services in Iran. The boycott was led by consumers sympathetic to the post-election protest movement and targeted companies deemed to be collaborating with the regime. Demand for handsets fell and users began shunning SMS messaging.[154]

Nokia Siemens Networks asserted in a press release that it provided Iran only with a "lawful intercept capability solely for monitoring of local voice calls" and that it "has not provided any deep packet inspection, web censorship, or Internet filtering capability to Iran".[155]

Lex Nokia[edit]

In 2009, Nokia heavily supported a law in Finland that allows companies to monitor their employees' electronic communications in cases of suspected information leaking.[156] Nokia denied rumors that the company had considered moving its head office out of Finland if laws on electronic surveillance were not changed.[157] The Finnish media dubbed the law Lex Nokia because it was implemented as a result of Nokia's pressure.

The law was enacted, but with strict requirements for implementation of its provisions. No company had used its provisions prior to 25 February 2013, when the Office of Data Protection Ombudsman confirmed that city of Hämeenlinna had recently given the required notice.[158]

Nokia–Apple patent dispute[edit]

In October 2009, Nokia filed a lawsuit against Apple Inc. in the U.S. District Court of Delaware claiming that Apple infringed on 10 of its patents related to wireless communication including data transfer.[159] Apple was quick to respond with a countersuit filed in December 2009 accusing Nokia of 11 patent infringements. Apple's General Counsel, Bruce Sewell went a step further by stating, "Other companies must compete with us by inventing their own technologies, not just by stealing ours." This resulted in a legal battle between the two telecom majors with Nokia filing another suit, this time with the U.S. International Trade Commission (ITC), alleging Apple of infringing its patents in "virtually all of its mobile phones, portable music players and computers".[160] Nokia went on to ask the court to ban all U.S. imports of the Apple products, including the iPhone, Macintosh and iPod. Apple countersued by filing a complaint with the ITC in January 2010.[159]

In June 2011, Apple settled with Nokia and agreed to an estimated one time payment of $600 million and royalties to Nokia.[161] The two companies also agreed on a cross-licensing patents for some of their patented technologies.[162][163]

Alleged tax evasion in India[edit]

Nokia's Indian subsidiary has been charged with non-payment of TDS and transgressing transfer pricing norms in India.[164] The unpaid TDS of 30 billion, accrued during a course of six years, was due to royalty paid by the Indian subsidiary to its parent company.[165]

See also[edit]

  • History of Nokia
  • Jolla – a company started by former Nokia employees which develops Linux Sailfish OS, a continuation of Linux MeeGo OS.
  • Twig Com – originally Benefon, a historical mobile phone manufacturer started by former Nokia people.
  • Microsoft Mobile – The re-branding of Nokia Device and Services division after acquired by Microsoft.
  • HMD Global - The post-Microsoft continuation of Nokia-branded devices.

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Further reading[edit]

Title Author Publisher Year Length ISBN
The Decline and Fall of Nokia David J. Cord Schildts & Söderströms April 2014 304 pp ISBN 978-951-52-3320-2
Ringtone: Exploring the Rise and Fall of Nokia in Mobile Phones Yves Doz and Keeley Wilson Oxford University Press November 2017 208 pp ISBN 978-0-19-877719-9
Winning Across Global Markets: How Nokia Creates Strategic Advantage in a Fast-Changing World Dan Steinbock Jossey-Bass / Wiley May 2010 304 pp ISBN 978-0-470-33966-4
Nokia: The Inside Story Martti Häikiö FT / Prentice Hall October 2002 256 pp ISBN 0-273-65983-9
Work Goes Mobile: Nokia's Lessons from the Leading Edge Michael Lattanzi, Antti Korhonen, Vishy Gopalakrishnan John Wiley & Sons January 2006 212 pp ISBN 0-470-02752-5
Mobile Usability: How Nokia Changed the Face of the Mobile Phone Christian Lindholm, Turkka Keinonen, Harri Kiljander McGraw-Hill Companies June 2003 301 pp ISBN 0-07-138514-2
Business The Nokia Way: Secrets of the World's Fastest Moving Company Trevor Merriden John Wiley & Sons February 2001 168 pp ISBN 1-84112-104-5
The Nokia Revolution: The Story of an Extraordinary Company That Transformed an Industry Dan Steinbock AMACOM Books April 2001 375 pp ISBN 0-8144-0636-X

External links[edit]