Fair debt collection

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Fair debt collection broadly refers to regulation of the United States debt collection industry at both the federal and state level. At the Federal level, it is primarily governed by the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA).[1][2] In addition, many U.S. states also have debt collection laws that regulate the credit and collection industry and give consumer debtors protection from abusive and deceptive practices.[3] Many state laws track the language of the FDCPA, so that they are sometimes referred to as mini-FDCPAs.[4]

State regulation[edit]

U.S. state laws on fair debt collection generally fall into two categories: laws which require persons who are collecting debts from consumers to be licensed, registered or bonded in order to collect from consumers in their states, and laws that protect consumers from specific unfair practices by debt collectors, which may include collection agencies and sometimes original creditors.[3] Unlike the FDCPA, many state laws also apply to the debt collection activity of original creditors, thus providing greater protections to consumers than the Federal FDCPA.[2]

Although not all states have such laws, some states track violations of debt collection practices laws. Some states bar debt collectors from engaging in collection activity against residents of the state unless the collection agency has complied with state licensing or bonding requirements, while others exempt out-of-state collectors from those requirements. Many state fair debt collection laws provide for a private right of action (consumers can sue the debt collector) by consumers against debt collectors that violate their provisions.[5]

Examples of prohibitions of unfair practices by collectors include contacting employers after having been given notice not to do so, pretending to be a government agency, pretending to be an attorney or falsely threatening a debtor with a lawsuit.[2]

Collection laws[edit]

The following states have their own debt collection laws, which can be found here:

  • Alabama: Ala. Code Sec. 40-12-80[6]
  • Alaska: Alaska Stat. Sec. 08.24.041-08.24.380;[7] Alaska Stat. Sec. 45.50.471.[8]
  • Arizona: Ariz. Rev. Stat. Ann. sec. 32-1001 - 1057[9]
  • Arkansas: Ark. Stat. Ann. Sec. 17-24-101 -404[10]
  • California: Cal. Civ. Code Sec. 1788-1788.33,[11] 1812.700 - .702[12]
  • Colorado: Colo. Rev. Stat. Sec. 5-1-101 - 5-12-105; Sec. 12-04-101 -137
  • Connecticut: Conn. Gen Stat. Sec. 36a-645 - -647[13]
  • Delaware: Del. Code Ann. tit. 30, Sec. 2301(a)(12)[14]
  • Florida: Fla. Stat. Sec. 559.55-.785[15]
  • Georgia: Ga. Code. Ann. Sec. 7-3-1 -29[16]
  • Hawaii: Haw. Rev. Stat. Sec. 443B-1 -20;[17] Sec. 480D-1 et seq.[18]
  • Idaho: Idaho Code Sec. 26-222 -2251[19]
  • Illinois: 225 Ill. Comp. Stat. 425/1 to /25[20]
  • Indiana: Ind. Code Ann.Sec. 25-11-1-1 to -13;[21] Sec. 24-4.55-107[22]
  • Iowa: Iowa Code Ann. Sec. 537.7101 -.7103[23]
  • Kansas: Kan. Stat. Ann. Sec. 16a-5-107[24]
  • Kentucky: Ky. rev. Stat. ann. Sec. 24A-240[25] (re: CA in small claims ct)
  • Louisiana: La.rev.Stat. Sec. 9:3576.1 -3576.24; Sec. 9:3557-9:3562[26]
  • Maine: Me.Rev.Stat.Amm. tit.32, Sec. 11001 - 11054;[27] tit.9-A, Sec. 5-107, -116, -117, -201[28]
  • Maryland: Md.Ann.Code. Bus. Reg. Sec. 7-101 -502
  • Massachusetts: Mass. Gen Laws Ann ch 93, Sec. 49
  • Michigan: Mich. Comp. Laws Sec. 339.901 -.920[29]; 445.251 - 445.258,[30]
  • Mississippi: Miss. Code Sec. 97-9-1[31]
  • Missouri: Mo. Rev. Stat. Chpt. 425[32]
  • New Hampshire: N.H. Rev. Stat. Chapster. 358-C[33]
  • New Jersey: N.J. Stat. Ann. Sec. 45:18 -6.1[34]
  • New Mexico: N.M. Stat.Ann. Sec. 61-18A[35]
  • New York: N.Y. Gen. Bus. Law Sec. 600-603,[36]
  • North Carolina: N.C. Gen.Stat. Chapter 58, Article 70;[37] N.C. Gen. Stat. Chapter 75, Article 2.[38]
  • North Dakota: N.D. Cent. Code Sec. 13-05-01 -10[39]
  • Ohio: Ohio Rev. Code Ann. Sec. 1319.12[40]
  • Oklahoma: Okla. Stat. tit. 14A, Sec. 5-107[41]
  • Oregon: Or. Rev. Stat. Sec. 646.639 -.656;[42] Sec, 697.005 -.095[43]
  • Pennsylvania: 18 Pa. Const. Stat. Ann. Sec. 7311;[44] 73 Pa. Stat. Sec. 2270.1 -.6[45]
  • South Carolina: S.C. Code Sec. 37-5-108[46]
  • Tennessee: Tenn. Code. Ann. Sec. 62-20-101 -126[47]
  • Texas: Tex. Fin. Code Sec. 392.001 -.404,[48] 396.001 -.353[49]
  • Utah: Utah Code Ann. Sec. 12-1-1 -10;[50] Sec. 70C-7-104 -106[51]
  • Vermont: Vt. Stat. Ann. tit 9, Sec. 2451a -2461[52]
  • Virginia: Va. Code. 18.1-213[53]
  • Washington: Wash. Rev. Code.Ann. Sec. 19.16.100 -.950[54]
  • Washington, D.C.: D.C. Code Ann. Sec. 22-3401 -3403;[55] Sec. 28-3814 -3816; Sec. 28-3901 -3909[56]
  • West Virginia: W.Va. Code. Sec. 47-16-1 -5;[57] Sec. 46A-2-122 -129a[58]
  • Wisconsin: Wis. Stat. Ann. Sec. 218.04;[59] Sec. 427.101 -.105[60]
  • Wyoming: Wyo. Stat. Sec. 33-11-101 -116;[61] Sec. 40-14-507[62]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Fair Debt Collection Practices Act". Federal Trade Commission. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
  2. ^ a b c Larson, Aaron. "Your Rights Under the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (FDCPA)". ExpertLaw.com. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
  3. ^ a b "Are there laws that limit what debt collectors can say or do?". Consumer Financial Protection Bureau. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
  4. ^ Stӑnescu, Cătălin Gabriel (2015). Self-Help, Private Debt Collection and the Concomitant Risks: A Comparative Law Analysis. Springer. p. 218. ISBN 978-3-319-21503-7.
  5. ^ "State Statutes Regarding Collection Practices for Commercial / Business Debt". Burt & Associates. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
  6. ^ "Code of Alabama, Sec. 40-12-80, Collection agencies". Alabama State Legislature. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
  7. ^ "Alaska Statutes, Title 08, Chapter 08.24, Collection Agencies". Alaska State Legislature. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  8. ^ "Alaska Statutes, Title 45, Chpater 45.50, Competitive Practices, Regulation of Competition, Consumer Protectoin". Alaska State Legislature. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  9. ^ "Arizona Statutes, Title 32 - Professions and Occupations". Arizona State Legislature. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
  10. ^ "Arkansas Statutes". LexisNexis. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  11. ^ "California Civi Code, Title 1.6C. Fair Debt Collection Practices". California Legislative Information. State of California. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
  12. ^ "California Civil Code, Title 2.97. Consumer Collection Notice". California Legislative Information. State of California.
  13. ^ "Connecticut Statutes, Chapter 666, Regulated Activities, Sec. 36a-645 et seq, Creditors' Collection Practices Act". State of Connecticut. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  14. ^ "Delaware Code Online, Title 30". State of Delaware. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
  15. ^ "Florida Statutes, Sec. 559.55 et seq., Consumer Collection Practices".
  16. ^ "Code of Georgia". LexisNexis. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  17. ^ "Hawaii Statutes, Chapter 443B, Collection Agencies". Hawaii.gov. State of Hawaii.
  18. ^ "Hawaii Statutes, Chapter 480D, Collection Practices". Hawaii.gov. State of Hawaii.
  19. ^ "Idaho Statutes, Title 26, Chapter 22, Collection Agencies". Idaho Legislature. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  20. ^ "225 ILCS 425, Collection Agency Act". Illinois General Assembly. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  21. ^ "Indiana Code, Title 25, Protessions and Occupations". Indiana General Assembly. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  22. ^ "Indiana Code, Title 24, Trade Regulation". Indiana General Assembly. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  23. ^ "Iowa Code, Title XIII, Chapter 537, Consumer Credit Code". Iowa Legislature. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  24. ^ "Kansas Statutes, Sec. 16a-5-107, Extortionate Extensions of Credit". Kansas Legislature. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  25. ^ "Kentucky Revised Statutes, Sec. 24A.2 40 Appearance of attorneys -- Actions prohibited -- Personal representatives as parties". Kentucky Legislature. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  26. ^ "Louisiana Revised Statutes, Title 9, Civil Code - Ancillaries". Louisiana State Legislature. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  27. ^ "Maine Fair Debt Collection Practices Act". Maine Legislature. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  28. ^ "Maine Consumer Credit Code, General Provisions and Definitions". Maine Legislature. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  29. ^ "Occupation Code, Collection Practices, MCL 339.901 et seq". Michigan Legislature. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
  30. ^ "Regulation of Debt Collection Practices, MCL 445.251 et seq". Michigan Legislature. Retrieved 14 June 2017.
  31. ^ "Mississippi Code". LexisNexis. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  32. ^ "Missouri Revised Statutes, Chapter 425, Debt Adjusters and Collection Agencies". Missouri General Assembly. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  33. ^ "New Hampshire Statutes, Chapter 358-C, Unfair, Deceptive or Unreasonable Collection Practices". New Hampshire Legislature. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  34. ^ "New Jersey Statutes, Sec. 45 :18-6.1, Discontinuance of operation; filing of notice". New Jersey Legislature. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
  35. ^ "New Mexico Statutes, Article 18A, Collection Agencies". New Mexico Compiliation Commission. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  36. ^ "New York State Code, General Business, Article 29H". New York State Senate. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  37. ^ "North Carolina General Statutes, Chapter 58, Article 70, Collection Agencies". North Carolina General Assembly. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  38. ^ "North Carolina General Statutes, Chapter 75, Article 2, Prohibited Acts by Debt Collectors". North Carolina General Assembly. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  39. ^ "North Dakota Century Code, Chapter 13-05, Debt Collection Agencies" (PDF). North Dakota Legislative Branch. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  40. ^ "Ohio Revised Code". LawWriter Ohio Laws and Rules. Lawriter LLC. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  41. ^ "Oklahoma Statutes, Title 14A, Consumer Credit Code". Oklahoma State Legislature. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  42. ^ "Oregon Revised Statutes, Volume 14, Chapter 646". Oregon State Legislature. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  43. ^ "Oregon Revised Statutes, Volume 15, Chapter 697". Oregon State Legislature. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  44. ^ "18 Pa.C.S.A. § 7311. Unlawful collection agency practices". Unofficial Purdon's Pennsylvania Statutes. Westlaw. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  45. ^ "Title 73 P.S. Trade and Commerce, Chapter 42. Fair Credit Extension Uniformity Act". Unofficial Purdon's Pennsylvania Statutes. WestLaw. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  46. ^ "South Carolina Code of Laws, Title 37, Chapter 5, Consumer Protection Code". South Carolina Legislature. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  47. ^ "Tennessee Code". LexisNexis. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  48. ^ "Texas Statutes, Finance Code, Title 5, Chapter 392, Debt Collection" (PDF). Texas Constitution and Statutes. Texas State Legislature. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  49. ^ "Texas Statutes, Finance Code, Title 5, Chapter 396, Private Child Support Enforcement Agencies" (PDF). Texas Constitution and Statutes. Texas State Legislature. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  50. ^ "Utah Code, Title 12, Collection Agencies". Utah State Legislature. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  51. ^ "Utah Code, Title 70C, Chapter 7, Remedies and Penalties". Utah State Legislature. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  52. ^ "Vermont Statutes, Title 9, Chapter 63, Consumer Protection". Vermont Statutes Online. Vermont General Assembly.
  53. ^ "Code of Virginia, Sec. 18.2-213. Simulation of warrants, processes, writs and notices". Virginia LIS. Virginia Law Library. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  54. ^ "Chapter 19.16 RCW, Collection Agencies". Washington State Legislature. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  55. ^ "Washington D.C. Code, Title 22, Chapter 34. Use of "District of Columbia" by Certain Persons". Code of the District of Columbia. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  56. ^ "Washington D.C. Code, Title 27, Chapter 38. Consumer Protections". Code of the District of Columbia. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  57. ^ "West Virginia Code, Article 47, Chapter 16, Collection Agencies". West Virginia Legislature. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  58. ^ "West Virginia Code, Chapter 46A, Section 2, Consumer Credit Protection". West Virginia Legislature. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  59. ^ "Wisconsin Statutes, Sec. 21804. Collection Agencies". Wisconsin Legislature. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  60. ^ "Wisconsin Statutes, Chapter 427. Debt Collection". Wisconsin Legislature. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  61. ^ "Wyoming Statutes, Title 33, Chapter 11, Collection Agencies". Wyoming State Legislature. Retrieved 16 June 2017.
  62. ^ "Wyoming Statutes, Sec. 40-14-507. Extortionate extensions of credit". Wyoming State Legislature. Retrieved 16 June 2017.