List of fraternal auxiliaries and side degrees

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Fraternal orders often have "side degrees" or auxiliaries. Some of these are created as female "sister organizations", youth organizations or side degrees proper which are organizations associated with or within the larger organization.

AHEPA[edit]

The American Hellenic Educational Progressive Association or AHEPA, has three auxiliaries[1]

Ancient Order of United Workmen[edit]

Elks[edit]

The Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks banned auxiliaries and side degrees in 1907, but unofficial female and youth auxiliaries have still been founded at the local level. Furthermore, female auxiliaries are recognized by the Elks of Canada and the African-American Improved Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks of the World[3]

Foresters[edit]

Freemasonry[edit]

Shriners[edit]

  • Ancient Arabic Order of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine, now known as the Shriners International
    • Royal Order of Jesters - an invitation only organization open to Shriners.
    • Daughters of the Nile - This organization was founded in Seattle on February 20, 1913 and was originally meant for the wives, daughters, sisters, mothers and widows of the Nobles of the Mystic Shrine.[16] Today it is open to women 18 and older who are related by birth or marriage to a Shriner, Master Mason, or Daughter of the Nile, or is a majority member in Good Standing of a Masonic-related organization for girls; or who was a patient, with or without Shrine or Masonic relationship, at a Shriners Hospital for Children.[17] Like the other female groups related to the Shriners, they focus their work on the Shriners Children's Hospitals, including raising millions of dollars through their endowment funds, volunteering at the hospitals, sewing quilts and clothes and donating toys, games and educational materials.[18]
    • Ladies Oriental Shrine of North America - The first court of this women's Shrine related organization was founded in Wheeling, West Virginia in 1903. After two other courts were formed, a national organization was formed on June 24, 1914.[19] However, the LOSNA did not become legally incorporated until 1954. Unlike many male fraternal orders, the LOSNA grew in membership in the latter decades of the 20th century. They had 24,000 members in the mid-1960s, 30,000 members in the mid-1970s and 32,000 in 1994.[20] Today they claim 16,000 members in 76 Courts across North America. Membership is open to women who are at least 18 years old, related to a Noble of Shriners International, or a Master Mason by birth, marriage or adoption or be sponsored by two members of the Ladies' Oriental Shrine of North America. Local organizations are called Subordinate Courtd are headed by a High Priestess. The overall organization is the Grand Council headed by a Grand High Priestess.[19]
    • Shrine Guilds of America - Founded in 1947 by the wives of Shriners of the Murat Temple of Indianapolis.[21] The group currently has 14 local Guilds, located mostly in Indiana and Florida, and concentrates its work on helping the Shriners Hospitals for Children, particularly educating children during their time at the hospital. Membership is open to the wives and widows of Shriners.[22] Local Guild presidents are called Maharanees.[23] The president of the Imperial Council of Shrine Guilds of America is denoted the Imperial Maharanee.[22]
  • Ancient Egyptian Arabic Order Nobles Mystic Shrine of North and South America and Its Jurisdictions - an African American version of the order, founded by a group of Prince Hall Masons in 1893 in Chicago.[24]

Other Masonic side degrees[edit]

Kiwanis[edit]

  • Aktion Club - for people with disabilities
  • Kiwaniannes - former female auxiliary of the Kiwanis, before women were allowed into the main club in 1987. Some still exist at local level

Youth and schools[edit]

Knights of Columbus[edit]

Knights of Pythias[edit]

  • Dramatic Order of the Knights of Khorassan
  • Knights of the Orient - Also known as the Ancient Order of the Knights of the Orient[34] or the Orientals.[35] This was a side degree conferred "mostly" to the Knights of Pythias. The professed aim of the order was to "improved the condition of mankind". It also claimed that in the Order there was no discrimination on the basis of political or religious belief, or of wealth.[36] Its ritual was discovered and published by the National Christian Association, as well as in Peter Rosens' The Catholic church and secret societies. The head of a local lodge was called a Grand Chief Orient; other officers were the Grand Vice Orient, Grand Prophet (chaplain) and Grand Marshall.[37] A splinter group called the Ancient Order of the Sanhedrims broke from this in 1895 and offered a benefit to members of "some secret societies in good standing".[38]

Maccabees[edit]

Odd fellows[edit]

Redmen[edit]

Woodmen[edit]

Other groups[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Axelrod p.4
  2. ^ Preuss p.129
  3. ^ a b Axelrod pp.76-7
  4. ^ Schmidt, Alvin J. Fraternal Organizations Westport, CT; Greenwood Press p.44 Schmidts main source is "The Antlers" in James R. Nicholson and Lee A. Donaldson, History of the Order of Elks 1969. The source for the continued existence of the Antlers after 1946 was apparently an Elks official he spoke to. The text of the relevant portion of the 1907 resolution is on p.109
  5. ^ a b c d Axelrod p.77
  6. ^ Schmidt p.93
  7. ^ Axelrod p.76
  8. ^ Schmidt pp.109–10
  9. ^ Stevens, Albert Clark, 1854- The Cyclopædia of Fraternities: A Compilation of Existing Authentic Information and the Results of Original Investigation as to More than Six Hundred Secret Societies in the United States (New York: Hamilton Printing and Publishing Company), 1899, p.284
  10. ^ Preuss, Arthur A Dictionary of Secret and other Societies St. Louis: B. Herder Book Co. 1924 pp.440-1
  11. ^ Preuss p.207
  12. ^ Stevens p.233
  13. ^ Preuss p.229
  14. ^ Axelrod p.11
  15. ^ Preuss p.110
  16. ^ My Memoirs of the Daughters of the Nile by Mable R. Krows, s.p., s.n. 1951 pp.2-3
  17. ^ Who We Are and What We Do DAUGHTERS OF THE NILE WORKING TOGETHER FOR THE CHILDREN WHO WE ARE
  18. ^ Who We Are and What We Do DAUGHTERS OF THE NILE WORKING TOGETHER FOR THE CHILDREN WHAT WE DO
  19. ^ a b About the Ladies' Oriental Shrine of North America (LOSNA)
  20. ^ Axelrod p.161
  21. ^ About Shrine Guilds of America, Inc.
  22. ^ a b Shrine Guilds of America
  23. ^ Shrine Guild
  24. ^ History
  25. ^ Axelrod pp.110-1
  26. ^ Christian Cynosure Vol. XLVII #11 March 1915 p.234
  27. ^ Bogdan, Henrik Western Esotericism and Rituals of Initiation Albany, SUNY Press, 2012 p.43
  28. ^ Preuss p.283
  29. ^ Axelrod p.6
  30. ^ Cambridge Chronicle Vol. LXIX #18 May 9, 1914 p.3
  31. ^ Sacred Heart Review Vol. L Number 13, 13 September 1913
  32. ^ Sacred Heart Review Vol. L Number 11, 30 August 1913
  33. ^ Schmidt p.180
  34. ^ Preuss, p.45
  35. ^ Stevens pp.229, 284 On the latter page Stevens states that this side degree was "formerly" used by the Knights of Pythias
  36. ^ Preuss, pp.45, 238
  37. ^ Rosen, Peter The Catholic church and secret societies Milwaukee : Cannon Printing 1903 pp.248-52
  38. ^ Preuss, p.45, Stevens pp.229, 284 On the latter page Stevens only uses the term "Orientals", which Preuss takes to mean the same group
  39. ^ a b Axelrod p.183
  40. ^ a b Fez Museum
  41. ^ Axelrod p.221
  42. ^ Approximate Timeline of Odd Fellows Social Organization Mergers
  43. ^ a b Magical Fraternities of Marin
  44. ^ Lawrence Journal-World Jun 22, 1922 p.8
  45. ^ Preuss pp.386-8
  46. ^ Axelrod p.114
  47. ^ Axelrod p.217
  48. ^ Axelrod p.264
  49. ^ Axelrod p.265
  50. ^ Axelrod p.175
  51. ^ Preuss, p.385
  52. ^ Axelrod p.28
  53. ^ Preuss p.267
  54. ^ Preuss p.518

Further reading[edit]

  • Axelrod, Allan International Encyclopedia of Secret Societies and Fraternal Orders New York; Facts on File, inc 1997
  • Preuss, Arthur A Dictionary of Secret and other Societies St. Louis: B. Herder Book Co. 1924
  • Schmidt, Alvin J. Fraternal Organizations Westport, CT; Greenwood Press 1980
  • Stevens, Albert Clark, 1854- The Cyclopædia of Fraternities: A Compilation of Existing Authentic Information and the Results of Original Investigation as to More than Six Hundred Secret Societies in the United States (New York: Hamilton Printing and Publishing Company), 1899,